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薄冰英语语法 第九章 助动词与情态动词(8-12)

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  9.8 may(might)的形式和用法

  may(might)有下列几种形式:

  肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  现在式 may may not mayn’t

  过去式 might might not mightn’t

  [注] mayn’t比较少见。

  may是现在式,多指现在。如:

  (1)It may be true? 那可能是真的。

  might是may的过去式,可用于指过去。如:

  (2)He told me that it might be true. 他告诉过我那可能是真的。

  亦可用于指现在,但语气较为缓和、委婉,含义更不确定,或表虚拟语气。如:

  (3)It might be true? 那可能是真的。

  (4)Might I come and see you? 我可以来看你吗?

  may(might)的基本用法是:

  1) 表可能,暗含不确定,等于possibly,perhaps或maybe。如:

  (5)He may be busy getting ready for his trip. 他也许在忙于准备外出旅行。

  may表可能时,可用于肯定句和否定句。如:

  (6)He may be at home. 他也许在家。

  (7)He may not be at home. 他也许不在家。

  may表可能时,常指将来。如:

  (8)He may come soon. 他也许马上就来。

  may也可指现在。如:

  (9)He may not know about it. 他也许不知道这件事。

  (10)I never see him about now. For all I know, he may be writing a book. 我近来从未见他来着。就我所知,他也许在写书。

  may用于完成式时指过去。如:

  (11)You may have been some account of the matter. 你也许读到过关于这件事的一些报道。

  may用于完成式或完成进行时亦可指持续的动作。如:

  (12)He may have been at home for about two hours. 他也许在家待了两小时了。

  (13)He may have been waiting for us for an hour. 他也许等我们一小时了。

  might表可能时亦可有这些用法,与may的区别在于它的含义更不确定。如:

  (14)He might come soon. 他也许马上就会来的。

  (15)He might be ill. 他也许生病了吧。

  (16)He might be doing his lessons now. 他也许正在做功课吧。

  (17)He might have spoken to her yesterday. 他昨天也许同她说过话吧。

  2)表允许。如:

  (18)The director is alone now. So you may see him now. 局长现在是独自一人,所以你可以现在去见他。

  表这个意义时,may可用于肯定句和疑问句,亦可用于否定句但不太常用。如:

  (19)You may smoke in here. 你可以在这儿抽烟。

  (20)May I smoke in here? 我可以在这儿抽烟吗?

  (21)You may not smoke in here. 你不可在这儿抽烟。

  may表允许时仅用于一般式。

  might用于疑问句,语气更委婉。如:

  (22)Might I join you? 我可以参加你们一道吗?

  might亦可用于间接引语。如:

  (23)He told me that I might smoke in the room. 他告诉我可以在房间里抽烟。

  3)表责备,只用might,用于肯定句。可用于一般式和完成式,后者则表未实现的动作。如:

  (24)You might ask before you borrow my car. 你可以先问问我再借我的车子嘛。

  (25)You might have helped me. 你满可以帮我一把嘛。

  4)may与might的比较:

  might可表虚拟语气,may则不可。如:

  (26)It might help a little if you would only keep clean. 你只要愿意保持清洁,情况或许就会好一些。

  在多数情况下,might比may语气更为缓和委婉,含义更不确定。如:

  (27)May I speak to him now?

  (28)Might I speak to him now?

  (29)H(26)e may come a little later.

  (30)He might come a little later.

  表可能时只用may指现在,一般不用might指过去,might只用于间接引语中。表责备时则只用might。如:

  (31)You may find the book at the library. 你可以在图书馆找到这本书。

  (32)You might have considered your parents’ feelings. 你本可考虑你父母的感情嘛。

  5)用于固定习语。如:

  (33)You may as well give him the letter. 你还是把信给他为好。

  (34)I might as well stay at home tonight. 我今晚还是待在家里吧。

  (35)His appearance has changed so much that you may well not recognize him. 他的外貌变化很大,你很可能认不出他来。

  (36)Roy Wilson, the new doctor, was twenty-eight, large, heavy, mature and blond. He might have been a Scandinavian sailor. 罗伊•威尔逊是新来的医生,28岁,身高体重,发育成熟,头发金黄,简直像个斯堪的纳维亚水手。

  6)may可用于某些宾语从句和目的、让步状语从句。如:

  (37)I fear he may fall ill. 我恐怕他会生病。(用于宾语从句)

  (38)He is coming here so that they may discuss it without delay. 他就要到这里来,这样他们可能立即讨论那件事。(用于目的状语从句)

  (39)However cold it may be, we’ll go skiing. 天不管多冷,我们都要去滑雪。(用于让步状语从句)

  7)can与may的比较:

  can与may只有在表可能和允许时意义相同。但在这种情况下,它们也不能随意互换:表可能时,may仅用于肯定句,而can则可用于各种句式。如:

  (40)He may find this book at the library. 他可以在图书馆找到这本书。(may用于肯定句)

  (41)He can find this book at the library. 他可以在图书馆找到这本书。(can用于肯定句)

  (42)Can he find this book at the library? 他能在图书馆找到这本书吗?(can用于疑问句)

  (43)He cannot find this book at the library. 他不可能在图书馆找到这本书。(can用于否定句)

  表允许时,二者意义无甚区别,只有may较正式些,而can则较口语化。如:

  (44)May I speak to you for a moment, professor? 我可以跟你谈一会儿吗,教授?

  (45)Can I have a cup of tea, mother? 我可以喝杯茶吗,妈妈?

  9.9 must的形式和用法

  must只有一种形式,其现在式与过去式同形。

  肯定式 否定式 缩略否定式

  must must not mustn’t

  它可指现在或将来,用于完成式时则可指过去,其过去式仅用于间接引语。

  must的基本用法是:

  1)表义务。如:

  (1)You must talk to your daughter about her future. 你必须跟你的女儿谈谈她的前途。

  (2)Must he do it himself. 他必须亲自干那事吗?

  表这个意义时,must用于一般式,并用于肯定句和疑问句。

  2)在否定结构中表示不许。如:

  (3)He must not leave his room. 他不许离开他的房间。

  表这个意义时,must用于一般式。

  3)表坚定的建议。如:

  (4)You must come and see us when you’ve in London. 你到伦敦后应当来看看我们。

  (5)You mustn’t miss the film. It is very good. 你不可错过那个影片。它很好看。

  表这个意义时,must用于一般式,用于肯定句和否定句。

  4)表推测,暗含很大的可能性。如:

  (6)He must be ill. He looks so pale. 他一定是病了。他的脸色苍白。

  (7)It must be late as the streets are deserted. 时间一定很晚了,街上已空无一人。

  表这个意义时,must仅用于肯定句,不能用于疑问句或否定句。它可以用于不同时式,仅可指现在,动态动词则用于进行式。如:

  (8)Let’s have something to eat. You must be starving. 我们吃点东西吧。你一定饿了。

  5)可用于不同时式,表不同意义。表义务。如:

  (9)You must stay here. 你必须待在这儿。

  亦可表推测。如:

  (10)He must be over fifty. 他一定有五十开外了。

  must可用于完成式,指过去。如:

  (11)It is six o’clock. She must have come home. 现在是六点,她一定到家了。

  must用于完成进行时,可表持续的动作。如:

  (12)It must have been raining all the night. There are big puddles in the garden. 雨一定是下了整整一夜,花园里有大片大片的水。

  (13)He must have been here since breakfast. 早饭后他一定是在这儿。

  6)用于间接引语,表过去。如:

  (14)He said he must go. 他说他必须去。

  7)用于固定习语。如:

  (15)He must needs go there. 他偏偏要去那儿。

  8)must与may的比较。二者均可表推测,但侧重点不一样:may暗含不确定,must暗含很可能。如:

  (16)For all I know, he may be an actor. His face seems so familiar. 就我所看,他可能是个演员,他似乎很面熟。

  (17)He must be an actor. His voice carries so well. 他一定是个演员,他的声音很洪亮。

  may和must均可用于否定句,表不许,但may较少用。对may表要求时的否定回答,一般用must not或cannot。如:

  (18)—May I smoke here? 我可以在这儿抽烟吗?

  —No, you mustn’t(can’t). 不,不行。

  9.10 have to的形式和用法

  词组have to也是情态动词。它由have +to组成,因此具有have的各种时式。如:

  (1)He is an invalid and has to have a nurse. 他是个病弱之人,需要护士照顾。

  (2)She know what she had to do. 她知道她需要做什么。

  (3)I shall have to reconsider my position. 我将不得不重新考虑我的立场。

  (4)He is always having to exercise judgment. 他经常需要进行判断。

  (5)My impression was that he was having to force himself to talk. 我的印象是,他需要强使自己说话。

  (6)I have had to remind you of writing to her all this time. 我不得不老提醒你写信给她。

  (7)The people had had to be told that an experiment was taking place that day. 必须通知人们,那天将进行试验。

  (8)“As a matter of fact,” he said, “I’ve been having to spend some time with the research people.” “事实上,”他说,“我必须一直同研究人员一起待一些时间。”

  (9)It wouldn’t have been very nice for the Davidsons to have to mix with all those people in the smoking-room. 戴维森一家人非得与吸烟间的所有那些人混在一起,是不大好的事。

  (10)Having to work alone, he wanted all his time for his research. 他必须单干,所以他想把他的全部时间投入研究工作。

  have to的疑问和否定结构多用助动词do构成。如:

  (11)Why do I have to do everything? 为什么事事都得我干?

  (12)Did he have to tell them about it? 他必须把那件事告诉他们吗?

  (13)You don’t have to explain. 你不必作解释了。

  (14)There was a grin on his face. He did not have to tell me that he already knew. 他咧嘴而笑。他不需要告诉我他已知道了。

  have to的基本用法是:

  1)表客观的义务或需要。可用于各种句式,但只用于一般式。如:

  (15)He had to do it. 他必须做那件事。

  (16)Did he have to do it. 他得做那件事吗?

  (17)He did not have to do it. 他不需要做那件事。

  在否定句中,have to表不需要,must表不许。试比较:

  (18)You don’t have to go there. 你不需要去那儿。

  (19)You mustn’t go there. 你不可去那儿。

  2)在口语中, have got to亦可表义务和需要,与have to基本同义。如:

  (20)He has got to go right now.

  (21)Has he got to go right now?

  (22)He hasn’t got to go just yet.

  3)固定词组had better表可取,意谓“最好”,或“应该”,常用于一般式。如:

  (23)You’d better get some sleep. 你最好去睡一睡。(对同辈或小辈,对长辈不可用you had better)

  (24)What had we better do? 我们最好干什么?

  (25)Hadn’t we better stop now? 我们现在停下来不好吗?(亦可说Had we better not stop now?但had better一般不可用于肯定疑问句)

  有时可省去had。如:

  (26)Better say yes, if they ask you. 如果他们问你,你最好说“是”。

  had better亦可用于进行式,意谓“最好立即”。如:

  (27)You had better have done that. 你最好把那件事做完。(可是你没有做完)

  [注] had best与had better同义,但较少用。

  9.11 be to的形式和用法

  词组be to亦可看作情态动词。它只有现在式和过去式两种形式。如:

  (1)The book of Irish Fairy Tales is to appear soon. 这本爱尔兰童话集即将出版。

  (2)We were to meet at six. 我们约定六点见面。

  be to的基本用法是:

  1)表计划,只用于肯定句和疑问句。如:

  (3)When is the wedding to be? 婚礼什么时候举行?

  (4)John and Mary are to be married in October. 约翰和玛丽定于十月结婚。

  (5)We were to discuss it the following week. 我们打算下周讨论那件事。

  be to的过去式可用于完成式,表未完成的计划。如:

  (6)I promised to go to a club with her last Tuesday, and I really forgot all about it. We were to have played a duet together. 我答应本周二同她去俱乐部,可我真的把这件事全忘了。我们原打算一起二重唱的。

  2)表命令,只用于肯定句和否定句。如:

  (7)All junior officers are to report to the colonel at once. 全体下级军官都必须立即向上校报告。

  (8)Norman says I am to leave you alone. 诺曼要我不理会你。

  3)表可能,多用被动结构。如:

  (9)Her father was often to be seen in the bar of this hotel. 在这家旅馆的酒吧间经常可见到她的父亲。

  (10)Where is he to be found? 在哪儿可找到他?

  4)表应该,多用现在式。如:

  (11)What is to do be done? 应该怎么办?

  (12)He’s to blame. 该怪他。

  5)表注定,多用过去式。如:

  (13)He was to be my teacher and friend for many years to come. 在后来许多年里,他是我的老师和朋友。

  (14)He did not know at the time that he was never to see his native place again. 当时他不知道,他再也见不到他的故土了。

  6)用于固定习语。如:

  (15)What am I to do? 我该怎么办?

  (16)Where am I to go? 我该向何处去?

  7)用于条件从句。如:

  (17)If we are to succeed, we must redouble our efforts. 我们要想成功,必须加倍努力才行。(are to意为“想要”)

  8)must,have to与be to的比较:表现在时,三者皆表义务,但侧重不一样。must强调说话者主观的看法。如:

  (18)I must do it. 我必须做那件事。

  (19)He must do it himself. 他必须自己做那件事。

  have to强调客观的需要。如:

  (20)What a pity you have to go now. 可惜你马上要走了。

  (21)He has to do it himself. 他得自己做那件事。

  be to强调应该。如:

  (22)The traffic regulations are to be observed. 应该遵守交通规则。

  用过去式时,must只用于间接引语中。如:

  (23)He said he must do it himself. 他说过他必须独自去做那件事。

  had to表客观需要。如:

  (24)I had to sell my car. 我只得卖车。

  was(或were)to表过去的动作。如:

  (25)We were to meet him at the station. 我们打算去车站接他。(在一定的上下文中也可意谓“我们本打算去车站接他的。”)

  9.12 be going to的形式和用法

  词组be going to亦可看作情态动词,有现在式和过去式两种形式。如:

  be going to的基本用法是:

  1)表打算。如:

  (1)What are you going to do tomorrow? 你明天打算干什么?

  (2)I’m not going to argue with you tonight. 今晚我不打算跟你争论。

  2)表即将。如:

  (3)Look out! The ice is going to crack! 当心!冰要塌了!

  (4)The wall is going to collapse! 那墙要倒啦!

  3)表决心。如:

  (5)I’m going to oppose the proposal. 我要反对这项建议。

  (6)I’m not going to have this. 我不能容忍这种行为。

  4)表肯定。如:

  (7)My sister is going to have a baby. 我的姐姐要生孩子了。

  (8)There’s going to be trouble. 要出事了。

  5)表可能。如:

  (9)It’s going to rain. 要下雨了。

  (10)Is it going to be fine tomorrow? 明天会是晴天吗?

  6)表命令。如:

  (11)Now you are going to hurry. 现在你要快点了。

  (12)Pete, you are going to stop sirring me. 彼得,你不要再叫我“先生”了。

  7)词组be about to亦有情态意义,表即将。如:

  (13)The meeting is about to begin. 会议即将开始。

  (14)He is about to break down. 他眼看要垮了。


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