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薄冰英语语法 第十章 非限定动词(1-5)

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  第十章 非限定动词

  一、概说

  10.1 非限定动词的含义和种类

  非限定动词(non-finite verb)是动词的非谓语形式。非限定动词和限定动词不同。限定动词(finite verb)在句中用作谓语,受主语的人称和数的限制。如:

  (1)I put my book down and look out of the window. 我放下书,望着窗外。

  (2)Hunger and disease are would problems. 饥饿和疾病是世界性问题。

  非限定动词在句中不可单独用作谓语,不受主语的人称和数的限制;它在句中可以用作其它句子成分。非限定动词有三种,即不定式、动名词和分词。如:

  (3)Scientists hope to find a cure for cancer. 科学家们希望找到一种治疗癌症的方法。(不定式to find用作宾语)

  (4)Backpacking is popular among college students. 背行李包旅行在大学生中很流行。(动名词backpacking用作主语)

  (5)People walking in poorly lighted areas at night should be extremely careful. 夜间在光线差的地方走路的人应当特别小心。(现在分词walking用作定语)

  (6)Badly torn garments should be mended by an experienced seamstress. 破得厉害的衣服应当找有经验的女缝工缝补。(过去分词torn和experienced用作定语)

  非限定动词由于不能用作谓语,因而没有语法上的主语,但它往往有逻辑上的主语。如:

  (7)How can I get to know her? 我怎么能认识他呢?(不定式to know的逻辑主语是I)

  (8)I can’t bear him staying up so late. 我不能忍受他这么晚睡。(动名词staying的逻辑主语是him)

  (9)Who is that speaking? 您是哪一位?(现在分词speaking的逻辑主语是that)

  (10)They plan further talks with interested parties in this question. 他们就此问题打算与有关各方进一步谈判。(过去分词interested的逻辑主语是parties)

  非限定动词短语往往可以转化成各种从句。如:

  (11)The foreign guests hope to join the National Day celebration of Beijing. → The foreign guests hope that they can join the National Day celebration of Beijing. 外宾希望参加北京的国庆庆祝会。(不定式短语转化成宾语从句)

  (12)The man standing there is our English teacher. → The man who is standing there is our English teacher. 站在那儿的那个人是我们的英语教师。(现在分词短语转化成定语从句)

  (13)I regret being unable to help. → I regret that I cannot help. 我感到抱歉,不能帮助你。(动名词短语转化成宾语从句)

  10.2 非限定动词的性质

  非限定动词具有双重性质,即它既有动词性质,又有非动词性质。

  1)非限定动词的动词性质表现在:

  a)有时式与语态的变化。如:

  (1)I want to talk to you , Jill. 我想跟你谈谈,吉尔。(to talk是不定式一般式)

  (2)They are said to have left London. 据说他们已经离开伦敦。(to have left是不定式完成式)

  (3)You’ve no need to be fearing. 你没有必要害怕。(to be fearing是不定式进行式)

  (4)Turning a corner quickly is frightening to pedestrians. 行车急拐弯是会惊吓行人的。(turning是动名词一般式)

  (5)I remember having read about it in the newspapers. 我记得在报上读到过这条消息。(having read是动名词完成式)

  (6)I don’t like being watched. 我不喜欢被人盯着。(being watched是动名词被动式)

  (7)Having been asked to stay, I couldn’t very well leave. 既然要我留下,我就不好走了。(having been asked是现在分词完成被动式)

  b)可被状语所修饰。如:

  (8)To drink while driving is dangerous. 开车时喝酒很危险。(不定式to drink为状语while driving所修饰)

  (9)Roller-skating on rough pavement invites accidents. 在不平的路面上滑旱冰容易出事故。(动名词roller-skating为状语on rough pavement所修饰)

  (10)Increasing from 2.5 thousand million in 1950, the population of the world reached 5 thousand million in 1987. 世界人口已从1950年的25亿增加到1987年的50亿。(现在分词increasing为状语from …in所修饰)

  (11)A chimney filled with soot requires the services of a qualified chimneysweep. 布满烟灰的烟囱需要合格的烟囱清扫工去清扫。(过去分词filled为状语with soot所修饰)

  c)及物动词须有宾语。如:

  (12)To kill bugs, spray the area regularly. 为了杀虫,请定期在地面上洒药。(及物动词不定式to kill的宾语是bugs)

  (13)Have you any reason for saying such a thing? 你有什么理由说这种话吗?(及物动词动名词saying的宾语是such a thing)

  (14)Having plenty of time, we walked to the station. 时间很充裕,我们步行去了车站。(及物动词现在分词having的宾语是plenty of time)

  2)非限定动词的非动词性质表现在:

  a)相当于名词。如:

  (15)To eat is to live. 吃饭是为了生活。(不定式to eat相当于名词,用作主语)

  (16)Teachers despise cheating. 教师厌恶作弊。(动名词cheating相当于名词,用作宾语)

  b)相当于形容词。如:

  (17)A crying child is easily comforted by a few soothing words. 哭闹的孩子容易用几句好话安慰。(现在分词crying相当于形容词,作定语)

  (18)A watched pot never boils. 心急锅不开。(过去分词watched相当于形容词,作定语)

  10.3 非限定动词短语

  非限定动词与其宾语或状语连用即构成非限定动词短语。非限定动词短语有三种:

  1)不定式短语。如:

  (1)He gave her a knife to cut the bread with. 他给她一把刀子切面包。

  (2)To cooperate with others is important. 同他人合作是很重要的。

  2)动名词短语。如:

  (3)He likes reading aloud. 他喜欢朗读。

  (4)Loading heavy weights requires great skill. 装重货要求高技巧。

  3)分词短语。如:

  (5)It’s a mixture consisting of oil and vinegar. 那是一种油和醋的混合物。(现在分词短语)

  (6)We ate sitting on the grass. 我们坐在草地上吃饭。(现在分词短语)

  (7)The book just referred to is translated into Chinese. 刚才谈到的那本书已经译成中文。(过去分词短语)

  (8)Mocked at by everybody, he had my sympathy. 尽管人们都嘲弄他,我却对他抱有同情。(过去分词短语)

  二、不定式

  10.4不定式的形式和性质

  不定式有两种形式:一是带to的不定式(to-infinitive),一是不带to的不定式(bare infinitive)。后者即通常所谓的动词原形。

  不定式有时式和语态的变化:

  主动语态 被动语态

  一般式 to write to be written

  现在式 to be writing

  过去式 to have written to have been written

  不定式既有动词性质,又有名词性质。

  1)不定式的动词性质表现在:可有时式和语态的变化,可有宾语和状语并组成不定式短语。如:

  (1)He was too clever a man to be bluffed. 他是个很灵的人,不会为虚张声势所吓倒。(有语态的变化)

  (2)The film star Ann Wilson is the 34th actress to play this part on the London stage. 影星安•威尔逊是伦敦舞台上扮演这个角色的第34个女演员。(有宾语)

  2)不定式的名词性质表现在:在句中可用作主语、宾语等。如:

  (3)To be content with little is true happiness. 知足长乐。(用作主语)

  (4)The man, without fuss, agreed to serve as witness. 这个人没有异议,同意作证人。(用作宾语)

  10.5 不定式的功用

  不定式在句中可用作主语、表语、宾语、定语、同位语、状语和补语等。

  1)用作主语。如:

  (1)To see is to believe. 百闻不如一见。

  (2)To err is human, to forgive , divine. 犯错误是人之常情,宽恕是超凡的。

  当代英语常用it作为语法上的主语,即形式主语,将真实主语不定式放在谓语之后。如:

  (3)It always pays to tell the truth. 说实话总是不吃亏的。

  (4)It’s been a pleasure to be able to help you. 能够帮助你是一种荣幸。

  2)用作表语。如:

  (5)The duties of a postman are to deliver letters and newspapers. 邮递员的任务就是投递信与报纸。

  (6)My chief purpose has been to point out the difficulties of the matter. 我的主要意图是指出这个问题的困难所在。

  (7)The important thing is to save lives. 救人要紧。

  3)用作宾语,其逻辑主语同时也是全句的主语。如:

  (8)They demanded to be shown the authentic documents. 他们要求出示真实可靠的文件。

  (9)Mr. Chairman, I beg to move that the meeting be adjourned. 主席先生,我提议休会。

  [注]当复合宾语中的宾语是不定式时,则须将真实宾语不定式放在它的补语之后,而将形式宾语it放在宾语补语之前。如:

  ①She found it difficult to answer the question. 她发现回答这个问题很困难。

  ②He feels it his duty to help others. 他认为帮助别人是他的责任。

  有不少形容词(包括已变成形容词的分词)可后接不定式,这种不定式也可叫做宾语。如:

  (10)I am very glad to see you. 我见到您很高兴。

  (11)We are sorry to leave. 我们真不愿离去。

  (12)He is sure to come. 他一定会来的。

  这样的形容词多是表示思想感情的。除上述形容词外,还有able,afraid,anxious,careful,content,determined,eager,foolish,free,inclined,likely,lucky,prepared,quick,ready,slow,willing等。

  上述句子中的不定式与句子主语皆是主谓关系。但有时不定式和主语却是动宾关系。如:

  (13)Volleyball is very interesting to watch. 打排球看起来很有意思。

  (14)She’s very nice to talk to. 和她谈话是愉快的。

  (15)This problem is difficult to solve. 这个问题难解决。

  4)用作定语,通常皆置于其所修饰的名词或代词之后。它与其所修饰的名词或代词可能是主谓关系。如:

  (16)The next train to arrive was from New York. 下一列到站的火车是从纽约开来的。

  (17)All dead. I was the only one to grow up. 都死了。我是惟一成活的。

  (18)He was always the first to come and last to leave the office. 他总是第一个到办公室,最后一个离开。(first与last之后省去person了)

  也可能是动宾关系,这时不定式即通常所谓的反射不定式。如:

  (19)It was a game to remember. 那是一场令人难忘的球赛。

  (20)He has too many things to do. 他要做的事太多了。

  (21)I have nothing to say on this question. 在这个问题上,我没有什么话要说。

  反射不定式也可以是“不定式+介词”结构,这里的介词一般不可省去。如:

  (22)I need a pen to write with. 我需要一支笔写字。

  (23)Give me some paper to write on. 给我一些纸写字。

  (24)There are some things to be grateful for. 有一些事应该为之表示感激。

  此外还有两种抽象名词常后接不定式,一种是与常后接不定式的动词同源的名词。如:

  (25)His wish to visit China is quite understandable. 他访问中国的愿望是完全可以理解的。(名词wish与常后接不定式的动词wish同源)

  (26)Her decision to be a pianist is final. 她对要做一个钢琴家已下了最后的决心。(decision与常后接不定式的动词decide同源)

  另一种是与常后接不定式的形容词同源的名词。如:

  (27)He is reputed for his ability to speak four languages. 他以能讲4国语言而闻名。(ability与常后接不定式的形容词able同源)

  (28)The child was all eagerness to go on the picnic. 这孩子对去野餐非常心切。(eagerness与常后接不定式的形容词eager同源)

  5)用作同位语。如:

  (29)He gave the order to start the attack. 他发出了开始进攻的命令。(to start 与order同位)

  (30)He followed the instruction to walk along a certain street where I picked him up. 他照吩咐沿某一条街走,我在那里搭他上车。

  [注]请注意下面句子中用作同位语与定语的不定式的不寻常位置:

  ①The enemy came close to the town and the order came to evacuate the people. 敌人离城近了,于是发出了疏散市民的命令。(to evacuate the people置于动词came之后,这显然是因为使句子平衡的原故)

  ②China’s first boxing training centre has been set up in Guangzhou aimed at bringing on an upsurge in this yet to be systemized event. 中国第一个拳击训练中心已在广州成立,其目的是要在这尚无组织的运动项目上掀起一个热潮。(yet to be systemized置于名词event之前)

  6)用作状语,表目的、结果、原因等。

  a)表目的,其逻辑主语通常亦是全句的主语。如:

  (31)I stayed there to see what would happen. 我留在那里看看会发生什么事。

  (32)He will go to clinic tomorrow to be examined by the doctor. 他明天去诊所让大夫检查。

  (33)Here, visitors were halted to have papers examined. 来人在这里留步以检查证件。

  在强调这种目的状语时,不定式前可加in order或so as。如:

  (34)Many farmers fertilize their crops in order to make them grow more quickly. 许多农民给庄稼施肥,为的是让庄稼长得更快些。

  (35)I’ll writs down his telephone number so as not to forget it. 我要把他的电话号码写下来,以备不忘。

  在强调或突出这种目的状语时,也可将不定式或in order加不定式置于句首(so as较少置于句首)。如:

  (36)In order to make a study of the kangaroo, he came to Australia. 为了研究袋鼠,他来到了澳洲。

  (37)To conceal my emotion, I buried my face in my hands. 为了掩盖我的激动情绪,我用手捂着脸。

  b)表结果,其逻辑主语通常亦是全句的主语。如:

  (38)He lived to be a very old man. 他活得很长。

  (39)In 1935 he left home never to return. 1935年,他离开家再也没有回来。

  (40)What have I done to offend you? 我干什么惹你生气了?

  请注意下列句子中的so…as to…,such…as to…,enough to…,only to…以及too…to等结构中的不定式皆表结果:

  (41)The house is so high and narrow as to resemble a tower. 这房子又高又狭,像一座塔。

  (42)His indifference is such as to make one despair. 他如此冷淡,令人感到绝望。

  (43)He lifted a rock only to drop it on his own feet. 他搬起石头砸了自己的脚。

  (44)He has money enough to spare.他有多余的钱 (来自He has money to spare,亦常说We have enough (plenty) to spare.)

  (45)The tea it too hot to drink. 茶太热,不能喝。

  [注]有时too…to..结构并不意谓“太…而不能…”。如:

  ①I’m only too glad to stay at home. 我太想留在家里啦。(too 修饰glad to stay at home)

  ②I’m just too anxious to help you. 我正是想帮助你哩。(too 修饰anxious to help you)

  ③You are too ready to find faults in other people. 你就爱找别人的岔儿。(too 修饰ready to find …people)

  下面句子中的不定式则是定语:

  ④I had too much to drink. 我喝多了。

  ⑤You have too much to say. 你真多嘴。

  c)表原因,其逻辑主语通常亦是全句的主语。如:

  (46)I trembled to think of it. 我一想到那件事就不寒而粟。(亦可看作时间状语)

  (47)She wept to see him in such a terrible state. 她看到他这种可怕的样子就哭了。(亦可看作时间状语)

  (48)Mary, hang the idiot to bring me such stuff! 玛丽,这该死的蠢货,竟给我带来了这些货色。

  d)偶尔表让步或条件。如:

  (49)You couldn’t do that to save your life. 你即使为了救自己的命也不能那样做。(表让步)

  (50)To look at him you could hardly help laughing. 看到他就会忍不住笑起来。(表条件)

  7)用作独立成分(亦可看作一种句子状语)。如:

  (51)To begin with, I do not like its colour. 首先,我不喜欢它的颜色。

  (52)To tell the truth, the film was a great disappointment to me. 说实在的,那影片使我大为失望。

  (53)To make a long story short, we agreed to disagree. 长话短说,我们同意各自保留不同的看法。

  (54)How time flies, to be sure! 时光真是过得快啊!

  (55)The dog is, so to speak, a member of the family. 那狗可以说是家庭的一员了。

  除上述例句中用作独立成分的不一定式短语外,还有to be brief(简言之)、to be exact(精确地说)、to be frank with you(老实对你说吧)、to do him justice(说句对他公道的话)、to crown all[更为好(坏)的是]、to say nothing of(姑且不讲)、to conclude(总而言之)等。

  8)用作宾语补语在下列句子中,宾语与用作宾语补语的不定式构成复合宾语,二者在逻辑上是主谓关系。如:

  (56)What decided him to give up his job? 是什么决定他放弃工作的?(to give up是宾语him的补语)

  (57)I’ll leave you be attend the matter. 我将托你照管此事。(be attend是宾语you的补语)

  (58)We would like you to have an opportunity to appreciate Chinese art. 我们想给你们一个欣赏中国艺术的机会。(to have是宾语you的补语)

  有些动词后面的宾语补语常是to be,这样的动词有believe,consider,declare,find,imagine,know,prove,suppose,feel,think,understand等。如:

  (59)I know this to be a fact. 我知道这是事实。

  (60)They all felt the plan to be unwise. 他们都觉得那个计划是不明智的。

  (61)We believe her to be innocent. 我们相信他无罪。

  [注] 宾语补语to be在believe,consider,declare,find,prove,think,imagine等之后常可省去,如上述两句即可变为:

  ①We believe her innocent.

  ②I consider him too lazy.

  在上述动词的被动结构中,后面的to be亦可省去。如:

  ③She was believed innocent.

  ④He was considered too lazy.

  有一些动词后用作宾语补语的不定式通常不带to。这种动词有两类:一类是感觉动词(perceptional verb),如feel,see,hear,watch,notice等。如:

  (62)I saw him come. 我看见他来了。

  (63)I heard him sing. 我听见他唱歌了。

  (64)We felt the house shake. 我们感到房子摇动。

  另一类是某些使役动词(causative verb),如make,let,have等。如:

  (65)Let him do it. 让他做吧。

  (66)I would have you know that I am ill. 我想要你知道我病了。

  (67)They made the boy go to bed early. 他们强迫那男孩早睡。

  [注]上述感觉动词与使役动词转换为被动结构时,其后的不定式一般须带to。如:

  ①He was seen to come.

  ②The boy was made to go to bed early.

  在动词find与help之后,不定式可带to亦可不带to。如:

  (68)He was surprised to find the sheep (to) break fence at this season. 他发现羊在此季节越出羊栏,感到惊讶。

  (69)Help me (to) get him to bed. 帮我把他弄上床睡觉。

  在动词know后用作宾语补语的不定式有时也可不带to。如:

  (70)I never knew anything make such a difference! 我从不知道有什么事会产生如此大的影响!

  (71)I have never known a man die of love, but I have known a disappointed lover lose weight. 我从不知有人死于爱情,但我知道有失恋者消瘦下去。

  9)用作主语补语。在下列句中,主语与用作主语补语的不定式短语构成复合主语,二者在逻辑上是主谓关系。如:

  (72)The room was found to be empty. 那个房间被发现是空的。(to be是主语补语)

  (73)The young man was considered to have great promise. 这个青年被认为大有前途。(to have是主语补语)

  (74)He is said to be from New Zealand. 据说他是新西兰人。(to be是主语补语)

  10)有时可引导独立句,表愿望、惊讶等情绪。如:

  (75)Oh, to be in English now that April’s there! 啊,能回到现已是4月的英国该多好啊!

  (76)You people! To think we have to support your kind with taxes. 你们这些人!想想看,我们竟然必须纳税养活你们这一帮人。

  (77)And to imagine for a moment he’d ever come here to visit! 想一想看,他竟会有一天到这里访问!


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