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薄冰英语语法 第十四章 句子(11-12)

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  14.11 状语

  状语(adverbial)是修饰动词、形容词、副词以及全句的句子成分。如:

  (1)The girl is improving remarkably. 这个女孩大有进步。(副词remarkably用作状语,修饰动词短语is improving)

  (2)The girl is remarkably beautiful. 这个姑娘非常美。(副词remarkably用作状语,修饰形容词beautiful)

  (3)The girl is improving remarkably fast. 这个女孩进步得很快。(副词remarkably用作状语,修饰副词fast)

  (4)Unfortunately, the message never arrived. 不幸,通知从未到达。(副词unfortunately用作状语,修饰全句)

  状语亦可修饰短语和从句。如:

  (5)He has traveled entirely around the world. 他周游了全世界。(副词entirely用作状语,修饰短语around the world)

  (6)I did it only because I felt it to be my duty. 我做此事仅仅因为我觉得它是我的责任。(only修饰because引导的从句)

  状语虽是一种修饰语,但有时在基本结构中却是必须的,否则基本结构的意义就不会完整。如:

  (7)He lived in London. 他住在伦敦。

  (8)The chrysalis slowly turned into a butterfly. 那蛹慢慢地变成了蝴蝶。

  (9)It costs too much. 它太贵了。

  可用作状语的有副词、名词、代词、数词、形容词、不定式、分词、介词短语、从句等。

  1)副词最常用作状语,位置比较灵活,可置于句末、句首和句中。如:

  (10)He speaks the language badly but reads it well. 这种语言,他讲得不好,但阅读力很强。(置于句末)

  (11)Naturally we expect hotel guests to lock their doors. 当然我们期望旅馆的旅客把房门锁上。(置于句首)

  (12)If I remember rightly, we turn left now. 我如记得不错,我们现在该左转弯了。(置于从句之末)

  (13)He has always lived in that house. 他一向住在那栋房子里,(置于句中,位于助动词与主要动词之前)

  (14)I couldn’t very well refuse to go. 我不大好拒绝去。(位于句中)

  副词用作状语修饰形容词和其它副词时,一般皆前置。如:

  (15)The kitchen is reasonably clean. 厨房还算干净。(副词用作状语修饰形容词)

  (16)He did the work fairly well. 那份工作他做得还算好。(副词用作状语修饰另一副词)

  但副词enough用作状语时须后置。如:

  (17)Is the room big enough for a party? 这个房间容得下一个晚会吗?(副词enough后置,修饰形容词)

  (18)He didn’t run quickly enough to catch the bus. 他跑得不够快,没有赶上那部公共汽车。(后置,修饰副词)

  2)名词用作状语,多置于句末。如:

  (19)Wait a moment. 等一会儿。

  (20)They walked single file. 他们单行走。

  (21)The Party teaches us to serve the people heart and soul. 党教导我们要全心全意为人民服务。

  有些名词在一些固定词组中用作状语,置于所修饰的词之前。如:

  pitch-black 漆黑的

  bottle feed 喂婴儿以瓶奶

  day-dream 做白日梦

  ice-cold 冰冷的

  showroom new 崭新的

  3)一些指示代词、不定代词可以用作状语,多置于其所修饰的词语之前。如:

  (22)I can’t eat that much. 我可吃不了那么多。

  (23)We have walked this far without stopping. 我们不停地走了这么远。

  (24)We’ll buy it if it’s any good. 如它真好,我们就买。

  (25)My coffee is none too hot. 我的咖啡不很热。

  (26)There were some thirty people there. 那里大约有30人。

  (27)Can you move along a little? 你可以往前挪一挪吗?(a little后置)

  4)数词有时亦可用作状语,多置于动词之后。如:

  (28)I hate riding two on a bike. 我不喜欢两个人骑一辆自行车。

  (29)He wouldn’t sit thirteen to dinner. 他不愿意在宴会上坐第13个座位。

  (30)Ten to one, he will come tomorrow. 十有八九他明天会来。(比例用作句子状语,置于句首)

  5)某些形容词有时可以用作状语,多置于另一形容词之前。如:

  devilish cold 极冷

  tight-fitting 紧贴身的

  new-born 新生的

  white hot 白热化的

  dead tired 累极

  nice and fast 快得很

  6)不定式用作状语,多置于句末,强调时亦可置于。如:

  (31)At the top we stopped to look at the view. 到了顶上,我们停了下来眺望景色。

  (32)You have only to ask to get it. 你只要请求即可得到它。

  (33)To kill bugs, spray the area regularly. 为了杀死臭虫,这地方要经常喷洒。(`为了强调置于句首)

  7)分词用作状语,多置于句首与句末,有时也置于句中。如:

  (34)Arriving at the station, we learned that the train had already gone. 到了车站,我们获悉火车已开走了。

  (35)I began to get the shakes just thinking about the test. 我一想到考试,就心惊胆战。

  (36)This thing, happening at the right time, has helped our cause. 此事发生的时机适宜,故有助我们的事业。

  8)介词短语用作状语,多置于句末和句首,但有时亦可置于句中。如:

  (37)I’ve been feeling slightly ill for a week. 我感到稍有不适已经一个星期了。

  (38)At the moment he’s out of work. 他目前没有工作。

  (39)At the end of the film, I was in tears. 看到影片的末尾时,我流泪了。(两个介词短语最好分开,一个置于句首,一个置于句末)

  (40)Where on earth is it? 它到底在哪儿呀?

  9)从句用作状语,多置于句末或句首。如:

  (41)We chatted as we walked along. 我们边走边聊。

  (42)Even of she laughs at him, he adores her. 尽管她嘲笑他,他还是很喜欢她。

  状语按其修饰关系共有两大类:一是一般状语,修饰句中的动词、形容词、副词等句子成分;另一类是修饰或说明或连接句子的句子状语。

  第一类状语为数最多。按其用途,它又可分为时间、地点、方面、原因、结果、目的、条件、让步、程度、方式、伴随情况等11种。

  1)时间状语,多位于句末和句首,有时亦可置于句中。如:

  (43)Shall we do the shopping today or tomorrow? 我们是今天还是明天出去买东西呀?(置于句末)

  (44)After taking my name and address, he asked me a lot of questions. 他把我的姓名和住址记下后,还问了我许多问题。(置于句首)

  (45)In cotton China now leads the world. 在棉花产量方面中国现在在世界上是领先的。(置于句中)

  注意时间状语一般不可置于谓语与宾语之间。

  有些表示不定频度的时间副词,如always,usually,often,frequently,sometimes,occasionally,seldom,等,用作状语时,常置于句中。如:

  (46)I will always remember her. 我将对她永志不忘。(置于助动词与主要动词之间)

  (47)I always stay in bed late on Sunday. 星期天我常睡懒觉。(置于谓语动词之前)

  (48)George is always late for school. 乔治上学总是迟到。(置于连系动词与表语之间)

  (49)He usually leaves before eight o’clock. 他通常于8时前离家。(置于谓语动词之前)

  (50)Such places are seldom visited. 这种地方很少有人来旅游。(置于被动语态之中)

  [注]频度副词大都不仅可置于句中,亦可置于句末与句首。句首的语气最强,句末次之,句中的语气最弱。如:

  ①We go there often. 我们常到那里来。(句末)

  ②He often sees us. 他常来看我们。(句中)

  ③Very often he come in late. 他常常迟到。(句首)

  一个以上的时间状语并列使用时,一般来说,最小的时间单位在前,后接较大的时间单位,最大的时间单位应放在最后。如:

  (51)They reached home at five o’clock in the evening. 他们于傍晚5时到家。

  (52)We’ll discuss the matter during lunch tomorrow. 我们将于明日午餐时讨论这件事。

  (53)He’ll be staying here for the summer every year. 他将于每年夏天住在这里。

  [注]但在口语中可说tomorrow at eight(明天8点)或tonight at nine(今晚9点)等。

  2)地点状语,多置于句末,有时也位于句首和句中。如:

  (54)There are plenty of fish in the sea. 海里有许多鱼。(置于句末)

  (55)She kissed her mother on the platform. 她在月台上吻了她的母亲。(置于句末)

  (56)There she goes, driving too fast as usual. 她走了,车还是开得太快。(置于句首)

  (57)Signs were everywhere numerous. 到处有许多招牌。(置于句中)

  地点状语除表位置外,亦表出发、去向、距离等。如:

  (58)Do you speak from experience? 你这是经验之谈?

  (59)Are you going to the station? 你去火车站吗?

  (60)He went on driving for hundreds of miles. 他继续驾驶汽车走了数百哩。

  和并列的时间状语一样,并列的地点状语也应将小的地点放在前面,将大的地点放在后面。如:

  (61)The books lie on the table in the library. 那些书都放在图书馆的那张桌子上。

  (62)The meeting will be held in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing in China. 会议将在中国北京人民大会堂举行。

  当地点状语与时间状语并列时,一般应将地点状语置于时间状语之前。如:

  (63)At the airport last night two events took place. 昨晚飞机场发生了两件事。

  (64)I stayed there for three weeks last year. 去年我在那里待了三个星期。

  有时由于种种原因,亦可将地点状语置于时间状语之后。如:

  (65)Millions of books are printed every day in China. 中国每日都出版成百万册的书籍。(由于强调地点状语)

  (66)Several agreements were signed yesterday in Beijing’s Great Hall of the People. 昨天在北京的人民大会堂签订了好几项协定。(由于地点状语较长)

  有时为了避免句子头重脚轻,可将时间状语称至句首。如:

  (67)The whole morning he was working with his shears in the garden. 整个上午他都在花园里做修剪工作。

  3)方面状语,多置于句末和句首。如:

  (68)He is quick in action. 他行动敏捷。

  (69)Are you sure about the arrival time? 你肯定知道到站的时间吗?

  (70)So far as I am concerned, you can do what you like. 就我而论,你可以自行其是。

  (71)With respect to your requests, we regret that we are not able to assist you in this matter. 关于你的请求,我们很遗憾,不能在此事上给你帮助。

  4)原因状语,包括表理由的状语,多置于句末,有时亦可置于句首。如:

  (72)She did it out of curiosity. 她做此事是出于好奇。

  (73)For reasons of health he was unable to finish the book. 由于健康的原因,他未能写完成这部书。

  (74)I eat potatoes because I like them. 我吃土豆是因为我喜欢它。

  (75)Because he was ill, Tom lost his job. 汤姆由于生病而失去了工作。

  5)结果状语,多由不定式、分词和从句表示,常位于句末。如:

  (76)She woke suddenly to find someone standing in the doorway. 她醒来,突然发现一个人站在门口。

  (77)For a long time, China has lacked adequate forests, causing many catastrophes. 长期以来,中国都缺乏充足的树林,造成许多灾难。

  (78)She spoke so softly that I couldn’t hear what she said. 她说得声音很轻,我没有能够听到她说些什么。

  6)目的状语,多由不定式、介词短词和从句等表示,常位于句末,强调时亦可置于句首。如:

  (79)He ran for shelter. 他跑去避雨。

  (80)Did you come to London for the purpose of seeing your family? 你来伦敦就是为了看你的家人吗?

  (81)In order to get into a good school, I must study even harder. 为了考入一个好的学校,我必须更加用功。

  (82)The young girl to please the king accepted the knight. 那少女为了讨国王的欢心接受了那骑士的求爱。

  7)条件状语,多由短语和从句表示,常置于句末和句首。如:

  (83)We’ll be lucky to get there before dark. 我们如能在天黑以前到达那里就很幸运了。

  (84)I wouldn’t have been there except for him. 如不是他,我是不会去那儿的。

  (85)Turning to the right, you will find the place you are looking for. 向右拐,你就会找到你要找的地方。

  (86)If he were to come, what should we say to him? 如若他来,我们将对他说什么呢?

  8)让步状语,常由短语和从句表示,可置于句末和句首。如:

  (87)They played cricket in spite of the rain. 他们冒雨打板球。

  (88)Despite the difficulties, they finished the job. 尽管困难重重,他们还是把工作完成了。

  (89)For all his money, he didn’t seem happy. 他尽管有钱,但似乎并不幸福。

  (90)He helped me although he didn’t know me. 他虽然并不认识我,但却帮助了我。

  9)程度状语,常由副词、介词短语及从句等表示。单词多置于其所修饰的句子成分之前或之后,短语和从句一般皆置于其所修饰的句子成分之后,但有时亦可置于其所修饰的句子成分之前。如:

  (91)The lecture was not very interesting. 这次讲课不很有趣。(very一般只可置于其所修饰的句子成分之前)

  (92)Oddly enough, we didn’t meet, although we were both there. 真怪,我们没有碰面,虽然我们都去了那里。(enough用作状语时置于其所修饰的句子成分之后)

  (93)To what extent would you trust them? 对他们的信任度如何?

  (94)At that time politicians were not known to the degree that they are today. 那时政治家们并不像今天这样为人所知晓。

  (95)He’s remarkably sure of himself, to that extent he remains very much the old Slote. 他很有信心,就此而论,他还很像往日的斯洛特。

  10)方式状语,常由副词、短语、从句等表示。多位于句末,亦可置于句首或句中。方式状语表示方式,亦可表示手段、比较、使用工具以及施事等。如:

  (96)She looked at him concernedly. 她关切地看着他。

  (97)Reluctantly she climbed to the top of the stone staircase. 她勉强地爬到石阶的顶上。

  (98)She listened attentively to the lecture. 她注意地听讲。

  (99)Don’t look at me like that! 不要那样看人!

  (100)He smiled in an encouraging way. 他微笑着以示鼓励。

  (101)He died a glorious death fighting the bandits for us. 他为了我们打匪徒而光荣牺牲。

  (102)He worked carefully, as an expert works. 他干得很谨慎,就像一个专家一样。

  (103)You look as if you need a rest. 你看来好像需要休息。

  11)伴随情况状语,常由短语和独立主格等表示,多位于句末和句首。如:

  (104)Besides its being of no use to you, it is worse than of no use to me. 它除对你无用外,对我更是比无用还要糟。

  (105)My train starts at six, arriving at Chicago at ten. 我的火车6时出发,10时将到达芝加哥。

  (106)He stood there, pipe in mouth. 他站在那里,嘴里衔着烟斗。

  (107)“What are you waiting for?” Henry said, his impatience rising. “你还在等什么?”亨利说道,他不耐烦了。

  从上面的例句看,状语有三种位置:句末、句首与句中,句末一般为最常见的状语位置。在同一句中,如有一个以上的状语并列出现,总的来说,单词应在前,依次是名词短语、介词短语、非限定动词短语,最后是状语从句。如:

  (108)The woman went weekly to church. 那女人每周都去做礼拜。(单词在介词短语之前)

  (109)Having conducted 8500 experiments over eight years, Meng went on that year to turn out an effective fireproof paint. 八年来试验了8500次,这年孟仍继续干,创造也有特效的防火漆。(名词短语后接不定式短语)

  (110)An underground group claimed responsibility yesterday for the abduction of an American citizen, bringing to six the number of Americans held hostage in Lebanon. 昨天一个地下组织说他们劫持了一个美国公民,这样就使在黎巴嫩的美国人质增加到六个。(名词在前,依次是介词短语和现在分词短语)

  (111)Sally got the whiskey from it for him before he went off. 萨利在他走掉之前从柜子里拿出威士忌酒给他。(两个介词短语后接一个状语从句)

  有时为了避免笨重,单词、短语和从句可分开放置。如:

  (112)“I have never seen so many people in the streets. We can safely talk about millions,” he added. “我从未看见过街上有这么多人,我们可以有把握地说要以百万计,”他补充说道。

  如从语义来看,状语的一般顺序应是方面状语在前,依次为方式状语、地方状语、时间状语、原因、结果、目的等状语。如:

  (113)He went hastily away. 他匆匆而去。(方式状语位于地点状语之前)

  (114)I stayed thee for three weeks. 我在那里待了三个星期。(地点状语位于时间状语之前)

  (115)She had lived in poverty for thirty years. 她在贫困中生活了30年。(方式状语位于时间状语之前)

  (116)She kept writing letters feverishly in her study all afternoon. 她在书房里兴奋地写了一下午信。(方式状语在前,依次是地点状语和时间状语)

  (117)He said that she was arrested under security legislation for contravening a restriction order. 他说她是由于违反了限制行动的命令根据安全法被捕的。(方式状语后接原因状语)

  (118)He is one of 50 workers sent by Beijing’ Lido Hotel to Tibet to train local staff. 北京丽都饭店派往西藏工人50名,以给当地培训职工,他是其中之一。(方式状语在前,后接地点状语,最后是目的状语)

  句子状语是修饰或连接句子的状语。这类状语又可分为两种:一种是说明或评说全句的,另一种是用以连接句子的。

  说明或评说性句子状语多放在句首或句中:有时也可以放在句末,但其前多有逗号。如:

  (119)Frankly, I don’t like it. 坦白地说,我不喜欢它。(亦可说I don’t like it, frankly。但如说She admitted it frankly,其意则是:她坦率地承认了这一点)

  (120)Of course I remember you. 我当当然记得你。(也可以说I remember you, of course.)

  (121)Can you simply show us and not try to explain it? 你可以只给我们看看而不必进行解说吗?

  (122)You’re just talking nonsense, Oliver. 你全是在胡说,奥利弗。

  (123)I don’t want the money, confidentially. 作为机密,我不要这笔钱。

  前面提到的表示不定频度的副词,如置于谓语动词(或主要动词)或表语之前,也常用作句子状语。

  表否定的副词not,never,hardly,seldom等,如放在谓语(或主要动词)或表语之前,亦是这一种句子状语,如:

  (124)You mustn’t smoke. 你可不要吸烟。(not所否定的不单是must,而是全句)

  (125)She is never angry. 她从不生气。

  (126)I hardly know him. 我几乎不认识他。(试比较:Hardly anyone likes him.几乎没有什么人喜欢他。)

  (127)He seldom comes late. 他很少迟到。

  但需要强调助动词和连系动词时,则须将句子状语放在它们之前。如:

  (128)I really must go. 我真的必须走。(强调助动词must)

  (129)I always am careful. 我总是小心的。(强调连系动词am)

  [注]上述句子状语一般亦须置于句子或从句末的助动词和连系动词之前。如:

  ①—Must you go today? 你今天必须走吗?

  —Yes, I really must. 是的,我确实必须走。

  ②That’s where she usually is at this time of day. 每天这时她通常都在那里

  疑问句中的疑问词被强调时,其后可用句子状语ever,on earth,in the world等。如:

  (130)Who ever is that man? 那个人究竟是谁?

  (131)Why on earth are you studying Latin? 你究竟为什么学拉丁语呢?

  (132)What in the world has happened? 到底出了什么事?

  表示愤怒时疑问词后可用the devil,the hell等句子状语。如:

  (133)What the devil are you doing? 你究竟在干什么?

  (134)What the hell do you want? 你到底要干吗?

  连接句子状语一般皆置于句首,如:

  (135)He was too ill to stay. Accordingly we sent him home. 他病重不能久留,于是我们把他送回了家。

  (136)Thus we see that plants need light. 因此我们看到植物需要光。

  (137)Mrs. Brown came, likewise Mrs. Smith. 布朗太太来了,史密斯太太也来了。

  (138)My brother was taught to read by my mother, and similarly, so was I. 我的兄弟识字是母亲教的,同样,我也是。

  (139)Incidentally, where were you last night? 顺便问一下,你昨晚在哪儿啦?

  (140)I don’t want to go skating; moreover, the ice is too thin. 我不想去溜冰,再说冰也太薄。

  (141)He said he was certain. However, he was wrong. 他说他肯定。然而他错了。

  (142)The book is not a masterpiece—still, I like it. 这本书不是杰作,但我仍然喜欢它。

  (143)In that case some one else will come. 如是这样,会有别人来的。

  (144)At any rate he can not be as old as that. 不管怎样,他不可能有那么大年纪。

  (145)You think me rich, but on the contrary I am very poor. 你以为我有钱,但恰恰相反,我是很穷的。

  (146)She says we could use her car, and what’s more, she’ll pay for the petrol. 她说我们可以用她的车,而且她还愿付汽油费。

  [注]有些连接句子的副词已变为连词,如than,therefore,hence,nevertheless等。

  14.12 独立成分

  与全句没有语法关系的句子成分叫做句子的独立成分(independent element)。可用作独立成分的通常有三种词语,即感叹语、呼语和插入语。

  1)感叹语,多置于句首,有的亦可置于句中或句末。如:

  (1)Oh, John, will you come into my room, please? 噢,约翰,请你到我房间里来好吗?

  (2)There, there! Don’t cry. 好啦,好啦,别哭啦。

  (3)Why, the cage is empty! 啊唷,鸟笼是空的!

  (4)Help arrived, alas, too late. 哎呀,援助来晚了。(alas亦可置于句末)

  (5)You’re joking, eh? 你是开玩笑,是吧?

  2)呼语,可置于句首、句末或句中。如:

  (6)John, you are wanted on the phone. 约翰,有你的电话。

  (7)Comrades, may I have your attention, please? 同志们,请注意。

  (8)Good-bye, everybody! 大伙儿再见!

  3)插入语指插在句中的词语。如:

  (9)The peasant woman receives nothing, since whatever she earns is the property—as she herself if —of the husband who has bought her as his wife. 农民妇女一无所得,因为她所挣得的——像她本人一样——都归将她买来做妻子的丈夫。

  (10)The writer tells us that the war lasted from 939(sic) to 1945! 那位作者(竟然)告诉我们说这次战争从939年(确实如此说的)延续到1945年!

  (11)Business, he reflected, appeared as brisk as ever. 他地想,生意似乎一直很兴隆。(he reflected亦可看作是句子状语)


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