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薄冰英语语法 第十章 非限定动词(16-24)

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  三、动名词

  10.16 动名词的构成和性质

  动名词由动词原形加词尾-ing而成,其构成方法与现在分词一样。

  动名词有时式和语态的变化:

  主动语态 被动语态

  一般式 doing being done

  完成式 having done having been done

  动名词既有动词性质,又有名词性质。

  1)动名词的动词性质表现在:可有宾语和状语从而组成动名词短语。如:

  (1)I hope you don’t mind my saying it. 我希望你别介意我说的话。(有宾语it)

  (2)Are you for or against staying here? 你赞成还是反对留在这里?(有状语here)

  2)动名词的名词性质表现在:在句中可用作主语、宾语等。如:

  (3)Traveling abroad can be very exciting. 出国旅行会是很激动人心的。(用作主语)

  (4)In Lent he gives up smoking and drinking. 在大斋期,他戒烟酒。(用作宾语)

  10.17动名词的功用

  动名词在句中可用作主语、表语、宾语、定语、同位语、补语等。

  1)用作主语。如:

  (1)Seeing is believing. 百闻不如一见。

  (2)Saving is having. 节约即是收入。

  在一些句子中,常用it作形式主语,将用作真实主语的动名词放在句未。it is可后接no use,no good,fun等名词。如:

  (3)It is no use crying. 哭没有用。

  (4)It is no good objecting. 反对也没有用。

  (5)It’s great fun sailing a boat. 扬帆驾舟是十分有趣的。

  it is亦可后接useless,nice,good,interesting等形容词。如:

  (6)It is useless speaking. 光说没有用。

  (7)It’s so nice sitting here with you. 和你坐在一起真是愉快。

  (8)It’s good hearing English spoken. 听到人讲英语,我很高兴。

  2)用作表语。如:

  (9)The main thing is getting there in time. 首要的事是及时到达那里。

  (10)His main extravagance is smoking. 他的主要嗜好是吸烟。

  (11)This is not playing the game. 这样做就不公正诚实了。

  动名词作表语时与进行时态中的现在分词形式相同,但其所属结构迥异,二者不可混淆。试比较:

  (12)Her job was washing clothes. 她的工作是洗衣裳。(washing是动名词,用作表语)

  (13)She was washing clothes. 她在洗衣裳。(washing是现在分词,与was构成过去进行时,用作谓语)

  3)用作宾语。如:

  (14)Have you finished reading the book? 你读完那本书了吗?

  (15)I suggest doing it in a different way. 我建议换一种方法做此事。

  (16)A person certainly loses when he gives up trying. 一个人放弃了努力就肯定一无所得。

  动名词作为宾语,亦可用在复合宾语中。如:

  (17)The pain in my throat made speaking difficult. 我的喉咙痛,造成说话困难。

  (18)Do you find living here interesting? 你觉得住在这里有意思吗?

  动名词亦可用作介词的宾语。如:

  (19)He has a strong objection to leaving early. 他极力反对早动身。

  (20)She is afraid of going out along. 她怕单独一个人出去。

  (21)Are you interested in buying second-hand books? 我对买旧书有兴趣吗?

  介词有时可以省去。如:

  (22)He meant to go hunting. 他要去打猎。(省去to)

  (23)I have been some time answering this question. 我想了一些时间之后才回答这个问题。(省去in)

  (24)What can prevent us getting married? 有什么能阻止我们结婚呢?(省去from)

  4)用作定语。如:

  (25)Everybody was at his fighting post. 每一个人都守在自己的战斗岗位上。

  (26)They set up an operating table in a small temple. 他们将手术台架设在一座小庙里。

  (27)He may be in the reading room, for all I know. 他说不定在阅览室里。

  有些复合名词亦可用作定语。如:fact-finding committee 调查委员会 peace-keeping troops 维持和平部队

  5)用作补语。如:

  (28)I call this robbing Peter to pay Paul. 我管这叫做拆东墙补西墙。(robbing用作宾语补语)

  (29)This is called turning things upside down. 这叫做把事物颠倒了。(turning是主语补语)

  10.18 动名词复合结构

  名词属格或物主代词后加动名词,即构成动名词复合结构。在动名词复合结构中,名词属格或物主代词是动名词的逻辑主语。这种复合结构在句中用作主语或宾语。

  1)用作主语。如:

  (1)Sophia’s having seen them did not surprise us. 索菲亚看见了他们,并不使我们感到惊讶。

  (2)It’s no use your trying to deceive me. 你想骗我是没有用的。

  在口语中也有用名词通格和代词宾格的情况。如:

  (3)My daughter staying up so late worried me. 我的女儿睡得很晚令我担心。

  (4)Our safety depends in you coming at once. 我们的安全系于你立即到来。

  2)用作宾语。如:

  (5)Excuse my interrupting you. 请原谅我打断你的话。

  (6)There seemed to be a slight appearance of the gale’s abating. 在风似乎显得小点儿了。

  在当代英语中,动名词复合结构用作宾语时,其名词多用通格。如:

  (7)I hate people being unhappy. 我不愿人们不快乐。

  (8)I am not in favour of mother selling the old home. 我不赞同母亲卖掉老房。

  动名词复合结构用作宾语时,现在用代词宾格的情况也不少。如:

  (9)You say nothing about us calling. 你不要说我们来拜访的事。

  (10)I have often heard of him working hard. 我常听到他刻苦用功的话。

  3)注意在下列句子中,代词和动名词都是直接宾语,故代词须用宾格:

  (11)Pardon me saying it. 请恕我此言。

  (12)She forgave him doing it. 她原谅了他做那事。

  10.19 动名词的时式

  动名词有一般式与完成式两种时式。其形式变化与现在分词相同。

  1)动名词一般式所表的动作可与谓语动词所表的动作同时发生。如:

  (1)A gregarious person, he loves just talking with people. 他是一个爱交际的人,爱与人聊天。

  (2)A big job should be done in popularizing education. 普及教育应该花大力气。

  动名词一般式所表的动作也可能与谓语动词所表的动作异时发生。如:

  (3)On finding that the engine was working badly, the pilot was obliged to land. 飞机驾驶员一发现引擎不灵就被迫下降。(发生在谓语动词之前)

  (4)I shall never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time. 我永不忘记第一次看见长城的情景。(发生在谓语动词之前)

  (5)Martin insisted on going to work in spite of his illness. 马丁坚持要抱病工作。(发生在谓语动词之后)

  (6)He is not afraid of dying. 他不怕死。(发生在谓语动词之后)

  2)动名词完成式所表的动作皆发生在谓语动词所表的动作之前。如:

  (7)Allan repented having shot the bird. 阿伦悔不该射死那只鸟。

  (8)Edith denied having been there. 伊迪丝否认到过那里。

  (9)His audacity comes from having seen the worst happen, from having endured the keenest pain. 他有胆识是由于他有过最坏的遭遇,忍受过最强烈的痛苦。

  [注]由于动名词的一般式与完成式皆可表发生在谓语动词前的动作,故二者往往意思相同。但前者显然比较简洁。如:I remember locking the door.(我记得把门锁上了)显然较I remember having locked the door.简洁。有些动词,如enjoy,则一般不后接动名词完成式。

  10.20 动名词的被动式

  动名词的被动式也有一般式与完成式两种。

  1)动名词一般式用于被动式。如:

  (1)He narrowly escaped being run over. 他差点被车压着。

  (2)I have not the least objection to his being shot. 我对枪毙他毫无异议。

  2)动名词完成式用于被动式。如:

  (3)He prided himself on having never been beaten in chess. 他为奕棋上从未被击败而自豪。

  (4)His arm was not in a sling, and showed no sign of having been damaged. 他的手臂并用吊腕带吊起,也没有受过伤的迹象。

  3)有些动名词在句中具有主动的形式,但含有被动的意义。如:

  (5)The house needs repairing. 房子需要修缮。

  (6)Such hardships are beyond bearing. 这样的苦是不堪忍受。

  (7)If a thing is worth doing, it is worth doing well. 一件事如值得做,就应把它做好。

  有时动名词的含义是模棱两可的,应由上下文而定。如在The shooting of the hunters was terrible. 这一句中,动名词shooting可能有主动意义,即“枪击”或“放枪”;也可能有被动意义,即“被枪杀”。

  10.21 动名词的否定式

  动名词的否定式由not或never加动名词构成。如:

  (1)I fancy it has done you a lot of good not going. 我看不去对你倒太好了。(not going是动名词一般式的否定式)

  (2)He was nervous from having never before spoken in public. 他由于从未做过公开演讲而感到紧张。(having never spoken是动名词完成式的否定式)

  10.22 动名词与不定式的比较

  一般来说,动名词着重进程,不定式着重结果。如:

  (1)Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。

  (2)To see is to believe.

  (3)Your work needs correcting. 你写的东西需要修改。

  (4)Your work needs to be correcting.

  (5)I prefer staying indoors on cold winter evenings. 在冬天的夜晚我宁愿待在家里。

  (6)I prefer to stay indoors on cold winter evenings.

  但有时二者意义有差异:

  1)动名词的逻辑主语可能泛指人们,而不定式的逻辑主语则常常是句子中的名词或代词。如:

  (7)I scorn telling lies. 我蔑视说慌。

  (8)I scorn to tell a lies. 我不屑于说慌。

  (9)I hate smoking. 我讨厌吸烟。

  (10)I hate to smoke. 我不爱吸烟。

  2)动名词表一般或抽象的多次性行为,而不定式则往往表具体的或一次性的动作。试比较:

  (11)Playing with fire is dangerous. 玩火危险。(泛指玩火)

  (12)To play with fire will be dangerous. 玩火会发生危险。(指一具体动作)

  (13)Talking for hours at a stretch is more exhausting than you seem to think. 一连讲几个小时的话会比你似乎想象的要累。(泛指讲话)

  (14)To talk for hours at a stretch is more exhausting than you seem to think. 你一连讲几个小时的话可比你似乎想象的要累。(指一个人的感受)

  3)在某些动词之后只能用动名词,而另一些动词之后只能用不定式。常后接动名词的动词有acknowledge,admit,advocate,avoid,consider,contemplate,defer,delay,deny,dislike,enjoy,escape,evade,fancy,finish,grudge,imagine,include,keep,mind,miss,postpone,practise,recall,recollect,repent,resent,resist,risk,stop,suggest等;短语动词有have done,give up等。

  常后接不定式的动词有afford,agree,aim,ask,claim,choose,decide,decline,demand,expect,desire,determine,fail,hope,manage,offer,plan,pretend,promise,refuse,resolve,threaten,wish等。

  [注]care,hesitate,long,bother,tend,trouble等皆为不及物动词,故其后接的不定式不是宾语,而是状语。

  4)有不少动词既可后接动名词亦可后接不定式,常见的有attempt,begin,continue,deserve,disdain,dread,endure,neglect,omit,prefer,proceed,propose,regret,remember,scorn,start,try,want等。

  上述动词后接的动名词与不定式在意义上往往没有什么区别。但有时二者意义却有所不同。试比较:

  (15)Try knocking at the back door if nobody hears you at the front door. 前门如没有人答应,你就敲后门试试看。(try意为“试”)

  (16)Try to get some sleep. 试图去睡一会儿吧。(try意为“试图”或“企图”)

  (17)I regret missing the film. 我懊悔没有看上那部电影。(动名词missing指过去)

  (18)I regret to say that I cannot come. 我很抱歉,不能来了。(不定式to say指现在)

  (19)I can’t help laughing. 我不禁笑了起来。(help后接动名词意谓“避免”)

  (20)I can’t help to clean the place up. 我不能帮助打扫这地方。(help后接不定式意谓“帮助”)

  (21)She proposes catching the early train. 她建议赶早班火车。

  (22)She proposes to catch the early train. 她打算去赶早班火车。

  (23)This means helping you. 这意味着帮助你。(mean后接动名词意谓“意味着”)

  (24)This means to help you. 这意在帮你。(mean在此后接不定式意谓“意在”)

  5)动词stop和quit可后接动名词和不定式,但两者的句子功用不同。试比较:

  (25)He stopped smoking last week. 他上星期戒了烟。(stop在此是及物动词,动名词smoking是宾语)

  (26)He stopped to smoke. 他停下来吸烟。(stop在此是不及物动词,不定式to smoke用作目的状语)

  (27)I’ve quit smoking. 我已戒烟。(quit在此是及物动词,动名词smoking是宾语)

  (28)At noon the men quit to eat. 中午工人们停下来吃饭。(quit在此是不及物动词,不定式to eat用作目的状语)

  短语动词go on后接的动名词与不定式不仅其句子功用不同,其含义亦不一样。试比较:

  (29)They went on talking. 他们继续谈着。(动名词talking是宾语,意谓不停地谈下去)

  (30)They went on to talk about other matters. 他们接着又谈别的事情。(不定式to talk是目的状语,意谓接着做另一件事)

  6)有的动词其后接的动名词表已完成的动作,不定式则表未完成的动作。如:

  (31)I remember locking the door. 我记得把门锁上了。(locking表已完成的动作)

  (32)Remember to lock the door. 记得要锁门。(to lock表未完成的动作)

  (33)He enjoys visiting. 他对访问感到愉快。(visiting表已完成的动作)

  (34)He expects to visit. 他期望访问。(to visit表未完成的动作)

  动词forget(常用过去一般时与现在完成时)后亦可接不定式或动名词。其后的不定式表未完成的动作。如:

  (35)I forgot to buy the book . 我忘买书了。

  (36)He has forgotten to pay back the money he borrowed. 他忘记还所借的款。

  动词forget(但常用于将来一般时的否定和疑问结构)后接的动名词表已完成的动作。如:

  (37)I shall never forget seeing the Swiss Alps for the first time. 我将永不会忘记第一次看到瑞士阿尔卑斯山时的情景。

  (38)Shall you ever forget hearing her sing? 你会忘记听她的歌唱吗?

  偶尔也用于现在时态。如:

  (39)I forget posting it. 我忘记已把它寄出去了。

  如用过去一般时forgot,则应先接介词about,再接动名词。如:

  (40)I forgot about doing it. 我忘记已做此事了。

  或后接从句。如:

  (41)I forgot that I had done it.

  7)在含有cannot(could not)的否定结构中,有的动词须后接动名词,有的动词则多后接不定式。如:

  (42)I can’t stand being kept waiting. 我不堪久候。(can’t stand后接动名词)

  (43)She could not forbear to cry out. 她不由得喊叫起来。(could not forbear后接不定式)

  8)有些动词后接动名词主动式可表被动意义,而不定式则须用其被动式表被动意义。如:

  (44)I won’t bear thinking of. 我不堪被人想念。

  (45)I won’t bear to be thought about.

  (46)It needs repairing. 它需要修理。

  (47)It needs to be repaired.

  9)有些动词在书面语中多后接动名词,在口语中多后接不定式。如:

  (48)It started raining. 开始下雨了。

  (49)It started to rain.

  (50)I fear offending her. 我害怕冒犯她。

  (51)I fear to offend her.

  10)在should(would) like,love等之后须用不定式。如:

  (52)I’d like to thank you again. 我愿再次感谢你。

  (53)I’d love to come sometime. 日后我愿意来的。

  11)修饰上需要变换,为了避免连用不定式或动名词。如:

  (54)The students have begun planning to open a class on the correct use of characters for workers in nearby factories. 学生们已开始计划为附近工厂的工人开办一个正确运用汉字的班。(这里用动名词planning显然较好,如用不定式to plan则很难上口)

  10.23 “介词+动名词”结构与不定式的比较

  有些动词、名词和形容词之后常接“介词+动名词”结构(大多数同源的动词、名词和形容词后接同一个介词),有些动词、名词和形容词后接不定式。

  1)关于其后常接不定式与动名词的动词,已在本章前节举过,这里不再重复。现只就常后接“介词+动名词”结构的动词列举几例如下:

  abstain from doing sth 避免做某事

  amount to doing sth 等于做某事

  apologize for doing sth 为做某事而表歉意

  succeed in doing sth 做成功某事

  believe in doing sth 信仰做某事

  dream of doing sth 梦想做某事

  object to doing sth 反对做某事

  insist on doing sth 坚持做某事

  take to doing sth 开始做某事

  think of doing sth 想做某事

  worry about doing sth 担心做某事

  有些动词后接“名词+介词+动名词”结构。如:

  aid somebody in doing sth 帮助某人做某事

  accuse somebody of doing sth 控诉某人做某事

  congratulate somebody on doing sth 恭贺某人做某事

  devote…to doing sth 把…奉献给做某事

  doom somebody to doing sth 注定某人做某事

  excuse somebody for doing sth 原谅某人做某事

  pay attention to doing sth 注意做某事

  prevent somebody from doing sth 阻止某人做某事(from可省去)

  有些动词之后既可接“介词+动名词”,亦可接不定式,二者意义上有时相同,有时则有所不同。如:

  agree on doing sth 协议做某事

  agree to do sth 同意做某事

  aim at doing sth 旨在做某事

  aim to do sth 旨在做某事(美国英语多用此说法)

  aspire to doing sth 渴望去做某事

  aspire to do sth 渴望去做某事

  contribute to doing sth 助成某事

  contribute to do sth 助成某事

  forget about doing sth 忘记已做某事

  forget to do sth 忘记去做某事

  think about doing sth 考虑做某事

  think to do sth 想要或记得做某事

  有些动词之后既可接“名词+介词+动名词”,亦可接“名词+不定式”。如:

  assist somebody in doing sth 帮助某人做某事

  assist somebody to do sth 帮助某人做某事

  I finally got him to do it. 我终于请他做了此事。(不定式to do表已完成的动作)

  I soon got the machine to running. 我很快就开动了机器。(动名词running仍在进行)

  2)有些名词之后常用不定式,如ability,ambition,anxiety,curiosity,disposition,mind,obligation,permission,refusal,reluctance,temptation,tendency,wish,yearning等。

  有些名词之后则常可接“介词+动名词”结构。如:

  advice on doing sth 关于做某事的忠告

  aptitude for doing sth 做某事的资质

  delay in doing sth 对做某事的延误

  difficulty in doing sth 做某事中的困难(in可省去)

  excuse for doing sth 对做某事的借口

  experience in doing sth 做某事方面的经验

  fancy for doing sth 对做某事的迷恋

  interest in doing sth 对做某事的兴趣

  genius for doing sth 对做某事的天赋

  habit of doing sth 做某事的习惯

  no harm in doing sth 做某事无害

  idea of doing sth 做某事的念头

  method of doing sth 做某事的方法

  motive for doing sth 做某事的动机

  object of doing sth 做某事的目的

  passion for doing sth 对做某事的热情

  plan for doing sth 做某事的计划

  possibility of doing sth 做某事的可能性

  surprise at doing sth 对做某事感到的惊讶

  skill in doing sth 做某事的技能

  apology for doing sth 为做某事的道歉

  hope of doing sth 做某事的希望

  success in doing sth 做某事的成功

  [注]上述名词中有些还可后接其它介词,如advice还可后接about,experience 还可后接of等。

  有些名词之后既可接“介词+动名词”,亦可接不定式。如:

  attempt(企图)at doing sth / to do sth

  chance(机会)of doing sth / to do sth

  aversion(厌恶)to doing sth / to do sth

  claim(要求)to doing sth / to do sth

  choice(选择)of doing sth / to do sth

  effort(努力)at doing sth / to do sth

  capacity(能力)of doing sth / to do sth

  desire(欲望)of doing sth / to do sth

  freedom(自由)in doing sth / to do sth

  honour(荣幸)of doing sth / to do sth

  intention(意愿)of doing sth / to do sth

  opportunity(机会)of doing sth / to do sth

  objection(反对)to doing sth / to do sth

  patience(忍耐)in doing sth / to do sth

  necessity(必要)of doing sth / to do sth

  reason(理由)for doing sth / to do sth

  propensity(倾向)for doing sth / to do sth

  mood(心绪)for doing sth / to do sth

  time(时间)for doing sth / to do sth

  way(方法)of doing sth / to do sth

  failure(失败)in doing sth / (未)to do sth

  3)有些形容词之后常接不定式,如able,difficult,easy,free,eager,llikely,lucky,ready,sure等。

  有些形容词则常后接“介词+动名词”结构。如:

  adept at(in) doing sth 熟练于做某事

  averse to doing sth 厌恶做某事

  aware of doing sth 意识到做某事

  apprehensive of doing sth 对做某事担忧

  apologetic for doing sth 为做某事道歉

  busy in doing sth 忙于做某事(in可省去)

  capable of doing sth 能够做某事

  confident of doing sth 对做某事有信心

  angry about doing sth 对做某事恼怒

  equal to doing sth 等于做某事

  equivalent to doing sth 相当于做某事

  exact in doing sth 精确地做某事

  fond of doing sth 喜爱做某事

  guilty of doing sth 为做某事内疚

  hopeful of doing sth 希望做某事

  awkward at doing sth 笨拙于做某事

  fearful of doing sth 害怕做某事

  keen on doing sth 爱好做某事

  intent on doing sth 坚决要做某事

  tired of doing sth 厌倦做某事

  sick of doing sth 厌倦做某事

  responsible for doing sth 对做某事负责

  suitable for doing sth 适合于做某事

  unconscious of doing sth 未意识到做某事

  right in doing sth 做某事做得对

  wrong in doing sth 做某事做错了

  有些形容词之后既可接“介词+动名词”,亦可接不定式。二者有时意义相同。如:

  desirous(想望的)of doing sth / to do sth

  fortunate(幸运的)in doing sth / to do sth

  content(满足的)with doing sth / to do sth

  unworthy(不值的)of doing sth / to do sth

  proud(自豪的)of being / to be

  但有时二者意义上却有所区别。如:

  (1)She is good at playing the piano. 她擅长于弹钢琴。

  (2)It is good to eat. 它很好吃。

  (3)Our team is certain of winning. 我们球队相信会打赢。

  (4)Our team looks certain to win. 我相信我们球队会打赢。

  (5)He is afraid of dying. 他怕要死了。(怕病好不了)

  (5)He is afraid to die. 他怕死。(怕死后的结果)

  10.24 名词化的动名词

  动名词既有名词的特征,又有动词的特征。但有些动名词却已完全为名词而没有动词的特征了,这种动名词被称做名词化的动名词(verbal)。试比较:

  (1)I like swimming in the sea. 我喜欢在大海中游泳。(swimming后有状语in the sea,为动名词)

  (2)How do you like swimming? 你喜欢游泳吗? (swimming在此意谓一种运动,为名词化的动名词)

  名词化的动名词与名词一样,可有冠词、定语限定或修饰;有的甚至具有复数形式。如:

  (3)The sinking of the Titanic has never been forgotten. 泰坦尼克号的沉没从未被遗忘。(前有定冠词the)

  (4)He made a living as a teacher before liberation. 解放前他以教书为生。(前有不定冠词a)

  (5)His acting is first-rate. 他的表演是第一流的。(前有定语his)

  (6)English has many borrowings from other languages. 英语有许多外来的词语。(有复数形式)

  英语里同一概念可由名词化的动名词或同源的名词来表达。但二者含义往往是有区别的。

  1)名词化的动名词的动作意味较名词更强。如:struggling—struggle 斗争,挣扎;negotiating—negotiation谈判;mentioning—mention提及;imaginating—imagination想像

  2)二者意义有时亦不相同。如:printing印刷—print印刷字体;paying付款—pay工资;ending结局—end结束;colouring着色—colour)颜色

  3)名词化的动名词表持续的动作,名词表一次性动作。如:running跑—a run跑一次;rowing划船—a row划一次;swimming游泳—a swim游一次;walking散步—a walk一次散步

  4)名词化的动名词表未完成的动作,名词表已完成的动作(即结果)。如:collecting收集—collection收藏品;working工作—work作品;composing作曲—composition乐曲;translating翻译—translation译作

  5)有些名词化的动名词没有复数形式,名词则有复数形式。如:crying—cries叫喊;shouting—shouts大声喊叫;laughing—laughs笑声;believing—beliefs信仰


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