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薄冰英语语法 第十三章 介词 连词 感叹词(8-10)

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  二、连词

  13.8 连词的定义和种类

  连词(conjunction)是连接单词、短语、从句、分句或句子的一种虚词,在句中不单独作句子成分,一般不重读。

  连词按其构成可分为:

  1)简单连词(simple conjunction),如and,or,but,if,because等。

  2)关联连词(correlative conjunction),如both….and….,not only….but also….等。

  3)分词连词(participial conjunction),如supposing,considering,provided等。

  4)短语连词(phrasal conjunction),如as if,as long as,in order that等。

  连词按其性质又可分为:

  1)等立连词(coordinative conjunction),这种连词是用以连接并列的单词、短语、从句或分句的,如and,or,but,for等。

  2)从属连词(subordinative conjunction),这种连词是用以引导名词性从句和状语从句的。前者如that,whether等,后者如when,although,because等。

  [注[英语里有些连接副词的性质与等立连词相似。常用的连接副词有besides,hence,however,meanwhile,moreover,still,then,therefore,thus等。

  13.9 连词的用法

  1)等立连词(包括连接副词)用法举例:

  (1)Time and tide wait for no man. 岁月不待人。

  (2)The fur coat was soft, also warm. 这件皮大衣很轻,也很暧。(亦可用and also)

  (3)We have received your telegram as well as your letter of 20th May. 我们不仅接到了你的5月20日的信,也接到了你的电报。

  (4)The car was almost new; besides, it was in excellent condition. 那汽车几乎是新的,另外,其机器性能极好。

  (5)Both the wheat and the barley will be shipped tomorrow. 小麦和大麦明天都要装船运走。

  (6)The car was quite old but in excellent condition. 那部车相当旧了,但机器性能还非常好。

  (7)She is very hard-working indeed, but then she always has been, hasn’t she? 她确实非常刻苦,但话又说回来,她一向如此,不是吗?

  (8)Mr. Jennings, either we manage this case, or you manage it. 詹宁斯先生,要么我们处理这个案件,要么你处理。

  (9)He decided to leave at dawn, for he had many miles to cover. 他决定黎明启程,因为他要走许多英里。

  (10)The coach was not on good terms with any of the players, hence team morale was rather low. 教练与运动员的关系都不好,所以全队的士气相当低。

  (11)He knew what he wanted; however he didn’t know how to get it. 他知道他需要什么;但是他不知道怎样去得到它。

  (12)He will be back in ten minutes. In the meantime let’s wait outside. 他过10分钟就回来。此时我们就在外面等着吧。

  (13)He moved steadily, looking neither left nor right. 他从容地走着,既不左顾也不右盼。

  (14)The pan had certain weaknesses, nevertheless we decided to adopt it. 这个计划有某些缺点,不过我们还是决定采纳。

  (15)The children were tired and cross, nor were their parents in a much better humour. 孩子们厌烦、乖戾,父母的心绪也不甚好。

  (16)It was not only unkind but also untrue. 它不仅不仁慈,而且不实在。

  (17)“On the one hand I don’t like this job, but on the other hand I can’t get a better one,” said the young man. “我一方面不喜欢这个工作,但另一方面,我又找不到更好的工作,”那青年说道。(on the one hand可省去不用)

  (18)She’d like to go only he promised not to. 她想去,只要他保证不去。

  (19)Be quick, or it may be too late. 快点,不然就会迟到。

  (20)Hurry up, or else you’ll miss the last bus. 快点,不然你就赶不上末班车了。

  (21)You must work hard; otherwise you will not learn English well. 你必须用功,否则就学不好英语。

  (22)The rain began to fall, so we went home. 开始下起雨来,于是我们回家了。

  (23)There seemed no chance of coming to an agreement; therefore it was decided to break off negotiations. 似乎已没有达成协议的可能,因此决定中止谈判。

  (24)Some people like strong tobacco, whereas others don’t. 有些人喜欢抽烈性烟,而有些人则不喜欢。

  (25)They are the same, yet not the same. 它们又一样,又不一样。(连词yet常用以连接两个相互矛盾的方面,but则不一定)

  2)从属连词用法举例:

  (26)The novel became even more popular after it was made into a movie. 这部小说在拍成电影后更加受欢迎了。

  (27)He knows English perfectly though he has never been to England. 他通晓英语,虽然他从没有到过英国。

  (28)As he predicted, the wind changed. 正如他预料的,风向变了。(as在此意谓“如同”)

  (29)As winter approached, the days became shorter. 冬天到来后白昼变短了。(as在此意谓“当‥‥时“)

  (30)As I have not read the book, I cannot tell you anything about it. 因为我没有读过这本书,所以关于它我不能对你说什么。(as在此意谓“因为“)

  (31)I’ll do it as you told me. 我就照你的意思办。(as在此意谓“按照”)

  (32)Sick as he was, he came to work. 虽然他病了,但仍来上班。(as在此意谓“虽然“)

  (33)As far as I am concerned, I know nothing about it. 就我来说,对这件事一无所知。

  (34)He stopped there as if he were petrified with terror. 他停在那里,似乎被吓呆了。

  (35)You may take my dictionary as long as you don’t keep it too long. 只要使用时间不太长,你可以把我的词典拿去。

  (36)As soon as he stops talking, let’s go get some coffee. 等他话音一停,咱们就去弄点咖啡。

  (37)I took this road because the policeman told me do. 我走这条路是因为警察叫我走的。

  (38)How can you leave before the film is over? 电影还没有散场,你怎么能离开呢?

  (39)By the time he got there, everyone else had arrived. 他到那里时,别人已都到了。

  (40)I’ll finish it ever if it takes me all night. 即使熬一个通宵我也要把这件事干完。

  (41)Every time my father comes to Beijing, he goes to visit the Monument to the People’s Heroes with respect. 我父亲每次来北京,总要去敬谒人民英雄纪念碑。

  (42)Bill would have come if he’d known you were here. 如果比尔知道你在这里,他就会来了。

  (43)In case you see him, ask him about it. 如果你见着他,问问他这件事。

  (44)The invitations were sent out early in order that the delegates might arrive in time for the conference. 邀请书发出得很早,以便让代表们及时到会。

  (45)He packed the instruments very carefully lest they should be broken during transportation. 他把仪器小心包装好,以免在运输中破损。

  (46)That is wrong, no matter who says it. 不管是谁说的,那就是错误的。

  (47)Now you are here, you’d better stay. 既然来了,你就待着吧。

  (48)You must return once he has given you the money. 他一给你钱,你就必须回来。

  (49)I haven’t run into Mike once since classes began. 开课以后我一次也没有碰见麦克。

  (50)I’ll wash the dress so that you can wear it. 我把这件衣服洗了,你好穿上。

  (51)He is cleverer than us all. 他比我们大家都聪明。

  (52)I strongly believe that he is innocent. 我坚信他是无辜的。

  (53)They set off half an hour earlier that they might get there in time. 他们早出发半小时,以便及时到达那里。

  (54)The moment the speaker appeared on the platform., we all stood up and clapped warmly. 主讲人一出现在讲台,我们就都起立,热烈鼓掌。

  (55)Until Mary leaves, we’d better not discuss it. 在玛丽离开之前,我们最好不讨论这件事。

  (56)I refuse to do it unless you help. 你如不协助,我是不干的。

  (57)May I borrow that novel when Donna finishes it? 等唐娜看完这本小说后,我可以借吗?

  (58)Whether we go or whether we stay, the result is the same. 我们是去还是留,结果都一样。

  (59)He stood quite silent while she appealed to him. 当她向他求助时,他站着一声不吭。

  三、感叹词

  13.10 感叹词的定义

  感叹词(interjection)是用以表示喜怒哀乐等感情或情绪的词。它没有一定的实义,所以也是一种虚词,不能在句中构成任何句子成分。但它与全句有关连,故亦可当作独立成分看待。如:

  (1)Oh, it’s you. 啊,是你。

  感叹词后可用逗号,语气较强时亦可用惊叹号。如:

  (2)Heavens! How dull you are! 天哪!你真笨!

  13.11 常用感叹词的用法

  常用感叹词有:

  ah/α:/表惊奇、高兴、同意等,如:

  (1)Ah! You are both of you good-natured. 啊!你们俩都是好脾气。

  aha/α:′hα:/表得意、高兴等,如:

  (2)Aha! Now I understand! 啊哈!现在我明白了!

  alas/ə′lα:s/表痛苦、焦急等,如:

  (3)Alas! The white house was empty and there was a bill in the window. 啊呀!那白房子空了,窗子上有出租广告。

  bravo/′brα: ′vəu/表欢呼鼓劲,如:

  (4)Bravo! We’ve won the finals. 好样的!我们决赛胜了。

  o/əu/表惊奇、恐惧、痛苦、高兴等,如:

  (5)O for a camera! 啊,有一架照相机该多好!(后一般不用逗号或感叹号)

  oh/əu/(同上)(后须接逗号或感叹号)

  (6)Oh, what a lie! 啊,多大的诺言!

  bah/bα:/表鄙视,如:

  (7)Bah! What a mess! 啐!多糟啊!

  fie/fai/表轻蔑,如:

  (8)Fie upon you! 去你的!

  hurrah/hu′rα:/表欢呼,如:

  (9)Hurrah! We’re going to have an extra day’s holiday. 乌拉!我们要多放一天假啰。(亦可拼作hurray,hoorah,hooray)

  感叹词多置于句前,如上述诸例。但也可置于句中或句末,如:

  (10)Help arrived, alas! Too late. 啊!援助来得太晚了。(置于句中)

  (11)You’re reading the newspaper, eh? 你在看报呢,呃!(置于句末,后常用问号)

  表示各种感情的常用感叹词除上列举的以外,还有bosh(胡说),ha ha(哈哈),heigh-ho(嗨嗬),hem(哼),hey(嗨),hum(哼),pish(呸),pooh-pooh(呸呸),pshaw(哼),so(就这样),tush(啐),tut-tut(喷),ugh(咄),wow(哇)等。


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