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薄冰英语语法 第十一章 虚拟语气(1-8)

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  第十一章 虚拟语气

  11.1 语气的含义和种类

  语气(mood)是一种动词形式,用以表示说话的意图或态度。英语中的语气有三种:

  1)直接语气(indicative mood),表示所说的话是事实。如:

  (1)France lies on the windward side of Europe. 法国位于欧洲向风的一面。

  (2)The harsh weather last year was the result of turbulence in the upper atmosphere. 去年的恶劣气候是高空大气层的湍流造成的。

  2)祈使语气(imperative mood),表示所说的话是请求或命令。如:

  (3)Make yourself at home. 请随便,不要客气。(表请求)

  (4)Don’t be late. 不要迟到。(表命令)

  3)虚拟语气(subjective mood),表示所说的话只是一种主观的愿望、假想和建议等。如:

  (5)We only wish we could help. 我们但愿能提供帮助。(表愿望)

  (6)If there were no gravity, we should not be able to walk. 假若没有动力,我们就不能行走。(表假想)

  (7)He suggests that we should all go to see the film. 他建议我们都去看这个电影。(表建议)

  11.1 虚拟语气的形式

  虚拟语气的基本形式共有七种。

  1)动词原形,用于一切人称和数。如:

  (1)Long live the Communist Party of China! 中国共产党万岁!

  (2)If that be so, we shall take action at once. 如果情况是那样,我们就立即采取行动。

  2)动词的过去式,用于一切人称和数,be的过去式用were。如:

  (3)If you loved me, you wouldn’t say that. 假若你爱我,你就不会说这种话。

  (4)If I were in your shoes, I’d accept the terms. 假若我处在你的地位,我就会接受这些条件。

  3)had+过去分词,用于一切人称和数。如:

  (5)We would’ve called a cab if Harold hadn’t offered us a ride home. 假若哈罗德不说要驾车送我们回家,我们就会叫出租车。

  (6)If we had left earlier, we wouldn’t have missed the train. 假若我们早点起身的话,我们是不会错过火车的。

  4)时态助动词should+动词原形,用于一切人称和数。如:

  (7)They suggested that we should meet at the station. 他们建议我们在车站会面。

  (8)If you should see Celia, give her my best wishes. 假若你见到希莉娅的话,代我向她致以最好的祝愿。

  5)时态助动词should+have+过去分词,用于一切人称和数。如:

  (9)If the steamer should have left port at noon, it will be passing through the canal now. 轮船如果中午离港,它现在大概正穿过运河。

  (10)It is strange that she should have done it. 真奇怪,她竟会干出这种事来。

  动词原形。如:

  (11)If I were you, I should take his advice. 我如是你,就会听他的忠告。(美国英语常用would代替should)

  (12)He said he would go if I went. 他说我去他就去。

  7)时态助动词should(第一人称)和would(第二、三人称)+ have+过去分词。如:

  (13)If father hadn’t sent me, I shouldn’t have come. 如不是父亲派我来,我是不会来的。(美国英语常用would代替should)

  You wouldn’t have seen her if it hadn’t been for him. 如果不是他,你就不会见到她。

  [注]虚拟时态有不少与直陈语气的某些时态形式相同,但二者的内涵及其所表的时间皆不一样,切不可混淆。

  11.3 条件句的种类

  条件句有真实条件与非真实条件句两种。真实条件句所表的假设是可能发生或实现的,句中的条件从句与结果主句皆用直陈语气。如:

  (1)Oil floats if you pour it on water. 你如把油倒在水里,油就浮起来。

  (2)If I have enough money next year, I will go to Japan. 假若明年我有钱,我就去日本。

  非真实条件句所表的假设是不可能或不大可能发生或实现的,句中的条件从句与结果主句皆用虚拟语气。现将用于非真实条件句的虚拟时态列表如下:

  条件从句 结果主句

  与现在事实相反 If I (we, you, he, they) +动词过去式(be的过去式用were) I (we) should/you would/he would/they would+动词原形

  与过去事实相反 If I (we, you, he, they) + had+过去分词 I (we) should/you would/he would/they would+ have+过去分词

  与将来事实可能相反 If I (we, you, he, they) +动词过去式(be的过去式用were) I (we) should/you would/he would/they would+动词原形

  [注]美国英语的结果主句,不管什么人称,皆常用would。

  1)与现在事实相反的非真实条件句,条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式(be的过去式用were),结果主句的谓语用should(第一人称)或would(第二、三人称)+动词原形。如:

  (3)If we left now, we should arrive in good time. 假如我们现在就走的话,我们就会及时到达。

  (4)If I were you, I would refuse the money. 假如我是你的话,我就不会要那钱。(would代替了should)

  (5)Even if he had the money, he wouldn’t buy it. 他即使有钱也不会买它。

  2)与过去事实相反的非真实条件句,条件从句的谓语用had+过去分词,结果主句的谓语用should(第一人称)或would(第二、三人称)+ have+过去分词。如:

  (6)We would’ve dropped by if we had had time. 假若我们有时间的话,我们就会顺道拜访了。

  (7)I wouldn’t have known what these were for is I hadn’t been told. 假如别人不告诉我,我就不会知道这些东西是干什么的了。

  但虚拟式were也可表与过去事实相反。如:

  (8)If I were not busy, I would have come. 假如我不忙,我就会来了。

  表过去时间的假设亦可用虚拟式should have+过去分词,这种虚拟式所表的动作并非完全不可能发生,它只是表示一种偶然性,并常和直陈语气连用。但也可与虚拟语气连用。如:

  (9)You can imagine what would have happened to her if she should have told the truth. 你可以想像,如果她道出了真情,她的遭遇会如何。

  美国大众语常用would have+过去分词表示与过去事实相反的假设。如:

  (10)If this sleeplessness would have been allowed to go on, she would have collapsed. 这种失眠如果任其发展,她就会垮掉的。

  3)与将来事实可能相反的非真实条件句,条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式(be的过去式用were),结果主句的谓语用should(第一人称)或would(第二、三人称)+动词原形。如:

  (11)If you dropped the glass, it would break. 假如你把玻璃杯掉在地上,它会打碎的。

  (12)If you lived there for a while, you’d change your mind about that place. 假如你在那里住上一段时间,你就会改变对那地方的看法了。

  [注]如无上下文,下面句中的rained有歧义,可能是表与将来事实可能相反的虚拟语气,也可能是表过去习惯的直陈语气:If it rained we would stay indoors and read. 如果下雨,我们就待在家里看书。

  在与将来事实相反的条件句中,其条件从句的谓语亦可用were to+动词原形。这种虚拟时式比较正式,多用于书面语中,其假想性很强,实现性甚小。如:

  (13)If he were to come, what should we say to him? 假如他来了,我们对他说什么呢?

  在与将来事实相反的条件句中,其条件从句的谓语还可以用should+动词原形。这种形式并不强调意愿,只强调一种有偶然实现的可能性。如:

  (14)If he should see me, he would know me. 假如他看见我,就会认识我。

  这种形式往往有不为人所欢迎的含义。如:

  (15)If he should go away, I should be grieved. 他如离去,我就会感到悲伤。

  有时可用would代替should,以免与结果主句中的should重复。如:

  (16)If you would be interested, I should be very glad to send you a copy of my book. 你如感兴趣,我将高兴寄给你一册我的书。

  在这种条件句中,结果主句常用直陈语气或祈使语气。如:

  (17)If the train should be late, what will you do? 如果火车晚点了,你将怎么办?(结果主句用疑问句)

  (18)If we should fall in this, we are ruined. 我们这个计划如果失败,我们就倒霉了。(结果主句用直陈语气)

  (19)If you should meet Henry, tell him I want to see him. 假如你见着亨利,告诉他我要见他。(结果主句用祈使语气)

  关于过去式、should+动词原形与were to+动词原形这三种虚拟式的可能性孰大孰小的问题,语法家们认为它们的可能性虽都不大,但相比较,were to+动词原形的可能性最小,should+动词原形次之,过去式更次之。试比较:

  (20)If the ship left at noon, it would pass through the canal between 2 and 2:30 p.m. 这艘船如果中午启航,下午2时至2时半之间将穿过运河。(有可能,但不大)

  (21)If the ship should leave at noon, it would pass through the canal between 2 and 2:30 p.m. (可能性较上例小)

  (22)If the ship were to leave at noon, it would pass through the canal between 2 and 2:30 p.m. (可能性最小)

  [注]虚拟过去式有时并不表示“不大可能实现的假设”,而是表示一种希望或不希望发生的动作。如:

  ①If we caught the early train, we’d get there by lunch time. 假如我们赶上早班火车,到午饭时间我们就会到达那里了。(表希望)

  ②If we missed the train, we should have to wait an hour at the station. 假如我们赶不上这班火车,我们就得在车站等一小时。(表不希望)

  11.4 情态动词用于虚拟语气

  有不少情态动词也可用于虚拟语气。如:

  (1)It might help a little if only you would keep clean. 你只要愿意保持清洁,可能就会好一些。

  (2)If you left at ten, you should arrive in time. 你如十点动身,你就会及时到达。(should意味着可能)

  (3)I couldn’t be angry with him if I tried. 我即使想生他的气,也做不到。

  (4)If I hadn’t warned you, you could have been killed. 我如不是警告了你,你就可能丧命了。

  (5)If he were wise, he should have come to see me. 他如若聪明,就应该来见我。

  [注]在I should not take this medicine, if it would upset you.(如果此药使你感到不适,那我也不用它了)一句中,if从句之后省去了另一if从句,即if you took it,所以would在此是助动词,而不是情态动词。

  情态动词may(might)是一种特殊的虚拟语气,它可以用在从句中表目的、让步。如:

  (6)I must learn English well so that I may serve the people better. 我必须学好英语,以便更好地为人民服务。(非正式文体用can)

  (7)He died in order that others might be saved. 他为了拯救别人而死。(非正式文体用could)

  在让步从句中多用may。如:

  (8)We must observe the customs of the country, whatever they may be. 不论怎样,我们都必须遵守本国的习俗。

  (9)However hard it may rain, we shall have to go. 不论雨多大,我们都得走。

  may还可以用在独立句中表祝愿。如:

  (10)May you be happy! 愿你幸福!

  (11)Long may you live! 愿你长寿!

  11.5 连词if的省略

  在书面语中,条件从句可以不用连词if,而将谓语中的过去式were,had或should等移至主语之前。如:

  (1)Were you in my position, you would do the same. 假如你处在我的地位,你也会这样干的。

  (2)Had he been in your position, he’d probably have done the same. 假如我处在你的地位,他可能也会这样干的。

  (3)Should they attack us, we’ll wipe them out completely. 假如他们进攻我们,我们就把他们彻底消灭干净。

  (4)Had I time, I would come. 假如我有时间,我会来的。

  (5)I will go, should it be necessary. 假如有必要,我会去的。

  [注]在虚拟语态中,可移至主语之前的除were,had和should外,偶尔还有did和would,could等。如:

  ①There are other articles, to which, did time permit, we might draw attention. 还有其它一些文章,如时间允许,我们还可以提请注意。

  ②Would space allow, I should like to quote the notice in full. 如有篇幅,我会引用通知全文的。

  ③“Joyce!” and Joyce would have been astonished could she have heard his voice. “乔伊斯!”乔伊斯如听到他的叫声,她会吃惊的。

  11.6 条件从句与结果主句所表的时间不一致

  当条件从句与结果主句所表的时间不一致时,虚拟语气的形式应作相应的调整。如:

  (1)If I had spoken to him yesterday, I should know what to do now. 假如昨天我对他说了,现在我就知道该怎么办了。

  (2)You would be much better now if you had taken my advice. 假如你接受了我的意见,你现在就会好得多。

  (3)If father hadn’t sent me, I shouldn’t be here. 假如父亲没有叫我来,我现在就不会在这里。

  (4)If he knew this, it would have had to be by accident. 假如他已知道此事,那一定会是偶然的。

  如条件从句用if I were…,结果主句则可用表任何时间的虚拟形式。如:

  (5)If I were not busy, I would have come. 假如我不忙,我就会去了。(were表过去)

  (6)If I were you, I would go. 假如我是你,我会去的。(were表现在)

  11.7 含蓄条件句

  非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表出来,只暗含在上下文中,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句。含蓄条件句大体有三种情况。

  1)条件暗含在短语中。如:

  (1)What would I have done without you? 如没有你,我会怎么办呢?(条件暗含在介词短语without you中)

  (2)It would be easier to do it this way. 这样做会比较容易。(条件暗含在不定式短语to do it this way中)

  (3)This same thing, happening in wartime, would amount to disaster. 同样的事,如发生在战时,就会酿成大祸。(条件暗含在分词短语happening in wartime中)

  (4)But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the experiment. 如果没有你的帮助,我们的实验是不会成功的。(暗含条件是but for your help)

  (5)He must have the strength of a hippopotamus, or he never could have vanquished that great beast. 他一定是力大如河马,否则他绝不会击败那只庞大的野兽。(暗含条件是连词or)

  (6)Alone, he would have been terrified. 如是单独一人,他是会感到害怕的。(暗含条件是alone)

  2)条件暗含在上下文中。如:

  (7)You might stay here forever. 你可以永远待在这儿。(可能暗含if you wanted to)

  (8)We would have succeeded. 我们本来是会成功的。(可能暗含if we had kept trying)

  (9)Your reputation would be ruined. 你的名誉会败坏的。(可能暗含if you should accept it)

  (10)I would appreciate a little of your time. 谢谢你给我一点时间吧。(可能暗含if you were so kind as to give me a little of your time)

  3)在不少情况下,虚拟式已变成习惯说法,很难找出其暗含的条件。如:

  (11)You wouldn’t know. 你不会知道。

  (12)I would like to come. 我愿意来。

  (13)I wouldn’t have dreamed of it. 这是我做梦也不会想到的。

  (14)He told the story in such minute detail that he might himself have been an eye-witness. 他将那件事讲的非常仔细,简直就像是他亲眼看见一样。

  10.8 省去结果主句的非真实条件句

  非真实条件句如省去结果主句,则常表示一种不可能实现的愿望。这种条件句常用if only来引导。如:

  (1)If only you would listen to reason. 你如听从道理就好了。

  (2)If only he were here. 如果他在这儿就好了。

  (3)If I had never married. 我不结婚就好了。

  (4)If at least it had some artistic merit. 它起码应有些艺术性才好。

  (5)If only I could smash the ground with my fist and make the oil flow! 我真想用我的拳头从地里打出油来啊!


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