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薄冰英语语法 第十二章 形容词 副词(15)

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  12.15 形容词、副词比较等级的其它用法

  形容词、副词的比较等级还有一些其它用法。

  1)原级的其它用法

  a)as(so)….as….结构前可以用just,almost,nearly,half等词表示程度。如:

  (1)She hasn’t been quite so unlucky as she pretends. 她并不很像她所装做的那样倒运。

  (2)He doesn’t dress half so strangely as Tom. 他的衣着的奇异远不及汤姆。

  (3)You’re sewing nearly as neatly as your mother. 你的针线活差不多和你母亲一样干净利落。

  b)注意下面句中as….as的用法:

  (4)She is as gifted as she is diligent. 她不但有天赋,而且勤奋。

  (5)The slogan is as easy to remember as it is hard to forget. 这个口号好记而且难忘。

  有时as从句中的主语和连系动词可省去。如:

  (6)Come as soon as possible. 尽快来吧。

  有些as….as结构则是现成说法,如as well as,as much as,as far as,as far back as,as good as,as long as,as soon as,as often as not等。

  c)as从句的省略结构,可以省去整个谓语部分,保留主语。如:

  (7)Is he as handsome as his brother? 他有他哥哥漂亮吗?

  (8)Does she dance as gracefully as her sister? 她的舞跳得有她姐姐优美吗?

  可以省去部分谓语部分,保留主语和be,have或助动词。如:

  (9)I have as many assignments as you have. 我的作业和你一样多。

  (10)Now hold your breath as long as you can. 现在你要尽量摒住呼吸。

  可以省去主语与谓语部分,只保留修饰语(多为状语)。如:

  (11)It’s as warm there as in Beijing. 那里的天气和北京一样暖和。

  (12)I told her I had never been in so many hotels in my life as since I came to Europe. 我对她说我一生中从没有像我到欧洲后住过这样多的旅馆。

  2)比较级的其它用法

  a)比较级前可用many,much,far,a little,a bit,slightly,a great(good) deal,a lot,completely等词语表示不定度量。如:

  (13)The sun is much bigger than the earth. 太阳比地球大得多。

  (14)The buildings look far uglier in London than here. 伦敦的建筑比这里难看得多。

  (15)They will come back a little later. 他们过一会儿就回来。

  (16)The sun is a lot bigger and brighter than the moon. 太阳比月亮大得多,亮得多。

  (17)I could not answer for my feelings for a week in advance, much less to the end of my life. 对我自己的感情我无法提前保证一个星期,更不用说保证到死了。

  b)比较级前可用any和no。如:

  (18)He was too tired to walk any further. 他太累了,走不动了。

  (19)—Have you any more? 你还有吗?

  —Oh, sorry, no more. 噢,对不起,没有了。

  (20)The train is no longer in sight. 列车再也看不见了。

  (21)No sooner had he left the house than it began to rain. 他刚离开家就开始下雨了。

  注意下面句子的结构及含义:

  (22)I don’t like smoking any more than you do. 我和你同样不喜欢吸烟。

  (23)I know no more Spanish than I know Greek. 我对西班牙语和希腊语同样不懂。

  c)no more(less) than与not more(less) than的含义不同,前者言其少(多),后者则只意谓“不多(少)于”。试比较:

  (24)I have no more than five yuan in my pocket. 我口袋里的钱只不过5元。(no more than等于“只不过”,言其少)

  (25)I have not more than five yuan in my pocket. 我口袋里的钱不多于5元。(not more than等于“不多于”,“至少”,无言其多或少的含义)

  (26)He is no less determined than you. 他的决心不亚于你。(no less determined than等于“决心不亚于”,言其大)

  (27)He is not less determined than you. 他的决心不比你小。(not less determined than等于“其决心不小于”,无言其大或小的含义)

  d)比较级前可用“数词+名词”构成的名词短语表示确定的度量。如:

  (28)He is two inches taller than his father. 他比他爸爸高两英寸。(或说He is taller than his father by two inches.)

  (29)She could not take a step further. 她一步也不能走了。(a在此等于one)

  e)比较级可与even,still,yet等副词连用表示“更加”。如:

  (30)In that small room he seemed even bigger than I remembered him. 在那个小房间里,他的块头似乎显得比我们所记得的更加大了。

  (31)We are working still harder now. 现在我们工作更加努力。

  (32)This is bad; that is yet worse. 这个坏,那个更坏。

  表示“因此而更加‥‥”则用“all,so much,none等+副词the+比较级+(表示原因的状语)”,这种结构之后不可再接than从句。如:

  (33)I walked around for two hours yesterday, and the doctor said I was none the worse for it. 昨天我转游了两小时,而大夫说我的病情并未因此而恶化。

  (34)His unkindness hurt me all the more because I had been previously so kind to him. 以前我曾经对他很好,因此他的不友好更加使我难过。

  在一定的上下文中,原因状语可省去。如:

  (35)If that is the case, all the better. 如果事实是那样,那就更好了。(if从句内含原因)

  (36)If you are able to come, so much the better. 如果你能来,那就更好了。(if从句内含原因)

  (37)I know there’s danger ahead, but I’m all the more set on driving forward. 我知道前面有危险,但我因此更加决心驱车向前。(前一分句内含原因)

  f)表语中比较两个形容词时,不管形容词有多少音节,皆须用more….than….结构,其意往往是….rather than….,可译为“是‥‥而不是‥‥”或颠倒词序译作“与其说是‥‥,不如说是‥‥”。如:

  (38)That little girl is more shy than timid. 那个小姑娘是害羞而不是胆怯。

  (39)She is more keen than wise. 她与其说是聪明,不如说是敏锐。

  上述表语结构中的形容词不可用-er和est,亦不可用than从句。但下面一类句子除外:

  (40)The room is longer than it is broad. 这个房间的长大于宽。

  (41)His hair was yet darker than it was grey. 他的黑发尚多于白发。

  [注]上述more….than….结构亦可用于名词、介词短语等。如:

  ①She is more mother than wife. 她是贤妻,更是良母。(亦可说She is more a mother than a wife.或She is more of a mother than a wife.)

  ②It’s more like blue than green. 它是绿的,但更像蓝的。

  上述more….than…. 亦可用于非表语结构。如:

  ③It’ll do you more harm than good. 它会对你害多益少。

  g)more than作为固定词组意谓“多于”,常用于数词(或相当于数词的词)之前。如:

  (42)More than 1000 people attended the meeting. 一千多人参加了会议。

  (43)Tomorrow, don’t make more than a few buns. 明天蒸少数几个馒头就行了。

  英语中的more than往往有“多得惊人”的含义。如无此含义,则应用over或在名词后用or more。如:

  (44)There are over ten people in the room. 房间里有十多个人。

  (45)There are ten chairs or more in the room. 房间里有十多把椅子。

  more than用于其它词语时则常意谓“不止”、“超过”等。如:

  (46)She is more than pretty. 她何止是漂亮。(不可用prettier代替more than pretty)

  (47)You are more than welcome! 非常欢迎你!

  (48)I more than saw it, I felt it too! 我不仅仅是看见了它,我都感觉到它了。

  和more than意义相反的有less than,worse than,little more than等。如:

  (49)He seemed less than overjoyed. 他似乎并不太高兴。

  (50)You’re worse than unfair. You’re mean. 你不止是不公正。你是卑鄙。

  (51)Employment statistics in that country amount to little more than best guess. 那个国家的就业统计和最好的猜测差不多。

  [注]类似的固定词组还有rather than,sooner than,other than,nothing more(less) than等。

  h)表示“越来越‥‥”用“比较级+and+比较级”结构或“more and more+原级”。这种结构不可后接than从句。如:

  (52)Things are getting better and better every day. 情况一天一天好起来。

  (53)He is becoming more and more active in sports. 他越来越积极参加体育运动。

  (54)As his work had become dominant, the rest had seemed to matter less and less. 由于他的工作占了主要地位,别的事似乎越来越无关紧要了。

  亦可用“ever等副词+比较级”表示“越来越‥‥”。如:

  (55)The road got ever worse until there was none at all. 道路越来越坏,直到最后连路也没有了。

  (56)He grew steadily more gaunt and yellow and ugly. 他越来越瘦、越黄、难越看。

  (57)Her position was becoming daily more insecure. 她的地位一天比一天不稳了。

  i)表示“越‥‥,就越‥‥”常用“副词the+比较级+副词the+比较级”结构。前者是状语从句,后者是主句。如:

  (58)The more, the better. 越多越好。

  (59)The more haste, the less speed. 欲速则不达。

  (60)The harder she worked, the more progress she made. 她工作越努力,进步越大。

  j)比较级用于否定结构可表“最‥‥不过”。如:

  (61)Nothing better! 那最好不过!

  (62)There’s nothing cheaper. 再便宜不过了。

  (63)I can’t agree with you more. 我再同意你不过了。

  (64)He couldn’t be worse. 他的情况再坏不过了。

  (65)He had never felt less like talking to anyone. 他从未如此不想和人谈话过。

  (66)This could give me no greater pleasure. 这使我再高兴不过了。

  [注]英语里的比较结构也常用来表示最高级。如:

  ①She sings better than anyone else in her class. 她在班里唱得最好。(=She sings best in her class.)

  ②abler and more active than anyone else I know. 他在我所认识的人中是最能干最富有活力的了。(= He’s the most able and active man I know.)

  k)英语里的比较级有时并无具体的比较含义,这种比较级叫做绝对比较级。如:

  younger generation 青年一代

  higher education 高等教育

  the lower classes 下层阶级

  the more complex problems of life 生活中的较为复杂的问题

  l)than从句的省略结构与as从句大致相同。它可以省去整个谓语部分,保留主语。如:

  (67)She is more highly regarded than he. 她比他受到更高的重视。

  (68)Does Peter wear his hair longer than Tom? 彼得留的头发比汤姆的长吗?

  (69)She eats less than a bird. 她的食量比小鸟还少。

  它可以省去部分谓语部分,保留主语和be,have或助动词。如:

  (70)John drove much more carefully than Tim did. 约翰开车比吉姆小心得多。

  (71)We all love ourselves more and hate ourselves less than we ought. 我们都对自己爱得过多,恨得过少。

  这种比较从句中的be,have或助动词可移到主语之前,进行倒装。如:

  (72)No leader of a party has kept himself in greater detachment from the sentiment of his than has the late Prime Minister. 任何政党的领袖都没有像已故首相那样不动感情。(助动词has移至主语the late Prime Minister之前)

  比较从句可以省去主要动词,保留其余部分。如:

  (73)Imperialism will not change its nature any more than a leopard will its spots. 帝国主义绝不会改变其本性,正如豹子绝不会改变其皮上的斑点一样。

  比较从句可以省去主语和部分谓语部分,保留宾语。如:

  (74)I love him more than her. 我爱他胜过爱她。

  (75)They love their liberties even more than their lives. 他们热爱自由胜过他们的生命。

  比较从句可以省去主语和部分谓语部分,保留修饰语。如:

  (76)It’s pleasanter traveling by day than by night. 白天旅行比夜晚旅行愉快。

  [注]注意习惯上用more than usual,而不是more than usually,如:Did you eat more than usual yesterday evening?(你昨晚吃得比平常多吗?)

  比较从句可以省去主语(或将than看作代词作主语用),保留谓语部分。如:

  (77)There is more in it than meets the eye. 它的内涵较表面要深。

  (78)Don’t eat more than is good for you. 不要吃得过量。

  (79)There may be more importance in it than would seem. 它的重要意义可能要比看上去大。

  [注]在He returned three days earlier than expected.(他回来比所预料的早三天)一句中,than expected=than he was expected。

  下面一些句子的than从句省去了宾语:

  (80)The box is bigger than I wanted. 这箱子比我想要的大。

  (81)She told me more than I cared to know. 她告诉我的比我想知道的多。

  在一些比较省略结构中,than之后可用动词不定式。如:

  (82)I know better than to mention it. 我才不会提它呢。

  (83)I cannot do better than to give you an idea of how I did it. 我只能告诉你我是怎么干的。

  (84)There was nothing he desired more than to see the matter ended. 他最希望不过的是看到这事的结束。

  [注]有些固定词组的than之后须接不带的to不定式。如:

  ①Sooner than yield he resolved to die. 他宁死不投降。

  ②I would rather stay than go. 我宁愿留下不愿去。

  3)最高级的其它用法

  a)最高级可被序数词以及much,by far,nearly,almost,by no means等词语所修饰。如:

  (85)The Yellow River is the second longest in China. 黄河是中国的第二大河。

  (86)Of the three boys Nick is much the cleverest. 这三个男孩中,尼克最最聪明。

  (87)Of the three boys Nick is almost the cleverest. 这三个男孩中,尼克差不多是最聪明的了。

  (88)Of the three boys Nick is by no means the cleverest. 这三个男孩中,尼克决不是最聪明的。

  b)形容词最高级用作表语强调事物品质时应省去定冠词。如:

  (89)This is where the river is deepest. 这是河流的最深处。

  (90)Put the picture where light is best. 把这张画挂在光线最亮处。

  如指事物,一般仍须用the。如:

  (91)This book is the most difficult that I have ever read. 这本书是我所读过的最难的一本书。(difficult后省去了one或book)

  c)如果形容词前的most=very,亦须省去定冠词the。这种无“最”含义的最高级叫做绝对最高级(不重读)。如:

  (92)It is a most useful book. 它是一本非常有用的书。

  (93)They are most useful books. 它们是一些非常有用的书。

  most作“非常”解时,不重读,但作“大多数”解时须重读。试比较:

  (94)Most reputable writers have now abandoned this claim. 一些非常可尊敬的作家现在已经放弃了这种主张。(most不重读,等于very)

  (95)‵Most reputable writers have now abandoned this claim. 大多数可尊敬的作家现在已经放弃了这种主张。(most重读,意谓“大多数”)

  “most+形容词”用作表语时,most如不重读,亦属绝对最高级;如重读,则意谓“最” 。试比较:

  (96)He was ‵most eloquent at the close of his speech. 他在他演讲的结尾最为雄辩。(

  most重读,等于“最”)

  (97)He was most eloquent at the close of his speech. 他在他演讲的结尾非常雄辩。(

  Most不重读,等于very)

  有时带the的形容词最高级亦是绝对最高级,意谓“极”。如:

  (98)We would like to help you with the greatest pleasure. 我们极其乐意帮助你。

  (99)Oh, he made the rudest remark! 啊,他说了极为粗野的话。

  下面一些现成说法中的绝对最高级省去了the:

  (100)I acknowledge, with sincerest thanks, your generous gift. 对你的慷慨的馈赠,我致以最衷心的谢意。

  (101)With best wishes, Yours… 致以最良好的祝愿,你的‥‥(信中结束语)

  在正式文体中,the有时亦被省去。如:

  (102)She had eyes of deepest blue. 她有一双最深蓝的眼睛。

  (103)Don’t follow the way of least resistance. 不要走最省力气的路。

  在“形容词最高级+of+名词(泛指)”的结构中,最高级亦表very,一般不重读。如:

  (104)He spoke in the softest of voices. 他说话声音非常柔和。

  (105)Everyone appeared to be in the best of health. 大家看起来都很健康。

  (106)We are the best of friends. 我们是最好的朋友。

  [注]上述结构中的名词不可有修饰语,否则最高级则变为相对最高级,意谓“最”。例如将上述例(106)改为We are the best of his friends. 其意则变为“我们是他的最好的朋友”。再如Table tennis is the most popular of sports in China.(乒乓球在中国最为盛行),由于sports有修饰语in China,而且the most popular在此亦是相对最高级,意谓“最盛行的”。

  d)注意下面句子结构中的of短语不可或不宜后移。如:

  (107)Of all the books I like this(the) best. 在所有的书中,我最喜欢这本。(但可说I like this(the) best of all.)

  (108)Of the many problems the biggest is how to curb the huge budget deficit. 许多难题之中,最大的就是如何减少庞大的预算赤字。

  e)最高级可以和物主代词连用表示最佳情况或状态。如:

  (109)I think he has done his best. 我认为他已经尽了最大努力。

  (110)Fragrant Hill is at its best in autumn when tinted leaves of maple trees everywhere greet the eye. 秋天是香山最美的时节;那时,红叶到处呈现在游人的眼前。

  f)最高级在非正式文体中可表示二者的比较。如:

  (111)This is the shortest of the two roads. 这是两条路中最短的一条路。

  (112)I have two children: my oldest son is 17 years of age. 我有两个孩子,大的17岁。

  g)最高级有时有“即使”的含义。如:

  (113)There is no smallest doubt. 毫无疑问。

  (114)The slightest neglect would cause a great loss. 即使最小的疏忽也会造成很大的损失。

  4)英语里表示比较等级的手段还有:

  a)用equal(ly),same,enough等表示as….as….。如:

  (115)No one’s fingers are equally long. 没有一个人的手指是一样长。

  (116)They are the same age. 他们同龄。

  (117)It’s clear enough. 够清晰了。(It’s as clear as is necessary.)

  b)用拉丁比较级superior,inferior,senior,junior,prior,major,minor等表示比较级。如:

  (118)This carpet is far superior to that one in quality. 这条地毯的质量远胜过那一条。(后一般须接to)

  (119)Jones is senior to Smith. 琼斯比史密斯资格老。(后须接to)

  (120)He is having a major operation. 他正在接受一次大的手术。

  [注]注意下列词组中的拉丁比较级都是绝对比较级(无比较含义):senior citizens 老人;superior quality 优质;a minor point 不重要之点

  c)“too+原级”和“原级+for短语”也可表示比较级。如:

  (121)It’s too long. 它太长了。(= It’s longer than is necessary.)

  (122)He is tall for his age. 对他那样的年纪来说,他是长得高的。(=teller than normal)

  有时单用原级亦可表比较级。如:

  (123)You are five minutes late. 你晚了五分钟。(late=too late)


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