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薄冰英语语法 第十章 非限定动词(6-15)

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  10.6 不定式的独立结构

  不定式具有它自己的独立主语时,二者即构成不定式独立结构,常用作状语,表伴随情况。如:

  (1)We divided the work, he to clean the window and I to sweep the floor. 我们分了工,他擦窗户,我扫地。(he…window和I…floor皆为不定式独立结构)

  (2)A number of officials followed the emperor, some to hold his robe, others to adjust his girdle, and to on. 许多官员尾随皇帝之后,有的拎着皇帝的衣袍,有的则给他整腰带等。(some…robe和others…and so on皆为不定式独立结构)

  不定式独立结构偶尔亦可用作主语。如:

  (3)I to bear this is some burden. 我负担此物颇不轻松。(I to bear this是不定式独立结构)

  10.7 “for+名词(代词)+不定式”结构

  for加名词或代词宾语再加不定式可构成复合结构,它在句中可用作:主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语等。

  1)用作主语。如:

  (1)For a child to do that job is just inconceivable. 让一个孩子做这项工作那真是不可思议。

  (2)For the goods to be packed in strong cases is necessary. 把货物包装在坚实的箱子里是必要的。

  [注]以上两句常用形式主语it,可变为:

  ①It’s just inconceivable for a child to do that job.

  ②It’s necessary for the goods to be packed in strong cases.

  清注意下面句子中的形容词后接的“of+名词(或代词宾语)+不定式”结构:

  (3)It’s kind of you to say so. 谢谢你的美言。(此句可简化为It’s kind of you.)

  (4)It is very good of you to come. 谢谢你的光临。

  (5)How silly of you to do that. 你干那事,真傻。

  这种形容词还有honest,bad,stupid,bold,clever,cruel,courteous,nice,rude,sensible,tactful,thoughtful,typical,wise,wrong等。

  在时也可用形容词后接的“to+名词(或代词宾语)+不定式”结构。如:

  (6)It will hardly be convenient to me to release you from your engagement. 由我使你免于践约,那将是不适当的。(to也可代之以for)

  2)用作表语。如:

  (7)That is for you to decide. 那是由你决定。

  (8)A solution would be for shops to open at noon and close about 9 p.m. 办法将是商店中午开门,晚上9点关门。

  3)偶尔用作动词的宾语。如:

  (9)I meant for you to eat, son. 我的意思是要你吃,孩子。

  (10)He shouted to me to come. 他大声叫我来。(to me to come在此用作shouted的宾语)

  但更多是用作某些形容词的宾语。如:

  (11)He was anxious for his brother to meet you. 他急于要他的兄弟见你。

  (12)He was quite willing for everyone else to come. 他很愿意让别的人都来。

  4)用作定语。如:

  (13)It’s time for us to go. 是我们走的时候了。

  (14)That would be a matter for the people to decide. 那是应由人民决定的事。

  5)用作目的状语。如:

  (15)He stood aside for her to pass. 他靠边站让她过去。

  (16)For a vote to be valid, the deputy must be present and vote in person. 为了使每一票都有效,代表必须出席亲自投票。

  10.8 “疑问词+不定式”结构

  疑问词who,what,which,when,where和how后加不定式可构成一种特殊的不定式短语,它在句中可用作主语、宾语、表语等。

  1)用作主语。如:

  (1)When to start has not been decided. 何时动身尚未决定。

  (2)How to earn daily bread by my pen was then the problem. 如何靠我的笔吃饭在当时是一难题。

  2)用作宾语。如:

  (3)I don’t know what to do. 我不知道该怎么办。

  (4)He did not know whether to go there or not. 他不知道是否该去那里。

  3)用作表语。如:

  (5)The difficulty was how to cross the river. 困难在于如何过河。

  (6)The question was where to go. 问题在于到哪儿去。

  4)用于双重宾语。如:

  (7)I can tell you where to get this book. 我可以告诉你哪里可以买到此书。

  (8)I asked him how to learn English. 我问他如何学习英语。

  有时疑问词前可用介词。如:

  I have no idea of how to do it. 我不知道如何做此事。

  10.9 不定式的完成式

  不定式完成式所表的动作发生在谓语动词之前,它在句中可用作主语、表语、宾语、状语、补语等。

  1)用作主语。如:

  (1)To have known her is a privilege. 认识她真是荣幸。

  2)用作表语。如:

  (2)This house seems to have been built by a good architect. 我所房子似乎为一出色建筑师所建。

  3)用作宾语。如:

  (3)By 1992, he hopes to have opened a branch overseas. 到1992年,他希望能在海外开一分店。

  4)用作定语。如:

  (4)There is no need to have bought a new pair of shoes for me. 没有必要给我买一双新鞋。(to have bought意谓“已买”)

  5)用作状语。如:

  (5)He is too young to have seen the old society. 他太年轻,没有见过旧社会。

  6)用作宾语补语。如:

  (6)They might have found it to have lived long, had not a particular circumstance occurred. 如不是情况特殊,他们是不可能长久住在一起的。(现在多用一般式to live)

  7)用作主语补语。如:

  (7)The game was originally scheduled to have taken place in Rome. 这场球赛原本定在罗马举行。(亦可用一般式to take place)

  [注]动词remember后接不定式完成式可表过去完成的动作,如:I remember to have seen it. (我记得见过它。)

  不定式完成式亦可表过去未完成的动作。如:

  (8)I intended to have finished my work last night. 我本想昨晚完成作业的。(现在多说I had intended to finish…)

  (9)We were to have sailed next morning. 我们本定于第二天早启航。

  10.10 不定式的进行式

  不定式进行式表示正在进行的与谓语动词同时发生的动作,其含义与一般进行时态相似。它在句中可用作主语、表语、宾语、状语、补语等。

  1)用作主语。如:

  (1)Just to be doing something was a help. 做点事是有益处的。

  2)用作表语。如:

  (2)What he really wants is not to be wanting somebody. 他的真正需要不在急需一个什么人。

  3)用作宾语。如:

  (3)You won’t want to be washing at this time of night. 在夜里这时候你不要洗澡。

  4)用作定语。如:

  (4)Well, it’s time to be making for home. 好,是回家的时候了。

  5)用作状语。如:

  (5)You are too young to be meeting young men. 你太小,不能交男朋友。

  6)用作宾语补语。如:

  (6)Let’s be moving, we’re wasting time. 我们就走吧,我们在浪费时间呢。

  7)用作主语补语。如:

  (7)Come, I’m supposed to be calling you to lunch. 喂,我是来叫你吃午饭的。

  10.11 不定式的被动式

  不定式被动式在句中可用作主语、表语、宾语、状语、补语等。

  1)用作主语。如:

  (1)To be obeyed was natural to her. 她天性要别人听命于她。

  2)用作表语。如:

  (2)The problem remains to be solved. 这个问题还有待解决。

  3)用作宾语。如:

  (3)It needs not to be said that they are very happy together. 不消说他们在一起非常幸福。

  4)用作定语。如:

  (4)There were plans to be made at once. 要立即制定计划。

  5)用作状语。如:

  (5)He has returned only to be sent away again. 他回来之后又被打发走了。

  6)用作宾语补语。如:

  (6)The captain ordered the flag to be hoisted. 船长命令升旗。

  [注]want,like,wish,have ,get,leave,see,watch,hear,make等动词后用作宾语补语的被动不定式可省去to be。在美国英语中,动词order后用作宾语补语的被动不定式亦可省去to be。

  7)用作主语补语。如:(美国英语亦可省去to be)

  (7)The book is intended to be read and not to be torn. 这书是供人阅读而不是供人撕毁的。

  8)用于“for+名(代)词+不定式”结构。如:

  (8)He was anxious for the performance to be repeated. 他盼望表演重复一次。

  9)有些句子习惯上须用不定式被动式。如:

  (9)Such things are to be seen any day. 这种事哪一天都可遇到。

  (10)Sure you know what is to be done. 你肯定知道应该怎么办。

  (11)This is a day never to be forgotten. 这是令人难忘的一天。

  (12)There was no sound to be heard. 听不到有什么声音。

  (13)The infectious disease is likely to be wiped out in a few years. 这种传染病在几年之内即可消灭。

  但在下列情况下,则既可用被动式亦可用主动式,而意义无甚区别:

  (14)The house is to be let (to let.) 此房出租。(被动式似较多用,to let多作在广告中)

  (15)There is no time to lose(to be lost.) 时间紧迫。(口语中多用主动式)

  (16)It’s too hot to eat(to be eaten.)这东西太烫,不能吃。

  但有时二者却有所区别。如:

  (17)There is nothing to do. 无事可做。(有“无聊”之义)

  (18)There is nothing to be done. 不能做什么了。(意谓“没有办法了”)

  (19)There is nothing to see. 没有什么可看的了。(即“没有什么值得看的了”)

  (20)There is nothing to be seen. 看不见有什么。(即“什么也没看见”)

  (21)I am ready to shave. 我要刮脸了。(自己刮自己的脸)

  (22)I am ready to be shaved. 我准备好刮脸了。(由别人给刮脸)

  有些句子虽表被动,但习惯上却用主动式。如:

  (23)She’s to blame for this. 这应怪她。(亦可说She is to be blame for this.)

  (24)The reason is not far to seek. 道理很浅显。

  (25)What’s to pay? 要付多少钱?

  英语里还有一种双重被动式(double passive),即“be+过去分词+不定式被动式”结构。常用这种双重被动式的动词有allow,announce,attempt,believe,desire,enable,expect,intend,know,mean,order,permit,propose,report,say等。如:

  (26)The books are not allowed to be taken out of the room. 不许将书携出室外。

  (27)More than 250 tons of oranges are expected to be harvested this year in the county. 这个县今年可望收获250多吨柑橘。

  (28)I let him know what was intended to be done. 我告诉他应干什么。

  10.12 不定式的否定式

  不定式的否定式由not或never加不定式构成。如:

  (1)He decided not to do it. 他决定不做那事。

  (2)Try not to be late. 尽量不要迟到。

  (3)This is some information not to say. 这是一些不可对人言的情报。

  试比较下列句子:

  (4)She wished never to see him again. 她希望永不再见到他。

  (5)She never wished to see him again. 她从不希望再见到他。

  (6)Let’s not go. 我们不要去吧。

  (7)Don’t let’s go. 我们可不要去。(语气较上句强)

  (8)It doesn’t seem to be right. 这似乎不对头。(较口语化)

  (9)It seem not to be right. 这似乎不对。

  10.13 不带to的不定式

  关于不带to的不定式(包括某些动词原形在内)的用法,有以下几种情况。

  1)动词原形go与come等在口语中可后接不带to的不定式。如:

  (1)Go tell him. 去告诉她吧。

  (2)Come have a glass. 来喝一杯吧。

  (3)Try knock at the back door if nobody hears you at the front door. 前门如没有人听见,你就试敲后门。

  上述句中动词原形之后亦可用and和不带to的不定式。如:

  (4)Go and tell him. 去告诉她吧。

  (5)Tom told me to be sure and remember the rabbits every day. 汤姆告诉我每天都一定要记得喂兔子。

  2)在rather than与other than等之后用不带to的不定式。如:

  (6)I would rather go than stay. 我宁愿走不愿留。

  (7)No one could do other than admire it. 人人都不得不赞赏它。

  3)含do的名词性从句用作主语时,其表语如是不定式,在口语中常省去to。如:

  (8)“All I did was hit him on the head,” the boy said. “我只是打了他的头,”那男孩说道。

  (9)What a fire-door does is delay the spread of a fire long enough for people to get out. 防火门的用处就是减缓火的蔓延,让人们逃脱。

  4)cannot but,cannot choose but与cannot help but之后的不定式一般皆不带to。如:

  (10)I cannot but admire his courage. 我不能不钦佩他的勇敢。

  (11)He could not choose but love her. 他不禁爱上了她。(在当代英语中choose多被help所代替)

  (12)The cause could not help but be advanced today. 今天不能不推进这一事业。

  在连词but之前如有动词do,其后的不定式亦不用to。如:

  (13)We have nothing to do now but wait. 现在我们只得等待。

  (14)Theodore never does anything but talk. 西奥多光说不干。

  连词but之前如无do,其后的不定式一般皆带to。如:

  (15)They desired nothing but to succeed. 他们只想成功。

  (16)I have no choice but to accept the fact. 我只有承认事实。

  5)在一些固定词组中须省去to。如:

  (17)I hear that little beggar of mine let fly at you with his catapult yesterday. 我听见昨天我那个小家伙用弹弓射你了。

  (18)I used to sit there, making believe to learn Japanese. 我常坐在那里,装作学日语。

  (19)If I can’t have the real thing, I can make do with the imitation. 如果我得不到真品,那也可以用仿制品对付一下。

  6)为了避免重复而省去to。如:

  (20)I’m really puzzled what to think or say. 我真不知道该怎么想怎么说才好。

  (21)It’s just impossible to see that and not weep. 看见那个景象而不哭是不可能的。

  但两个不定式如有对照或对比之义,则不可

  (22)To be or not to be — that is the question. 是生还是死,这就是问题所在。

  (23)I came not to scold, but to praise you. 我不是来骂你而是来夸你的。

  7)疑问词why引导的省略句中的不定式在当代英语中一般须省去to。如:

  (24)Why talk so much about it? 这样大谈它干么?

  (25)Why not try again? 干么不再试呢?

  10.14 省去动词原形的不定式

  如句子前面已经出现过同样的动词,为了避免重复,句子后面的不定式常省去动词原形,只留下不定式符号to。如:

  (1)He may go if he wishes to. 他可以走,如果他愿意的话。(省去前已出现的go)

  (2)A number of veterans retired and some were ready to. 很多老队员已退役,有一些也准备退役。(省去前已出现的retire)

  (3)Don’t go till I tell you to. 等我叫你走你再走。(省去前已出现的go)

  (4)You will make it if you try. 你会成功的,如你试图的话。(try后省去to make it)

  (5)I wish you would come if you had time. 我希望你来,你如有时间的话。(time后省去come)

  10.15 分裂不定式

  在不定式符号to和动词原形之间有时可插入一个副词,构成所谓分裂不定式(split infinitive)。所插入的副词习惯上常与不定式的动词原形连用,故分裂不定式要合乎习惯,不可滥用。如:

  (1)He liked to half close his eyes. 他喜欢半闭着眼睛。

  (2)He was too ill to really carry out his duty. 他病得实在不能履行职责了。

  (3)He prepared to silently accompany her. 他准备默默地陪伴着她。

  (4)It is too heavy for me to ever lift. 它很重,我都掀不动它。

  有时在to和动词原形之间可插入一个以上的词。如:

  (5)He made up his mind to once more become a suitor to her hand. 他下决心再一次向她求婚。

  运用分裂不定式往往可以避免歧义。如:

  (6)I remember to have plainly refused his offer. 我记得已明确地拒绝了他的建议。

  如将副词plainly置于to have refused之前就会产生歧义,因为它既有可能修饰不定式,也有可能修饰remember。


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