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薄冰英语语法 第九章 助动词与情态动词(1-7)

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  第九章 助动词与情态动词

  9.1 助动词的含义和功能

  助动词本身无词义,它仅仅是用来帮助主要动词构成各种时态、语态、语气以及否定和疑问结构。

  1)由be,have,shall(should),will(would)构成除现在一般时和过去一般时外的全部时态。如:

  (1)I shall be here any minute. 我将随时到达这里。(由shall构成将来一般时)

  (2)The train is now rapidly approaching the city of Beijing. 火车现在正迅速临近北京城。(由is构成现在进行时)

  (3)We shall be having rain, rain, and nothing but rain. 我们会有没完没了的雨。(由shall be构成将来进行时)

  (4)The roads were full of people. We hadn’t foreseen that. 路上都是人。这是我们事先未料到的。(由had构成过去完成时)

  (5)Soon they would have reached their time limit and must return to the camp. 不久规定的时间就要到了,他们就得回营地了。(由would have构成过去将来完成时)

  (6)He has been scoring plenty of goals this season. 在这个(足球)赛季里,他踢进了许多球。(由has been构成现在完成进行时)

  2)由be构成被动语态。如:

  (7)One is not guilty until he is proved. 在没有证明有罪之前,人都是无罪的。(现在一般时的被动式)

  (8)She almost felt that she was being mocked. 她几乎感觉到她在被嘲弄。(过去进行时的被动式)

  (9)I suspected that I had been followed and watched since I arrived in London. 我怀疑我到伦敦以后就已被跟踪和监视。(过去完成时的被动式)

  (10)I know he hates being interrupted. 我知道他不喜欢别人打断他的话。(动名词的被动式)

  3)由had,should,would,should have,would have等构成各种虚拟语气。如:

  (11)If I had Jim’s build, I’d go out for the wrestling team. 假如我有吉姆那样的体格,我早就去参加摔跤队了。

  (12)The soup would’ve been better if it had had less salt. 假如少放点盐,这汤会好喝得多。

  4)由do构成现在一般时和过去一般时的疑问结构。如:

  (13)When do you meet again? 我们什么时候再见?

  (14)Did you know the hot dog did not originate in the United States, but in Germany? 你知道“热狗”不是来源于美国,而是来源于德国吗?

  5)由do+not构成现在一般时和过去一般时的否定结构。如:

  (15)Don’t knit your brow like that. 别那样皱眉头。

  (16)We didn’t think we’d be this late. 我们没想到我们会到得这么晚。

  当两个或两个以上包含相同助动词的谓语动词并列时,后面的助动词通常省略。如:

  (17)The letter will be typed and sent off immediately. 这封信将立即打好并发出。

  (18)Having explained the rule and given a few examples, the teacher asked the students to write some exercises at home. 教师在解释完规则并举出几个例子后,要求学生回家做一些练习。

  助动词在句中一般不重读,但当它代替前面的动词或强调动词的意义时则应重读。如:

  (19)—Do you speak English? 你会说英语吗?

  —Yes, I do. 是,我会说。

  (20)But I have done it. 但是我把它干了。

  9.2 be的形式和用法

  助动词be有八种形式:

  肯定式 缩略肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  原形 be

  现在式第一人称单数I am ’m am not aren’t

  ’m not

  现在式第三人称单数he,she,it is ’s is not isn’t

  ’s not

  现在式第二人称单、复数和第一、三人称复数you,we,they are ’re are not aren’t

  ’re not

  过去式第一、第三人称单数I, he,she,it was was not wasn’t

  过去式第二人称单、复数和第一、三人称复数you,we,they were were not weren’t

  现在分词 being not being

  过去分词 been not been

  [注]在英国英语中,aren’t使用很广泛。在美国英语中使用较多的是被认为非标准的ain’t。

  助动词be主要用法是:

  1)与现在分词构成各种进行时态以及与have和现在分词构成完成时态。如:

  (1)Fear of crime is slowly paralyzing American society. 犯罪恐惧症正逐渐地使美国社会陷于瘫痪。

  (2)The telephone had been ringing for three minutes before it was answered. 电话铃响了三分钟才有人接。

  2)与过去分词构成被动语态。如:

  (3)He was an ardent fighter for freedom and independence. He was loved by millions and hated only by a handful. 他是个争取自由和独立的热诚战士,为成百万人所爱戴,为仅仅一小撮人所仇恨。

  (4)They came to Europe where their mother had been educated and stayed three years. 他们来到他们的母亲受教育的欧洲,并待了三年。

  此外,be还可用作连系动词。如:

  (5)It was one of the happiest afternoons he had ever spent. 那是他有生以来最愉快的一个下午。

  词组be to有情态意义,详见“情态动词”。

  9.3 have的形式和用法

  助动词have有五种形式:

  肯定式 缩略肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  原形 have ’ve have not haven’t

  ’ve not

  现在式第三人称单数 has ’s has not hasn’t

  ’s not

  过去式 had ’d had not hadn’t

  ’d not

  现在分词 having not having

  过去分词 had

  助动词have的主要用法是:

  1)与过去分词构成各种完成时态。如:

  (1)Newton has explained the movements of he moon from the attractions of the earth. 牛顿阐明了月球受到地球引力而运行的规律。

  (2)Reluctantly, she opened the door, she had not kept it locked; there had been no need. 她勉强地开了门。她没有锁门,也没有必要锁门。

  2)与been+现在分词构成各种完成进行时态。如:

  (3)Men have been digging salt out of it for six hundred years, and yet there seems as much left as ever. 人们在这里掘盐已六百年,但盐似乎还是那么多。

  (4)In another month’s time Mr. Henry will have been teaching here for exactly thirty years. 再过一个月,亨利先生就将在这里从事教学整30年了。

  此外,have还可用作实义动词,意谓“有”、“吃”等。如:

  (5)Bad news has wings. 丑事传千里。

  (6)You’re anaemic, you must have some iron. 你患贫血症,应该服一些铁。

  have还可用作使役动词。如:

  (7)We now have the problem solved. 我们现已把这个问题解决了。

  (8)I had a tooth out this afternoon. 我今天下午拔了颗牙。

  have用作实义动词时不能使用缩略式。词组have to有情态意义,详见“情态动词”。

  9.4 do的形式和用法

  助动词do有五种形式:

  肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  原形 do do not don’t

  现在式第三人称单数 does does not doesn’t

  过去式 did did not didn’t

  did not

  [注] do用作实义动词时有现在分词doing和过去分词done。

  助动词do的主要用法是:

  1)构成现在一般时和过去一般时的疑问句。如:

  (1)Do you always carry an umbrella? 你经常带伞吗?

  (2)Did everything come off all right? 一切都进行得顺利吗?

  2)构成现在一般时和过去一般时的否定句。如:

  (3)She didn’t cool down for hours after that argument. 在那场争辩之后,她好几个小时都没平静下来。

  (4)Don’t worry, he will be brought to book for his wickedness one day. 别担心,他的恶行总有一天受到惩罚的。

  [注]如用其它时态,疑问句的助动词须提至主语前,否定句的助动词之后加not。如:

  ①Will he be able to hear at such a distance? 离这么远,他会听得到吗?

  ②You haven’t been abroad before, have you? 你以前没出过国,是吗?

  3)用于替代,以避免重复。如:

  (5)—May I come round in the morning? 上午我可以来拜访你吗?

  —Yes, please do. 可以,请来吧。(do替代come round)

  (6)I don’t like coffee and neither does my wife. 我不喜欢咖啡,我妻子也不喜欢。(does替代like)

  4)用于强调。如:

  (7)My parents think I didn’t study for my exams, but I did study. 我爸爸妈妈认为我考试前没有复习,但我是复习了。

  (8)Although I have little time for entertainment, I do go to the theatre once in a while. 虽然我很少时间娱乐,但我还是间或去看戏。

  (9)We’re very pleased that she does intend to come. 她的确打算来,我们非常高兴。

  (10)The letter we were expecting never did arrive. 我们期待的信一直没有到。

  (11)—Do you remember how kind she was? 你记得她多友善吗?

  —I certainly do remember. 当然记得。

  5)用于恳求。如:

  (12)Do come to the party tonight. 务请今晚来参加晚会。

  (13)Do be quiet! 请别作声!

  此外,do还可用作实义动词,意谓“做”、“干”等等。如:

  (14)She’s doing her knitting. 她正在纺织衣物。

  (15)She interrupted him before his speech was done. 她不等他把话说完就打断了他。

  (16)Bad books do great harm. 坏书有很大害处。

  (17)Will you do me a favour? 你愿帮我个忙吗?

  (18)Jane is doing the dishes. 珍妮正在洗碟子。

  (19)I will do my best. 我愿尽力而为。

  (20)That will do. 行了(或够了)。

  9.5 shall(should)和will(would)的形式和用法

  助动词shall(过去式should)和will(过去式would)有下列几种形式:

  肯定式 缩略肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  shall ’ll shall not shan’t

  should should not shouldn’t

  will ’ll will not won’t

  ’ll not

  would ’d would not wouldn’t

  ’d not

  助动词shall(should)和will(would)可用于构成各种将来和过去将来时态,shall(should)用于第一人称,will(would) 用于第二人称、第三人称。当代英语(尤其是美国英语中),will(would)常用于一切人称。

  1)shall用于各种将来时态的第一人称(当代英语多用will)。如:

  (1)We shall be going away tomorrow by an early train. 我们将于明日搭早班车离开。

  (2)I shall let you know as soon as I have heard from them. 我一俟接到他们的信,立即告诉你。

  2)should用于各种过去将来时态的第一人称(当代英语多用would)。如:

  (3)So this was the place where I should study for the three years. It made a bad first impression.

  (4)The BBC weather report this morning said that we should have rain. 英国广播公司今晨的天气预报说,我们这儿将有雨。

  3)will用于各种将来时态的第二、第三人称。如:

  (5)They will be looking for anyone connected with her. 他们将寻找每一个与她有往来的人。

  (6)The play is coming off in August——By then the play will have been running for three months. 这个剧将于八月停演——到那时它将连演三个月了。

  4)would用于各种过去将来时态的第二、第三人称。如:

  (7)They said it would be fine. 他们说天气会很好。

  (8)They would have finished by five o’clock. 他们将于五时前完工。

  shall(should)和will(would)可用作情态动词,详见“情态动词”。

  should和would可以构成虚拟语气,详见“虚拟语气”。

  二、情态动词

  9.6 情态动词的含义和特征

  情态动词只有情态意义,即它所表示的是说话人对动作的观点,如需要、可能、意愿或怀疑等。

  情态动词有以下特征:

  1)在形式上,情态动词没有实义动词的各种变化,只有could,would,had to,was(或were) to,might等几个过去式。其它如must,ought to等的过去皆与现在式同形。

  2)在意义上,大多数情态动词有多个意义。如can可表“能够”、“可能”、“允许”等,many可表“可能”、“ 允许”、“目的”、“让步”等。

  3)在用法上,情态动词与助动词一样,须后接动词原形,构成谓语动词。

  9.7 can(could) 的形式和用法

  can(could)有下列几种形式:

  肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  现在式 can cannot can’t

  过去式 could could not couldn’t

  [注]在美国英语中往往用can not替代cannot。

  can是现在式,多用在指现在或将来。如:

  (1)He can speak English. 他能说英语吗?

  (2)Can you come to the meeting? 你能来开会吗?

  could是过去式,多用于指过去。如:

  (3)He could speak English when he was a child. 他小时就能说英语了。

  但could亦可用于指现在,表虚拟语气,或作为can的委婉形式。如:

  (4)That man could do with a haircut. 那人需要理个发了。(表现在)

  (5)If I could go, I should be glad. 假如我能去,那我就会很高兴。(表虚拟语气)

  (6)Could I help you? 我能帮你干点什么吗?(比Can I help you? 委婉)

  can(could)的基本用法是:

  1)表能够。如:

  (7)I can lift this stone. 我能举起这块石头。(表体能)

  (8)Can you use chopsticks? 你能用筷子吗?(表技能)

  (9)I can see him tonight. 我今晚能见到他。(表可能)

  can表能够时与短语be able to同义,但后者可用于各种时态。

  can表能够时可用于各种句式。如:

  (10)She can play a few simple tunes on the piano. 她能在钢琴上弹一些简单的调子。(肯定句)

  (11)Can you write with your left hand? 你能用左手写字吗?(疑问句)

  (12)I can not promise you anything. 我不能答应你任何事。(否定句)

  can亦可指将来。如:

  (13)We can discuss your paper after lunch. 午饭后我们能讨论你的论文。

  如需要强调将来时间时,则可用短语shall/will be able to。如:

  (14)I shall be able to earn my own living soon. 我很快就能自立了。

  (15)He says he’ll be able to be home for Christmas. 他说他能回家过圣诞节。

  could主要指过去。如:

  (16)I said that I could go. 我说我能去。

  (17)Could the boy read before he went to school? 这男孩上学前能识字吗?

  单纯叙述过去事实时,最好用was或were+able。如:

  (18)I was able to help you yesterday. 我昨天能帮你的。

  但could也常可指现在或将来。如:

  (19)You could phone her, I suppose. 我看你可以给她打电话。

  (20)The river could easily overflow, couldn’t it? 河水可能容易泛滥,不是吗?

  如could与动词原形的完成式连用,则指过去未实现的动作。如:

  (21)She could have explained the mystery. 她本能够解释这个秘密的。(实际上未解释)

  2)表可能。如:

  (22)The moon cannot always be at the full. 月不可能常圆。

  (23)If it’s raining tomorrow, the sports can take place indoors. 如果明天下雨,运动会就可能在室内举行。

  can表可能时可指现在或将来。如:

  (24)You can perhaps obtain a dog from the Dogs’ Home. 你也许可以从养狗场弄到一条狗。(肯定句)

  (25)What can he mean? 他可能是什么意义呢?(疑问句)

  (26)We can’t use the indefinite article with this noun. 我们不可以在这个名词前用不定冠词。(否定句)

  表可能时,could可指过去。如:

  (27)He said he couldn’t agree more. 他说他再同意不过了。

  could亦可指现在或将来,表虚拟语气。如:

  (28)It could be my mother. 可能是我母亲。

  (29)He could arrive tomorrow. 他可能明天到。

  could与完成式连用,则指过去未实现的动作。如:

  (30)It could have been seen from here if it had not been so dark. 如果天不那么黑,你可能从这儿望见它的。(实际上已望不见)

  3)表允许。如:

  (31)You can borrow my bike tomorrow. 明天你可以借用我的自行车。

  表这个意义时,can用于疑问句时表要求,用于否定句时表不许。如:

  (32)Can you lend me a hand? 你能帮我一把吗?

  (33)This sort of thing can’t go on! 这类事不能再继续了!

  could指现在时,仅用于疑问句表更委婉的要求。如:

  (34)Could I interrupt a moment? 我可以插句话吗?

  但这种表允许的用法可用于间接引语。如:

  (35)Father said I could swim in the river. 爸爸说我可以在河里游泳。

  4)表怀疑。如:

  (36)Can it be true? 那会是真的吗?

  表这个意义时,can仅用于一般疑问句,并有感情色彩。

  can用于一般式,表现在。如:

  (37)Can he really be ill? 你真的会病吗?

  can用于进行式,表将来。如:

  (38)Can he be making the investigation all alone? 他会独立进行调查吗?

  can用于完成式,表过去。如:

  (39)Can she have told a lie? 她会说谎吗?

  can用于完成式或完成进行式时亦可表持续的动作。如:

  (40)Can she really have been at home all this time? 她真的会一直在家吗?

  (41)Can she have been waiting for us so long? 她会等我们这么久吗?

  could指现在时亦可有这些用法,但暗含着更不确定的意义。如:

  (42)Could it be true?

  (43)Could she be telling lies?

  (44)Could he have said it?

  (45)Could he have been at home all this time?

  (46)Could she have been waiting for us so long?

  5)can’t表不大可能。如:

  (47)It can’t be true. 那不大可能是真的。

  can’t会有感情色彩。如:

  (48)He can’t be really ill. 他不大可能真的病了。(指现在)

  (49)She can’t be telling lies. 她不大可能说谎。(指现在)

  (50)He can’t have said it. 他不大可能说这种话。(指过去)

  (51)She can’t have been at home all this time. 她不大可能一直在家。(指过去)

  (52)She can’t have been waiting for us so long. 她不大可能等我们这么久。(指过去)

  could亦可有这些用法,但语气委婉。如:

  (53)It couldn’t be true.

  (54)She couldn’t be telling lies.

  (55)He couldn’t have said it.

  (56)She couldn’t have been at home all this time.

  (57)She couldn’t have been waiting for us so long.

  6)can和could用于特殊疑问句,有感情色彩,表惊讶、迷惑等。如:

  (58)What can(could) he mean? 他可能是什么意义呢?

  (59)What can(could) he be doing? 他可能在干什么呢?

  (60)What can(could) he have done? 他可能干什么了呢?

  (61)Where can(could) he have gone to? 他可能去哪里了呢?

  7)can与could的比较:can与could表能够与可能时,can表真实,could表非真实。如:

  (62)He can speak English. 他能说英语。(表能够)

  (63)He could speak English if necessary. 他在必要时能说英语。

  (64)You can get the book from the library. 你可以从图书馆借到这本书。(表可能)

  (65)You could get the book from the library if necessary. 你在必要时可从图书馆借到这本书。

  表允许和推测时,只是could语气较为委婉,含义较不确定。如:

  (66)Can I use your pen? 我可以借用你的笔吗?(表允许)

  (67)Could I use your pen? (较为委婉)

  (68)Can it be true? 那可能是真的吗?(表推测)

  (69)Could it be true? (较不确定)

  (70)It can’t be true. 那不大可能是真的。(表不大可能)

  (71)It couldn’t be true. (较不确定)

  8)用于固定习语。如:

  (72)She can’t help crying. 她不禁哭起来。

  (73)He couldn’t help laughing. 他不禁笑起来。

  (74)I can’t but ask him about it. 关于这件事我只得问他。

  (75)They couldn’t but refuse him. 他们不得不拒绝他。


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