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薄冰英语语法 第十三章 介词 连词 感叹词(1-7)

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  第十三章 介词 连词 感叹词

  一、介词

  13.1 介词的定义和用法

  介词(preposition)又叫做前置词,一般置于名词之前。它是一种虚词,一般不重读,在句中不单独作任何句子成分,只表示其后的名词或相当于名词的词语与其它句子成分的关系。

  介词后面的名词或相当于名词的词语叫做介词宾语。可作介词宾语的词语通常有:

  1)名词或名词性从句,如:

  (1)He lives near the institute. 他住在学院附近。

  (2)This will give you some idea of what relativity means. 这会给你一些关于相对论意义的概念。

  2)代词,如:

  (3)I am angry with him. 我生他的气。

  3)动名词或动名词短语,如:

  (4)I have an idea for solving this problem. 我有一个解决这个问题的想法。

  4)不定式(只限于介词but和except),如:

  (5)I could do nothing but just sit there and hope. 我除了坐等别无它法。

  (6)I can do nothing for them except to send them money. 我除了给他们寄钱以外,什么也不能帮他们。

  5)数词,如:

  (7)Four from seven leaves three. 7减4余3。

  6)形容词,如:

  (8)I know it from old. 我早就知道它。

  7)副词,如:

  (9)I can’t stay for long. 我不能久待。

  英语介词往往相当于汉语的动词。如:

  (10)The policeman helped the old woman across the street. 警察帮助老大娘过马路。(介词across等于“过”)

  (11)Are you for it or against it? 你赞成还是反对?(介词for等于“赞成”,介词against等于“反对”)

  13.2 介词的种类

  介词可按其构成分为:

  1)简单介词(simple preposition),即单一介词,如at,in,of,since等。

  2)复合介词(compound preposition),由两个介词组成,如as for,as to,into,out of等。

  3)二重介词(double preposition),由两个介词搭配而成,但没有复合介词那样固定,如from under,from behind,until after,expect in等。

  4)短语介词(phrasal preposition),由短语构成,如according to,because of,in spite of,on behalf of,with reference to等。

  5)分词介词(participle preposition),由现在分词构成,如regarding,concerning,including等。

  介词还可按其词义分为下列常见的几种:

  1)表地点(包括动向),如about,above,after,along,among,at, before,behind,below,beneath,beside,between,beyond,by,down,from,in,into,off,on,over,through,throughout,to,under,up,upon,with,within,without等。

  [注]有不少表地点的介词表动向,除很明显的across,around,near,towards外,还有among,behind,beneath,between,on,to,under等。

  2)表时间,如about,after,around,as,at,before,behind,between,by,during,for,from,in,into,of,on,over,past,since,through,throughout,till(until),to,towards,within等。

  3)表除去,如besides,but,except等。

  4)表比较,如as,like,above,over等。

  5)表反对,如against,with等。

  6)表原因、目的,如for,with,from等。

  7)表结果,如to,with,without等。

  8)表手段、方式,如by,in,with等。

  9)表所属,如of,with等。

  10)表条件,如on,without,considering等。

  11)表让步,如despite,in spite of,notwithstanding等。

  12)表关于,如about,concerning,regarding,with regard to,as for,as to等。

  13)表对于,如to,for,over,at,with等。

  14)表根据,如on,according to等。

  15)表其它,如for(赞成),without(没有)等。

  13.3 介词短语及其功用

  介词和介词宾语一起构成介词短语(prepositional phrase)。介词短语在句中可作为:

  1)主语,如:

  (1)That day between three and four thousand shells passed over our heads. 那一天,有三千到四千发炮弹从我们头上飞过。

  (2)From Beijing to Tianjin is two hours by train. 从北京到天津坐火车需要二小时。

  2)表语,如:

  (3)She looks like an actress. 她像演员。

  (4)Mr. and Mrs. Smith are from New York. 史密斯夫妇是纽约人。

  [注]以前人们多把He is in the house.中的is看作行为动词(=exists),而把in the house看作状语。现在人们多把is看作连系动词,从而把in the house看作表语。

  3)宾语,如:

  (5)I’ll give you until tomorrow. 我给你限期到明天。

  (6)The eight thieves served a sentence of between 2 and 7 years. 8个盗窃犯服刑二到七年。

  4)定语,如:

  (7)The end of colonialism is now a question of time. 殖民主义的结束现在已是一个时间问题了。

  (8)A friend in need is a friend indeed. 患难见真知。

  5)状语,如:

  (9)Albert has so much work to do that he is staying late at the office. 艾伯特工作很多,现在在办公室加班呢。

  (10)Dona covered her face with her hand as if swooning. 多娜用手捂着脸,好像要昏过去。

  (11)Lombard dropped to his knees and peeped through the keyhole. 隆巴德跪在地上,从锁孔往里窥视。

  (12)Notwithstanding the bad weather, the ship arriver on schedule. 尽管天气很坏,该船仍按时抵达。

  6)补语,如:

  (13)As a scientist, he was dedicated to the truth. 作为一个科学家,他献身于追求真理。(主语补语)

  (14)They found themselves in a dark wood. 他们不觉走入一座黑沉沉的树林。(宾语补语)

  13.4 介词兼作副词和连词

  有一些介词可兼作副词,这种介词亦可称作小品词(particle)。试比较:

  (1)My mother is in the house. 我母亲在屋里。(介词)

  (2)Is there anybody in? 里面有人吗?(副词)

  (3)The programme was broadcast over the radio. 这个节目是通过电台广(介词)

  (4)The programme is over. 这个节目播完了。(副词)

  请注意下面两句中的与介词形式相同的副词:

  (5)He turned over the page. 他翻过书页。(over在此是副词,与turned组成短语动词)

  (6)I’ve put on weight. 我体重增加了。(on在此是副词,与put组成短语动词)

  请注意下面两句中的与副词形式相同的介词:

  (7)The boat moved slowly down the river. 那船沿河缓缓而下。(down在此是介词)

  (8)He climbed up the tree. 他爬上了树。(up在此是介词)

  还有少数介词可以兼作连词,如after,before,since,till(until)等。如:

  (9)The ball goes up very high after it hits the ground. 这球着地后蹦得很高。

  (10)It will not be long before they come back. 他们不久就回来。

  (11)I can’t make you out. You’re so changed since last we met. 我认不得你了。自上次见面后,你可变多了。

  (12)Will you be all right until I get back? 在我回来之前你会一切都好吗?

  13.5 介词与其它词类的搭配

  由于英语名词的格的形态变化逐渐减少,因而介词与名词及其它词类的搭配关系也愈加重要。这种搭配,有许多已变成习惯,需要一一牢记。

  1)与名词的搭配,有的与后面的名词搭配。如:at home 在家;by the door 在门口;in the city 在城里;at three o’clock 在3点钟;on Sunday 在星期日;during the night 在夜里;till next week 到下周为止;in 1921 在1921年;over the weekend 整个周末;with care 小心地;for good 永久地;past hope 已无希望;across the country 全国;in excitement 激动地

  有的与前面的名词搭配,如:acquaintances with 与‥‥相识;attention to 对‥‥注意;contribution to 对‥‥贡献;desire for 对‥‥愿望;devotion to 献身于;independence of 独立于;equality with与‥‥平等;interest in 对‥‥感兴趣;love for 对‥‥的热爱;objection to 对‥‥反对;offence against 冒犯‥‥;outlook on 对‥‥眺望;persistence in 坚持‥‥;popularity with 为‥‥所欢迎;similarity with 与‥‥类似;sympathy with 对‥‥同情

  2)与动词的搭配。如:account for 说明;aim at 针对;amount to 合计;begin with 从‥‥开始;cooperate with 与‥‥合作;depart from 离开;die of 死于;indulge in 耽于;interest oneself in 感兴趣于;lead to 导致;listen to 听;meddle with 乱动;object to 反对;offend against冒犯;persist in 坚持;play with 玩弄;refer to 归于;specialize in 专攻;sympathize with同情

  3 )与形容词搭配。如:absent from 不在(某处);afraid of 害怕;averse to 不喜欢;clever at 擅长;equal to 与‥‥平等;faithful to 对‥‥忠实;famous for 以‥‥著称;full of 充满;guilty of 犯(罪)等;hostile to 对‥‥有敌意;independent of 独立于;indulgent in 耽于;interested in 感兴趣于;keen on 喜爱;opposite to 与‥‥对面;partial to 偏爱;popular with 受‥‥的欢迎;similar to 与‥‥类似;sympathetic with 对‥‥同情

  注意:

  1) 词根或词源相同的名词、动词和形容词多共用一个介词,如:

  indulge/indulgence/indulgent (in) 耽于

  sympathy/sympathize/sympathetic (with) 同情

  objection/object (to) 反对

  popularity/popular (with) 受欢迎

  但也有例外,如:

  equal to / equality with 与‥‥平等

  married to / marriage with 与‥‥结婚

  2)一个名词、动词或形容词往往可以和一个以上的介词搭配。其意义有所不同,如look for与look at;compare with与compare to;feel sympathy for somebody与have no sympathy with someone’s foolish opinions等。但有时区别并不大,如friendly with (或to),popular with (或among),originate in (或from)等。现在就连die of与die from的区别也似乎不甚明显了。

  13.6 介词的后置

  前已说过,介词一般须放在名词之前,但在下列情况下,则常后置(常在全句或分句或从句之末):

  1)介词宾语为疑问词时。如:

  (1)What are you talking about? 你们在谈什么?

  (2)Where are you from? 你是哪里人?

  (3)What for? 为什么?

  在间接疑问句和感叹句中介词亦可后置。如:

  (4)I don’t know what you are talking about. 我不知道你们在谈什么??(间接疑问句)

  (5)What a jolly mess I am in! 我所处的局面多么糟啊!(感叹句)

  2)介词宾语为关系代词或缩合连接代词时。如:

  (6)Do you remember the book which the teacher referred us to? 你记得老师叫我们看的那本书吗?

  (7)That’s what he is talking about? 那就是他所谈的事。

  [注]在正式文体中,介词亦可放在疑问词、关系代词、连接代词之前。如:

  ①With whom did you go? 你同谁一道去?

  ②This is the book from which I got the story. 这就是我从中读到这个故事的那本书。

  ③From what I hear, he is a good swimmer. 我听说,他是个优秀的游泳运动员。(from what I hear是一固定词组,from须置于what之前)

  3)在其它情况下。如:

  (8)“There’s nothing to be afraid of,” Mother said. “没有什么可怕的,”妈妈说道。

  (9)It is a fact that here I could not find one garbage can to throw trash in. 确实,我在这里连一个倒垃圾的垃圾桶都找不到。

  (10)We helped the troupe avoid the kind of trouble it had met with elsewhere. 我们帮助这个剧团避免了它在别处遇到过的那种麻烦。(介词with在此并不位于句末)

  (11)I will try to get it over with as quickly as possible. 我一定尽快地把它结束。(to get it over with是一固定说法)

  13.7 介词的省略

  现代英语在某些情况下看来一种省略介词的趋势。

  1)省去as,如:

  (1)I consider him an expert. 我认为他是一位专家,(him之后省去as,现在一般认为不应用as)

  2)省去at,如:

  (2)What time did you arrive home? 你什么时候到家的?(what前省去at)

  (3)It is hard work keeping the grass green this time of year. 一年中这个时节保持绿草不枯,要费很大气力。(this time前省去at)

  3)省去by,如:

  (4)I sent the letter airmail. 我将此信由航空寄出。(airmail前省去by)

  (5)I want to go economy. 我要节约。(economy前省去by)

  4)省去from,如:

  (6)Illness prevented him going. 疾病使他未能成行。(going前省去from)

  (7)Can’t you stop the child getting into mischief? 你就不能使孩子不淘气?(getting前省去from)

  5)省去in,如:

  (8)I had started a schoolboy diary the same year I entered the Latin School, in 1928. 我作为学生记日记是我于1928年进入拉丁学校时开始的。(the same year前省去in)

  (9)They have recruited few new barbers the past three years. 在过去三年中,他们很少补充新理发师。(the past three years前省去in)

  有些动名词之前常省去in,如:

  (10)I have been some time answering this question. 我想了一些时候才回答这个问题。(answering前省去in)

  (11)He showed his appreciation for her assistance helping him practice English. 他对她帮他练习英语表示感谢。(helping前省去in)

  6)省去of,如:

  (12)The Pacific Ocean is so big that it could hold twenty countries the size of the United States. 太平洋很大,它可以装得下20个美国那样大的国家。(the size前省去of)

  (13)What colour is it? 它是什么颜色?(what前省去of)

  (14)He plunged out the doors. 他冲出门口。(美国英语out=out of)

  6)省去on,如:

  (15)The police arrested him on an assault charge the evening of November 18. 警察于11月18日以殴打罪逮捕了他。(the evening前省去on)

  (16)He meant to go hunting. 他意欲打猎。(hunting前省去on。现今也有语法空认为go是连系动词,hunting是表语)

  7)省去to,如:

  (17)He never failed to show the traditional respect due Prof. Lin. 他对林教授一向按照传统尊崇备至。(due后省去to)

  (18)The reception accorded the book has been very gratifying. 这本书受到欢迎是非常可喜的事。(accorded后省去to)

  9)在列举一系列名词时,介词可省去,以免重复,如:

  (19)When you’re lying without moving, you suddenly get an itch on the shoulder, the head, the back. 当你躲着一动不动时,你会突然感到肩上、头上、背上一陈搔痒。

  但在下面句子中由于强调介词of,故须重复:

  (20)He was guilty of vanity, of several meannesses. 他有虚荣心,干过好几桩卑劣的事。

  下面一句中连词and前后的介词不同,故一般皆不可省略:

  (21)Dr. Sun has agreed to be an adviser to and member of the board of the college. 孙博士同意担任这所学院的顾问和董事。

  [注]在某些现成说法中,介词的宾词亦可省略。如:

  ①Have you put the kettle on? 你把水壶放在炉子上了吗?(介词on后省去the fire)

  ②When do you go off? 你什么时候休息?(介词off后省去duty)


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