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薄冰英语语法 第十一章 虚拟语气(9-17)

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  11.9 不用if引导的条件从句

  非真实条件句的条件从句除用if引导外,还有when,unless,lest,suppose,as if,for fear,in case,on condition等词语来引导。如:

  (1)The peasants prepared to feed the city when it should be freed. 农民已准备在这座城市解放后供给粮食。

  (2)Lest you should not have heard all, I shall begin at the beginning. 我怕你没有听全,所以我再从头开始讲一遍。

  (3)Unless I were well, I wouldn’t be at school. 除非我好了,否则我不会上学。

  (4)Suppose you were giver a chance to study in America, would you accept? 假如给你一个到美国学习的机会,你会接受吗?

  (5)He can use the bicycle on condition that he should return it tomorrow. 如果明天能还回来,他就可以借用这辆自行车。

  (6)In case I forget, please remind me of my promise. 如果我忘了,请提醒我的诺言。

  (7)Susan is walking slowly as if she were tired. 苏珊走得很慢,就像是累了似的。

  [注]与if一样,上述词语所引导的条件从句亦可用直陈语气,表可能实现或发生的事。

  11.10 虚拟语气的其它用法

  虚拟语气除主要用于条件从句即状语从句外,还可用于主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、定语从句等。

  1)用于主语从句,其谓语用should+动词原形(或should+have+过去分词)或只用动词原形(尤其是美国英语)。should在此是助动词,本身并无实义。这种主语从句由连词that所引导,常用在it is (was) important (necessary,desirable,imperative,advisable) that…句型中。如:

  (1)It is important that we should speak politely. 我们说话要有礼貌,这是很重要的

  (2)It is imperative that we should practice criticism and self-criticism. 应当进行批评与自我批评。

  [注]这种句型中的主语从句亦可用直陈语气,如it is important that he made an explicit statement on this score last week (他上个星期对于这一方面做了明确的说明,这是很重要的)。

  这种主语从句中的should有时有感情色彩。如:

  (3)It is strange that he should have gone away without telling us. 真奇怪,他没有通知我们就走掉了。

  全句的表语亦可以是名词。如:

  (4)It is a pity that she should fare so badly. 她竟吃得那么差,真可怜。

  这种主语从句还常用在it is (was) desired (suggested,settled,proposed,requested,decided,etc.) that…句型中。如:

  (5)It is desired that this rule shall be brought to the attention of the staffs. 希望这条规则引起全体职员的注意。(shall在当代英语中已较少见)

  (6)It is settled that you leave us, then? 那么你离开我们已是定了的啰?

  2)用于宾语从句,一种是用作动词wish的宾语的从句,表示愿望,常省去连词that。这种从句的谓语动词可用过去式,表示与现在事实相反;亦可用过去完成式,表示与过去事实相反。如:

  (7)I wish I wasn’t going to Bristol. 我真希望不是去布里斯托尔。

  (8)We wish you had come to our New Year’s party. 我们真希望你来参加了我们的新年联欢会。

  宾语从句的谓语如是would+动词原形,则是一种常用的希求。如:

  (9)I wish you would stay a little longer. 我希望你再待一会儿。

  也可以用would rather,would sooner等表示愿望,但其宾语从句常用虚拟过去式。如:

  (10)I would rather you came tomorrow. 我宁愿你明天来。

  (11)I’d sooner she left the heavy end of the work to some one else. 我宁愿她把重活留给别人。

  另一种是谓语用should+动词原形或只用动词原形的that从句,作为demand,suggest,propose,order,arrange,insist,command,require,desire等动词的宾语。如:

  (12)He suggested that we should leave early. 他建议我们早点动身。

  (13)The detective insisted that he should have a look. 警探坚持要查看。

  (14)The judge ordered that the prisoner should be remanded. 法官命令被告还押。

  有些动词,如think,expect,believe,其否定式的宾语从句亦可用should+动词原形。如:

  (15)I never thought he should refuse. 我万没有想到他会拒绝。

  (16)She did not expect that you should come. 她没有预料你会来。

  还有一种是用作某些形容词或相当于形容词的过去分词的宾语的that从句,其谓语是should+动词原形或should+have+过去分词。如:

  (17)I was glad that he should go. 他走,我很高兴。

  (18)I’m ashamed you should have done such a thing. 我真感到羞耻,你竟会做这种事情。(省去that)

  3)用于表语从句,由that(可省去)所引导,其谓语是should+动词原形。句子主语常常是suggestion,proposal,idea,motion等名词。如:

  (19)My suggestion is that we should tell him. 我的建议是我们应该告诉他。

  (20)Our only request is that this should be settled as soon as possible. 我们惟一的请求就是尽快解决这个问题。

  虚拟语气也可以用于同位语从句。如:

  (21)There was s suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team. 有一项建议是布朗应该离队。

  4)用于定语从句,常用在it is time (that)…句型中。定语从句常用虚拟过去式。如:

  (22)It is time we left. 我们该走了。

  (23)It is time we went to bed. 我们该去睡觉了。

  虚拟时态亦可用在由关系代词引导的定语从句中。如:

  (24)A man might pass for insane who should see things as they are. 一个看到事物本来面目的人可能会被认为了疯子。

  11.11 动词原形用于正式文体

  动词原形作为虚拟时态皆用在正式文体中(非正式文体用直陈语气)。它在条件从句中所表的假设是可能实现的,所以其结果主句应用直陈语气。如:

  (1)This, if the news be true, is a very serious matter. 如果消息属实,这可是一桩非常严重的事情。

  (2)If the heart be malformed, the condition may be ascertained by the X-ray examination. 如果心脏呈畸形,这种情况即可用爱克斯光检查确定。

  动词原形也可用在目的与让步状语从句中。如:

  (3)Let us act and not shrink for fear our motives be misunderstood. 让我们行动起来,不要退缩,以免我们的动机遭到误解。

  (4)Let him say what he will, he cannot make matters worse. 不管他说什么,他也不会使事态变得更糟了。

  动词原形有时可置于主语之前。如:

  (5)All magnets behave the same, be they large or small. 磁铁不论大小,其性能都一样。

  (6)She’ll be sixteen years old, come May. 五月到来,她就16岁了。(come May=when May comes)

  虚拟式动词原形也可用在主语从句和宾语从句中。如:

  (7)It is necessary that every member inform himself of these rules. 每一个会员必须熟记这些规则。(用于主语从句)

  (8)The doctor insists that I give up smoking. 医生坚持要我戒烟。(用于宾语从句)

  [注] 虚拟式动词原形的否定式是not+动词原形。如:

  ①I would like to suggest newspaper reporters not write this kind of article any more. 我愿建议报纸记者不要再写这种文章了。

  虚拟式动词原形亦常用在独立句中,表愿望。如:

  (9)Long live the People’s Republic of China! 中华人民共和国万岁!

  (10)God bless you! 上帝保佑你!

  (11)God damn it! 该死的!

  (12)The devil take you! 见鬼去吧!

  (13)So be it then. 就那样吧。

  11.12 虚拟时态与谓语动词时态的关系

  从句中的虚拟时态往往不受全句谓语时态的影响。

  1)用于主语从句。试比较:

  (1)It is important that he should know about this. 他必须知道此事。

  (2)It was important that he should know about this. 他必须知道此事。

  2)用于宾语从句。试比较:

  (3)I suggest that we should go tomorrow. 我建议我们明天走。

  (4)I suggest that we should go the next day. 我建议我们第二天走。

  (5)She said, “If I were a boy I would join the army.” 她说,“我如是男孩,就参军。”

  (6)She said that if she were a boy, she would join the army.” 她说她如是男孩就参军。

  但强调现在时刻的虚拟式在间接引语中需要遵守时态一致的原则。试比较:

  (7)“If I knew how it worked, I could tell you what to do,” he said. “假如我知道它是如何运行的话,我就会告诉你该怎么办,”他说道。

  (8)He said that if he had known how it worked, he could have told me what to do. 他说假如他知道它是如何运行的话,他就会告诉我该怎么办。

  但如不强调时间性,间接引语中的虚拟时态仍不变。如:

  (9)“If I knew the answer to all your questions, I’d be a genius,” he said. “我如知道你所有问题的答案,我就是天才了,”他说道。

  (10)He said that if I knew the answer to all your questions, he’d be a genius. 他说他如知道我所有问题的答案,他就是天才了。

  但如果全句谓语是虚拟语气,其后从句的时态则多受其影响,现在时态应随之而变为过去时态。如:

  (11)I would think he was wrong. 我看他是错了。(须用was,试比较:I would think he is wrong)

  (12)It would seem that she was right. 她似乎是对的。(须用was,试比较:It would seem that she is right)

  11.13 虚拟式were与过去完成虚拟式的特殊用法

  虚拟式were常用在较老的或典雅的英语中。(表真实条件,当代英语则常用直陈语气)如:

  (1)The king dispatched his favourite courtier to see if she were really as charming as fame reported. 国王派他的宠臣来看她是否真地美如其名。

  (2)If it were so, it was a grievous fault. 如是这样,那可是一大过失。

  在较老的英语中,过去完成虚拟式可用作过去将来完成虚拟式。如:

  (3)I would give all my goods that t had never happened. 我愿倾我所有,如此事不会发生的话。(=might never have happened)

  在非正式文体中,过去完成虚拟式可表与现在事实相反的假设。在这种情况下,结果主句中的过去将来完成虚拟式也随之而实指现在时间。如:

  (4)If I had had the money I should have paid you. 我如有钱,就会付你的账。(= If I had the money I should pay you.)

  (5)I wish that poor Strickland had been still alive. I wonder what he would have said when I gave him twenty-nine thousand eight hundred francs for his picture. 我但愿可怜的斯特里克兰德现在还活着。我不知道当我付他29800法郎买下他的画时他会说些什么呢。(had been=were,请注意would have said也表现在,等于would say)

  这种表现在的过去完成虚拟式亦可用来表愿望。如:

  (6)I wish I had been rich enough to give you the money. 我但愿能付得起你这笔钱。

  11.14 was用作虚拟式

  在当代英语中,尤其在口语中,单数主语常用was代替虚拟式were。如:

  (1)If I was you, I would go. 我如是你,我就去。

  (2)If it wasn’t for me, you’d have taken the wrong path a long time ago. 如不是我,你早就走上邪路了。

  (3)I wish I was ten years younger. 我但愿年轻10岁。

  (4)I shall act by her as tenderly as if I was her own mother. 我将温存满怀地待她,就像她的生母一样。

  有时was发生的可能性大于were。如:

  (5)He looks as if he was ill. 他像是病了。

  [注]但在正式文体中仍须用were,如须说if I were in your position(假如我处于你的地位)。又,as it were与were it not for me中的were亦不可代以was。

  11.15 虚拟时态的进行式

  虚拟时态亦有进行式。如:

  (1)—You mean you didn’t hear? 你的意思是说你没有听见?

  —If I did, would I be asking? 我如听见,还会问吗?

  (2)—How about the tea-leaves? 那那茶叶哪?

  —You beggar, you might be going to die if you didn’t get it. 你这家伙,没有它你简直要死啦。

  (3)If we weren’t living in the twentieth century, I would think you were a sorcerer. 如果我们不是生活在20世纪的话,我准会认为你是一个男巫。

  (4)I suppose it’s almost time we were leaving. 我猜想我们差不多该走了。

  (5)Sometimes she would suggest I should be saving some of the money. 有时她会建议我应该省下点钱。

  11.16 语气的变换

  有时说话人会中途变换语气。如条件从句开始用虚拟语气(强调可能性不大),而结果主句却变为直陈语气(强调可能性大)。如:

  (1)Should there possibly be any such case, I have not seen it. 如果可能有这样的情况,我是没有见过的。

  (2)I am not bad looking if my skin were not so sallow. 我并不难看,如果我的皮肤不是灰黄的话。

  有时恰恰相反,条件从句用直陈语气(强调可能性大),结果主句中途变为虚拟语气(强调可能性不大)。如:

  (3)If he lost his health and lost his job we would all have starved. 假如他失去了健康,失去了工作,我们就都会挨饿。

  (4)I should hate and despise myself if I desert the brave fellow in his present extremity. 假如我抛弃了这位现在处于困境的勇士,我将痛恨和蔑视我自己。

  (5)When it rains you wouldn’t think it was the same place as on a fine day. 一下雨你就不会认为它与晴天时是同一个地方了。

  11.17 虚拟语气用作请求

  虚拟语气有时并不表示与事实相反的假设,而是表示委婉客气的请求。如:

  (1)If you were to help him, it would keep him safer. 你如肯帮他,他就会安全一些。

  (2)Our messages, both ways, will go through you. It would be best if you didn’t write them down, but carry them in your head. 来往的消息都将靠你传递。你最好是不要写下,而是要记在脑子里。

  (3)—Shall I call for you? 我来叫你好吗?

  —It would probably save time if we met downtown. You tell me where. 我们如在市区碰头倒会节省时间哩。你说在哪儿吧。

  这种表示请求的虚拟语气还可与祈使语气连用。如:

  (4)If you enjoyed this book, just send your name and address and ten dollars to us. 你如喜爱此书,将你的姓名、地址及10美元寄与我


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