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薄冰英语语法 第十六章 句子的类型(1-7)

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第十六章 句子的类型

16.1 简单句的结构

简单句(simple sentence)有“主语+谓语”、 “主语+谓语+主语补语”、“主语+谓语+宾语”、 “主语+谓语+宾语+宾语”、“主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补语”等五种基本结构。其它各种句子基本上皆由此五种句型缩略或扩展而成。

1)“主语+谓语” 句型可简称为主谓结构(SV),谓语是不及物动词。如:

(1)Day broke. 天亮了。

(2)Things change. 事物是变化的。

2)“主语+谓语+主语补语”句型可简称为主谓补结构(SVC)。如:

(3)He died young. 他年轻是就死了。

(4)John was cast as Hamlet. 约翰扮演哈姆雷特。

“主语+连系动词+表语“句型(SLP)实质上也是一种主、谓、主补结构。如:

(5)He and I are pretty good swimmers. 他和我都游泳游得不错。

(6)The doctors seemed very capable. 这些大夫好像都很能干。

3)“主语+谓语+宾语” 句型可简称为主、谓、宾结构(SVO),其谓语一般皆是及物动词,其宾语多是直接宾语。如:

(7)Robbie didn’t deny the facts. 罗比不否认这些事实。

(8)She heard whisperings. 她听到了一阵沙沙声。

4)“主语+谓语+宾语+宾语” 句型可简称为主谓宾宾结构(SVOO),其谓语须是可有双宾语的及物动词,即所谓的与格动词(dative verb),两个宾语多一是间接宾语,一是直接宾语。如:

(9)We gave the baby a bath. 我们给婴孩洗了个澡。

(10)Judith paid me a visit. 朱迪思来看望了我。

有时可有两个直接宾语。如:

(11)He asked her question. 他问了她一个问题。

5)“主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补语” 句型可简称为主、谓、宾、宾补结构(SVOC),其谓语须是可有这种复合宾语的及物动词,宾语补语与宾语一起构成复合宾语。如:

(12)I found this book easy. 我发现此书不难。(形容词easy用作宾语补语)

(13)They held him hostage. 他们将他扣作人质。(名词hostage用作宾语补语)

(14)He watched the maid come in. 他看着女佣人进来了。

(15)I heard him coming up the stairs slowly, as if he were carrying something heavy. 我听见他慢慢上楼来,好像扛着什么重的东西。

16.2 并列句的结构

并列句(compound sentence)由两个或两个以上的简单句并列而成。常见的并列句结构是:简单句+等立连词+简单句。这种简单句常被叫做分句。等立连词之前可用逗号,也可不用逗号。如:

(1)They were happy and they deserved their happiness. 他们是幸福的,他们也该得到幸福。(等立连词是and)

(2)The signal was given, and the steamer moved slowly from the dock. 信号发出了,轮船缓缓驶出码头。(等立连词是and,前有逗号)

(3)Hurry or you won’t make the train. 赶快,不然你赶不上火车。(等立连词是or)

(4)Honey is sweet, but the bee stings. 蜜是甜的,但蜜蜂却会蜇人。(等立连词是but)

有时亦可不用,只用逗号、分号、冒号等把分句隔开。如:

(5)He is cruel, he is lustful, he is immensely cunning. 他残忍,他好色,他非常狡猾。(用逗号连接)

(6)Heavy clouds rose slowly from the horizon; thunder drummed in the distance. 浓云从地平线缓缓升起,远处雷声隆隆。(用分号连接)

(7)He knocked at the door again and again: there was no answer. 他一再敲门,但无人应门。(用冒号连接,表结果)

两个或两个以上的简单句的关系如不很紧密,等立连词可引导单独一个句子。如:

(8)You’re alive! And she’s dead. 你活着!而她却死了。(等立连词and引导单独句子)

(9)I’m sorry to trouble you. But can you direct me to the nearest post office? 对不起打扰一下。你可以告诉我最近的邮局在哪儿吗?(等立连词but引导单独句子)

并列句的分句亦可用连接副词连接。如:

(10)I had a drink, then I went home. 我喝了杯酒,然后回到了家。(连接副词是then)

(11)It rained, therefore the game was called off. 由于有雨,因而那场球赛取消了。(连接副词是therefore)

(12)He was angry, nevertheless he listened to me. 他生气了,但听我的话。(连接副词是nevertheless)

(13)I want to go to the party—however, I have no transport. 我想去参加聚会,但我没有交通工具。(连接副词是however)

(14)I have only an old car; still it is better than nothing. 我只有一辆旧车,但也比没有好。(连接副词是still)

(15)I am busy today, so can you come tomorrow? 我今日很忙,那你能明天来吗?(连接副词是so)

16.3 复合句的结构

复合句(complex sentence)由一个主句(principal clause)和一个或一上以上的从句(subordinate clause)构成。主句是全句的主体,往往可以独立存在;而从句仅是全句的一个句子成分,故不能独立存在。如:

(1)We met where the road crossed. 我们是在十字路口遇见的。(we met是主句,where the road crossed是从句)

(2)I forgot to post the letter which I wrote yesterday. 我忘了把昨天写好的信投邮了。(I forgot to post the letter是主句,which I wrote yesterday是从句)

从句虽不能单独成句,但它也有主语部分和谓语部分。从句须由关联词(connective)引导。

引导从句的关联词共有七种:

1)从属连词:有whether,when,although,because,if等。

(3)He will get the letter tomorrow if you send it off now. 如果你现在就把信发出,他明天就会收到。

(4)I don’t know whether he will be able to come. 我不知道他明天是否能来。

2)疑问代词:who,whom,whose,which,what。如:

(5)Who he is doesn’t concern me. 他是谁与我无关。

(6)I don’t know what you mean. 我不知道你是什么意思。

3)疑问副词:when,where,why,how。如:

(7)I asked how he was getting on. 我问他近况如何。

(8)I can’t understand why he was so late. 我不明白他为什么来得这么晚。

4)关系代词:who,whom,whose,which,that。如:

(9)Nobody who understands the subject would say such a thing. 懂得这一行的人是不会说这种话的。

(10)Water that is impure often causes serious illness. 水不洁常会引起重病。

5)关系副词:when,where,why。如:

(11)July and August are the months when the weather is hot. 七八月是天气很热的月份。

(12)She would like to live in a country where it never snows.她喜欢住在不下雪的地区。

6)缩合连接代词:what,whatever,who,whoever,that,whichever。如:

(13)Show me what you have written. 把你所写的东西给我看看。

(14)Whoever does wrong is punished in the end. 恶有恶报。

7)缩合连接副词:whenever,where,wherever,however。如:

(15)Whenever he goes out, he always takes his umbrella. 他每逢出门总是带伞。

(16)Sit wherever you like. 你爱坐哪儿都成。

从句分主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句、定语从句和状语从句六类。由于主语从句、表语从句和宾语从句在句中的功用相当于名词,故这三种从句以统称为名词性从句。名词性从句所用的关联词大抵相同,而且其前一般不用逗号。

[注]还有一种比较复杂的并列句,叫做并列复合句。并列复合句的分句有一个或多个为复合句。如:

①The policeman looked at me suspiciously, and he asked me what I wanted. 那警察用怀疑的眼光看着我,并问我要干什么。

②While the men worked to strengthen the dam, the rain continued to fall; and the river, which was already well above its normal level, rose higher and higher. 当人们正在加固河堤的时候,雨还在不停地下,已经远远超过正常水位的河水涨得越来越高了。

16.4 主语从句

用作主语的从句叫做主语从句(subject clause)。引导主语从句的关联词有从属连词、疑问代词、疑问副词、缩合连接代词、缩合连接副词等。如:

(1)That they were in truth sisters was clear from the facial resemblance between them. 很明显,她们确是亲姐妹,她们的脸型很相似。(关联词是从属连词that)

(2)What she did is not yet known. 你干了什么尚不清楚。(关联词是疑问代词what)

(3)How this happened is not clear to anyone. 这事怎样发生的,谁也不清楚。(关联词是疑问副词how)

(4)Whoever comes is welcome. 不论谁来都欢迎。(关联词是缩合连接代词whoever)

(5)Wherever you are is my home—my only home. 你所在的任何地方就是我的家——我惟一的家。(关联词是缩合连接副词wherever)

有时可用引词it作为形式主语,将真实主语主语从句置于句末。如:

(6)It is not known yet whether they will come today. 他们今天是否会来还不知道。

(7)It is strange that he had made a mistake. 真怪,他竟做错了。

全句如是被动结构,也常用引词it作形式主语。如:

(8)It is said that he’s got married. 听说他结婚了。

(9)Is it probable that it will rain today? 今天会下雨吗?

全句如是感叹句,则必须用引词it作形式主语。如:

(10)How strange it is that the children are so quiet! 真奇怪,孩子们竟如此安静!

16.5 表语从句

用作表语的从句叫做表语从句(predicative clause)。引导表语从句的关联词有疑问代词、疑问副词、缩合连接代词、从属连词等。如:

(1)The problem is who we can get to replace her. 问题是我们能找到谁去替换她呢。(关联词是疑问代词who)

(2)The question is how he did it. 问题是他是如何做此事的。(关联词是疑问副词how)

(3)That was what she did this morning on reaching the attic. 那就是她今晨上了阁楼干的。(关联词是缩合连接代词what)

(4)He looked just as he had looked ten years before. 他看起来还与十年前一样。(关联词是从属连词as)

从属连词that有时亦可引导表语从句,如:

(5)The trouble is that I have lost his address. 麻烦是我把他的地址丢了。

从属连词whether有时亦可引导表语从句,如:

(6)The question is whether they will be able to help us. 问题是他们是否能帮我们。

[注] 从属连词if一般不用来引导表语从句,但as if却可引导表语从句,如All this was over twenty years ago, but it’s as if it was only yesterday.(这都是20多年前的事了,但宛如昨天一样。)。

16.6 宾语从句

用作宾语的从句叫做宾语从句(object clause)。引导宾语从句的关联词有从属连词、疑问代词、疑问副词、缩合连接代词、缩合连接副词等。如:

(1)He told us he felt ill. 他对我们说他感到不舒服。(关联词是从属连词 that)

(2)I know he has returned. 我知道他已经回来了。(在非正式文体中关联词that被省去)

(3)That he ever said such a thing I simply don’t believe. 我简直不相信他曾说过这样的话。(that从句位于句首时,that不可省去)

(4)We decided, in view of his special circumstances, that we would admit him for a probationary period. 鉴于他的特殊情况,我们决定应允他一段试用期。(主句谓语动词decided与that从句之间有插入语,that不可省去)

(5)I doubt whether he will succeed. 我怀疑他是否会成功。(关联词是从属连词whether)

(6)I don’t know if you can help me. 我不知道你能否帮助我。

(7)Who or what he was, Martin never learned. 他是什么人?他是干什么的?马丁根本不知道。(关联词是疑问代词who和what。从句位于句首是为了强调)

(8)I wonder what he’s writing to me about. 我不知道他要给我写信说什么事。(关联词是疑问代词what)

(9)I’ll tell you why I asked you to come. 我会告诉你我为什么要你来。(关联词是疑问副词why)

(10)You may do what you will. 你可做任何你想做的事。(关联词是缩合连接代词what)

(11)I should like to see where you live, Jon. 我想去看看你住的地方,乔恩。(关联词是缩合连接副词where)

宾语从句亦可用作介词的宾语,如:

(12)He was deeply displeased by what had occurred that day. 他对那天发生的事感到很不快。(what引导的从句是介词by的宾语)

(13)I walked over to where she sat. 我走向她坐的地方。(where引导的从句是介词to的宾语)

(14)I am curious as to what he will say. 我很想知道他要说什么。(what引导的从句是复合介词as to的宾语)

(15)Your success will largely depend upon what you do and how you do it. 你是否成功将主要取决于你做什么和怎样做。(what和how引导的从句是介词upon的宾语)

有时介词可以省去。如:

(16)I don’t care (for) who marries him. 我不管谁跟他结婚。

(17)Be careful (as to) how you do that. 你要注意做这件事的方式。

有时全句可用引词it作为形式宾语。如:

(18)He made it quite clear that he preferred to study English. 他很明确地说他宁愿学习英语。(真实宾语that从句前有形式宾语it)

(19)You may rely on it that I shall help you. 你可以指望我会帮助你。(真实宾语that从句前有形式宾语it)

有时现在分词亦可后跟宾语从句,如:

(20)He has just gone away saying that he will return in an hour. 他刚走,说他一小时后回来。(that引导的从句是现在分词saying的宾语)

16.7 直接引语与间接引语

直接引语与间接引语都是宾语。一字不改地引述别人的话,叫做直接引语(direct speech);用说话人自己的话转述别人的话,叫做间接引语(indirect speech)。两种引语皆须由动词引述,这种动词叫做引述动词(reporting verb),如say,tell,ask,declare,remark,reply,think,write等。直接引语一般皆置于引号之内,第一个词的首字母须大写;间接引语通常在句中以宾语从句的形式出现。如:

(1)He said, “I am learning English.” 他说,“我正在学英语。”(直接引语)

(2)He said that he was learning English. 他说他正在学英语。(间接引语)

引述动词及其主语可置于直接引语之前、之后或之中。如:

(3)He says, “She will come in the evening.” 他说,“她晚上来。”(之前)

(4)“I am very grateful,” said Fisher gravely. “我非常感谢,”费希尔严肃地说。(之后)

(5)“Henceforth,” he explained, “I shall call on Tuesdays.” “今后,”他解释说,“我将每星期二来访。”(之中)

引述动词如是现在一般时或过去一般时,而主语为名词时,则常可以倒装。如:

(6)“My wife always drinks coffee for breakfast,” said John. “我妻子早餐时经常喝咖啡,”约翰说。

直接引语可以变为间接引语。不同种类的句子应用不同的变化方法。

1)直接引语为陈述句,变为间接引语时常由从属连词that引导(口语中可省略),引述动词常用say,tell等。同时,根据主句的要求,间接引语须在人称、时态及其它方面作相应的变化。

a)人称的变化。如:

(7)The teacher said, “John, you must bring your book to the class.” 教师说,“约翰,你必须把你的书带到班上来。”(直接引语)

(8)The teacher told John that he must bring his book to the class. 教师告诉约翰他必须把他的书带到班上来。”(间接引语)

(9)The teacher said that you must bring your book to the class. 教师说你必须把你的书带到班上来。”(间接引语,别人对约翰说)

(10)The teacher said that I must bring my book to the class. 教师说我必须把我的书带到班上来。”(间接引语,约翰自己说)

b)指示代词的变化。如:

(11)He said, “I like this book.” 他说,“我喜欢这本书。”(直接引语)

(12)He said that he liked this book. 他说他喜欢这本书。(间接引语,书在眼前)

(13)He said that he liked that book. 他说他喜欢那本书。(间接引语,书不在眼前)

)时间状语的变化。如:

(14)He said, “I saw her yesterday.” 他说,“我昨天见过她。”(直接引语)

(15)He said that he saw her yesterday. 他说他昨天见过她。(间接引语的主句与直接引语的主句的动作在同一天发生,仍用yesterday)

(16)He said that he had seen her the day before. 他说他前一天曾见过她。(间接引语的主句的动作发生在直接引语的主句的动作之后,yesterday改为the day before,同时改用完成时态)

经常改动的时间状语有:

now—then

ago—before

today—that day

tomorrow—the next day,the following day

yesterday—the day before,the previous day

the day before yesterday—two days before

the day after tomorrow—two days later

d)地点状语的变化。如:

(17)He said, “I will do it here.” 他说,“我就在这儿干。”

(18)He said he would do it there. 他说他就在那儿干。

e)时态的变化。主句为现在或将来时态时,间接引语的时态不变。如:

(19)He says, “I’m tired.” 他说,“我累了。”(主句为现在时,直接引语亦为现在时)

(20)He says he is tired. 他说他累了。(间接引语时态不变)

(21)He has said to me, “I’m tired.” 他跟我说,“我累了。”(主句为现在完成时,直接引语为现在一般时)

(22)He has said to me he is tired. 他跟我说他累了。(间接引语的时态不变)

(23)He will say, “The boy was lazy.” 他将会说,“那男孩过去懒惰。”(主句为将来一般时,直接引语为过去时)

(24)He will tell you that the boy was lazy. 他将会告诉你那男孩过去懒惰。(间接引语仍为过去一般时)

但主句为过去时态时,间接引语则一般应作相应的变化,这就是所谓的“时态呼应”(sequence of tenses)。如:

(25)He said, “I’m sorry.” 他说,“对不起。”(直接引语为现在一般时)

(26)He said he was sorry. 他说对不起。(间接引语变为过去一般时)

(27)He said, “You haven’t changed much.” 他说,“你可变化不大呀。”(直接引语为现在完成时)

(28)He said that I hadn’t changed much. 他说我变化不大。(间接引语变为过去完成时)

(29)She said, “He’s waiting.” 她说,“他正在等着呢。”(直接引语为现在进行时)

(30)She said he was waiting. 她说他正在等着呢。(间接引语变为过去进行时)

(31)She said, “He has been waiting.” 她说,“他一直在等着呢。”(直接引语为现在完成进行时)

(32)She said he had been waiting. 她说他一直在等着。(间接引语变为过去完成进行时)

[注]在有些句子中,现在时态保持不变。如:

①“The earth moves around the sun.” The teacher told us. “地球绕太阳旋转,”老师告诉我们说。(直接引语为现在一般时)

②The teacher told us that the earth moves around the sun. 老师告诉我们说地球绕太阳旋转。(间接引语仍用现在一般时)

(33)He said, “The man came at six.” 他说,“那人是六点来的。”(直接引语为过去一般时)

(34)He said that the man had come at six. 他说那人是六点来的。(间接引语变为过去完成时)

(35)He said, “The rain was falling yesterday.” 他说,“昨天在下雨。”(直接引语为过去进行时)

(36)He said that the rain had been falling the day before. 他说前一天一直在下雨。(间接引语变为过去完成进行时)

[注]如是不会引起误会,直接引语中的过去一般时和过去进行时,在间接引语中亦可不变。直接引语中的过去完成时或过去完成进行时自然亦不变。

(37)She said, “He will come late.” 她说,“他要迟到了。”(直接引语为将来一般时)

(38)She said he would come late. 她说他要迟到了。(间接引语变为过去将来时)

(39)He said, “I shall have finished reading the book by the end of this week.” 他说,“我将于这个周末前读完这本书。”(直接引语为将来完成时)

(40)He said that he would have finished reading the book by the end of that week.” 他说他将在那个周末前读完这本书。(间接引语变为过去将来完成时)

(41)He said, “I’ll be seeing you off on the 10 o’clock train.” 他说,“我将送你乘十点钟的火车。”(直接引语为将来进行时)

(42)He said that he would be seeing me off on the 10 o’clock train.” 他说他将送我乘十点钟的火车。(间接引语变为过去将来完成时)

(43)She said, “He can swim very well.” 她说,“他游泳游得很好。”(直接引语为含情态动词的现在一般时)

(44)She said that he could swim very well. 她说他游泳游得很好。(间接引语中情态动词为过去一般时)

[注]如直接引语为过去一般时,间接引语仍用过去一般时。有些情态动词如must,ought to,need,had better等只有一种形式,故在间接引语中其形式不变。如:

(45)“If he were here, he would vote for the motion,” she said. “假如他在这里,他是会投票赞成这项动议的,”她说。(直接引语为虚拟语气过去一般时和过去将来时)

(46)She said that if he had been there, he would have voted for the motion. 她说假如他在那里,他是会投票赞成这项动议的。(间接引语变为虚拟语气过去完成时和过去将来完成时)

2)直接引语为疑问句,变为间接引语时关联词用whether,if或其它疑问词;词序与一般从句相同,be,have等助动词皆置于主语之后;引述动词常用say,ask,wonder,inquire等。直接引语为陈述句时变为间接引语应作各种变化的要求亦同样适用。

a)直接引语为一般疑问句,变为间接引语时应由whether或if引导。如:

(47)He said to us, “Are you away today?” 他对我们说,“你们今天走吗?”(直接引语为一般疑问句)

(48)He asked us whether we were going away that day. 他问我们是否那一天走。(间接引语用whether引导)

(49)“Is he your brother?” She said. “他是你的兄弟吗?”她问。(直接引语为一般疑问句)

(50)She asked me if he was my brother. 她问我他是不是我的兄弟。(间接引语用if引导)

b)直接引语为特殊疑问句,变为间接引语时,其关联词应用疑问代词或疑问副词。如:

(51)“Who will help me finish the job?” She asked. “谁愿帮我完成这项工作?”她问道。(直接引语为特殊疑问句)

(52)She asked who would help her finish the job. 她问谁愿帮她完成这项工作?(间接引语用疑问代词who引导)

(53)“What have you done?” He asked. “你干什么了?”他问道。(直接引语为特殊疑问句)

(54)He asked what I’d done. 他问我干什么了?(间接引语用疑问代词what引导)

(55)“Where is it?” He asked. “它在哪儿?”他问道。(直接引语为特殊疑问句)

(56)He asked where it was. 他问它在哪儿。(间接引语用疑问副词where引导)

(57)“When will he come?” She asked. “他什么时候来?”她问道。(直接引语为特殊疑问句)

(58)She asked when he would come. 她问他什么时候来。(间接引语用疑问副词when引导)

[注]下面两句中间接引语的词序都是对的:

①Tell me who he is. 告诉我他是谁。(who是从句中的表语)

②Tell me who is he. 告诉我他是谁。(who是从句中的主语)

c)直接引语为选择疑问句,变为间接引语时应用whether…or…。如:

(59)“Do you like tea or coffee?” She asked me. “你喜欢喝茶还是咖啡?”她问我

(60)She asked me whether I like tea or coffee. 她问我喜欢喝茶还是喝咖啡。

3)直接引语为祈使句,变为间接引语时多用“名词(代词)+不定式”结构,引述动词常用ask,tell,say,order等。如:

(61)I said to her, “Please give me a glass of water.” 我对她说,“请给我一杯水。”(直接引语为祈使句)

(62)I asked her to give me a glass of water. 我请她给我一杯水。(间接引语中ask表请求)

(63)She said to him, “Come at five o’clock.” 她对他说,“五点钟来吧。”(直接引语为祈使句)

(64)She told him to come at five o’clock. 她要他五点钟来。(间接引语中tell表命令)

4)直接引语为感叹句,变为间接引语时,引述动词有tell,exclaim,等。如:

(65)“What a brave boy you are!” She told him. “你是一个多么勇敢和男孩子啊!”她对他说。(直接引语为感叹句)

(66)She told him what a brave boy he was. 她对他说他是一个多么勇敢和男孩子啊!

(间接引语中引述动词用tell)

有时间接引语可用that引导,如:

(67)He said, “Alas! How foolish I have been!” 他说,“哎,我多傻啊!”(直接引语为感叹句)

(68)He confessed with regret that he had been very foolish. 他悔恨地承认他太傻了。(间接引语中引述动词用confess)


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