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薄冰英语语法 第十六章 句子的类型(10)

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  16.10 状语从句

  用作状语的从句叫做状语从句(adverbial clause)。引导状语从句的关联词是某些从属连词。如:

  (1)The sun was out again when I rode up to the farm. 当我骑马到达农场时,太阳又落山了。(关联词是从属连词when)

  (2)He distrusted me because I was new. 他不信任我,因为我是新来的。(关联词是从属连词because)

  (3)I met him as I was coming home. 在回家的时候,我遇见了他。(关联词是从属连词as)

  (4)He orders me about as if I were his wife. 他指我干这干那,好像我是他妻子似的。(关联词是从属连词as if)

  状语从句同状语一样,在句中的位置比较灵活,可置于句首、句末或句中。如:

  (5)When it rains, I usually go to the office by bus. 逢下雨,我通常乘公共汽车上班。(从句置于句首)

  (6)Stay where you are! 就地停着!(从句置于句末)

  (7)I come here every month since I was a child to see my grandfather. 我从小就每月来看我的祖父。(从句置于句中)

  状语从句位于句首时,常用逗号分开。如从句较短同时与主句的关系又较密切时,亦可不用逗号。如:

  (8)As the car was so small he sold it. 由于车子太小,所以他把车卖了。(从句与主句关系密切)

  状语从句位于句末时,其前一般不用逗号。如从句与其前的主句关系不甚密切,尤其是作为添补之词时,其前则用逗号。如:

  (9)She’s far too considerate, if I may say so. 恕我直言,她太体谅人了。(从句与主句的关系不甚密切)

  (10)Ought I to take it, when I have only just come in? 我该喝酒吗?我刚刚进来呀。(从句为添补之词)

  状语从句根据其用途可分为时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、结果状语从句、程度状语从句、目的状语从句、条件状语从句、让步状语从句、方式状语从句九种。

  1)时间状语从句(adverbial clause of time)表时间,其关联词有as,after,before,once,since,till,until,when,whenever,while,as long as,as soon as,now(that)等。如:

  (11)As the twilight was beginning to fade, we heard the sound of a carriage. 当曙光开始消退时,我们听到了一架马车的声响。

  (12)Soon after Margaret returned, the child vomited. 玛格丽特回来不久,这孩子就呕吐了。

  (13)Sometimes it gets out before I can stop it. 有时我止不住,它就蹦了出来。

  (14)Once you’ve finished, go to bed. 你干完了再去睡觉。

  (15)Since I was a child I have lived in England. 我从小就住在英格兰。

  (16)Wait until you’re called. 等着叫你吧。

  (17)When she alighted from the train there was a nearly full moon. 当她下火车时,月儿快圆了。

  (18)While I was saying goodbye to the rest of the guests Isabel took Sophie aside. 我正在送其他客人时,伊莎贝尔把索菲拉到一边。

  (19)Now that you have come you may as well stay. 既然你已经来了,就待下来吧。

  (20)You can borrow it as long as you’re not careless with it. 你可借去用,只要你不乱用它就行。

  (21)As soon as I went in, Katherine cried out with pleasure. 我一走进去,凯瑟琳就高兴地叫起来。

  as,when,while,虽都表时间,但是有区别的。as多用于口语,强调“同一时间”或“一先一后”。如:

  (22)As I was going out, it began to rain. 当我出门时,开始下雨了。(as强调两个动作紧接着发生。不强调开始下雨的特定时间,故须用as而不用when)

  as有时还有“随着”的含义。如:

  (23)As spring warms the good earth, all flowers begin to bloom. 随着春回大地,百花开始绽放。(句中的as也不可代之以when)

  when则强调“特定时间”。如:

  (24)When he was eating his breakfast, he heard the door bell ring. 当他正用早餐时,听到门铃响了。(as亦可表“特定时间”,在这个意义上二者可互换,故本句中的when可代之以as)

  while也表同一时间,其所表的时间不是一点,而是一段。如将上句的when改为while,while从句即强调“他吃早餐”的过程。

  一些表时间的副词和短语亦可引导状语从句。如:

  (25)Directly he was out of sight of her he wanted to see her. 他一看不到她就想见她。(副词directly引导时间状语从句,directly=as soon as)

  (26)I didn’t wait a moment, but came immediately you called. 我一刻也没等待,你的电话一到我就来了。(副词immediately引导时间状语从句,immediately=as soon as)

  (27)We’ll leave the minute you’re ready. 你准备好了我们就走。(短语the minute引导时间状语从句)

  (28)The day he returned home, his father was already dead. 他回家的那一天,他的父亲已经死了。(短语the day引导时间状语从句)

  (29)Next time you come, please bring your composition. 你下次来,请把你的作文带来。(短语next time引导时间状语从句)

  (30)Every time I listen to your advice, I get into trouble. 每次我按你的意见办事,总是出麻烦。(短语every time引导时间状语从句)

  时间状语从句中有些成分有时可省略。如:

  (31)While flying over the Channel, the pilot saw what he thought to be a meteorite. 当这位飞行员飞过英格利海峡时,他以为他看到的是一颗殒星。(while之后省去he was)

  (32)Metals expand when heated and contract when cooled. 金属热胀冷缩。(两个when之后都省去they are)

  (33)Complete your work as soon as possible. 要把你的工作尽快完成。(as soon as后省去it is)

  2)地点状语从句(adverbial clause of place)表地点,其关联词有where,wherever,anywhere,everywhere等。如:

  (34)Corn flourishes best where the ground is rich. 谷物在土地肥沃的地方生长得最好。

  (35)You are able to go wherever you like. 你喜欢去哪儿就可以去哪儿。

  (36)He would live with his grandmother anywhere she lived. 不管他祖母住在哪儿,他都愿和她住在一块儿。

  (37)Everywhere they appeared there were ovations. 不管他们出现在哪儿,都受到热烈欢迎。

  地点状语从句中有些成分常可省略。如:

  (38)Put in articles where necessary in the following pass ages. 请在下列段落中的需要处填入冠词。(地点状语从句中省去了they are)

  (39)Avoid structures of this kind wherever possible. 这种结构随处都要避免。(地点状语从句中省去了it is)

  3)原因状语从句(adverbial clause of cause)表原因或理由,其关联词有because,as,since等。如:

  (40)Lanny was worried because he hadn’t had any letter from Kurt. 兰尼很着急,因为他一直未收到库尔特的信。

  (41)We were up early the next morning, as we wanted to be in Oxford by the afternoon. 第二天早晨我们起得很早,因为我们要不迟于下午到达牛顿。

  (42)Since we’ve no money, we can’t buy it. 由于我们没有钱,我们不能买它。

  because,as,since均表“因为”、“由于”。because语气最强,用以回答why,可表已知或未知的事实。它可与强调词only,just以及否定词not连用。如:

  (43)You shouldn’t get angry just because some people speak ill of you. 你不该仅仅因为有些人说了你的坏话就发怒。

  because引导的从句通常置于主句之后,只有在强调时才置于主句之前。如:

  (44)Because they make more money than I do, they think they’re so superior. 因为他们挣钱比我多,所以他们认为自己高人一等。

  because引导的从句还可用于强调结构。如:

  (45)It was because I wanted to see my uncle that I went to town yesterday. 我昨天是由于要去看我的叔叔而进城的。

  as语气较弱,较口语化,所表的原因比较明显,或是已知的事实,故不需强调。as引导的从句之前不可用强调词和否定词not,亦不可用于强调结构。as引导的从句多置于主句之前。如:

  (46)As all the seats were full he stood up. 由于所有的座位都满了,他只好站着。

  since的语气亦较弱,常表对方已知的事实。它和as一样,其前亦不可用强调词和否定词not。since往往相当于汉语中的“既然”。如:

  (47)Since you are going, I will go too. 既然你要去,我也去吧。

  [注]for与上述三个从属连词不同,它是一个等立连词,因此它连结的是两个并列的分句,如The days were short, for it was now December.(这些日子白昼很短,因为现在已经是十二月了。)for比较文气,常用于笔语。

  有些表原因的短语亦可引导原因状语从句。如:

  (48)I eat potatoes for the simple reason that I like them. 我吃土豆仅仅是因为我喜欢土豆。(短语for the simple reason that引导原因状语从句)

  (49)Shut the window for fear(that) it may rain. 关上窗户,恐怕要下雨。(短语for fear引导原因状语从句)

  (50)It is still in excellent condition considering that it was built 600 years ago. 它还保护完好,要知道它是600年前建的。(短语considering that引导原因状语从句)

  (51)Seeing that it is ten o’clock, we will not wait for Mary any long. 既然已经十点钟了,我们不再多等玛丽。(短语seeing that引导原因状语从句)

  (52)In case I forget, please remind me about it. 万一我忘掉了,请提醒我一下。(短语in case引导原因状语从句)

  (53)I do remember, now (that) you mention it. 你这一提,我倒确是想起来了。(短语now that引导原因状语从句)

  (54)I came to see you on the ground that Mr. Anderson said that you were interested in our project. 我来看你是因为安德森先生说你对我们的计划感兴趣。(短语on the ground that引导原因状语从句)

  (55)Inasmuch (Insomuch) as the waves are high, I shall not go out in the boat. 由于浪大,我就不乘小船外出了。(短语inasmuch as引导原因状语从句)

  (56)This is not a good plant for you garden in that its seeds are poisonous. 这一种植物对你的花园不好,因为它的籽有毒。(短语in that引导原因状语从句)

  4)结果状语从句(adverbial clause of result)表结果,其关联词有that,so (that),such that,with the result that等。结果状语从句皆置于主句之后。如:

  (57)Have you another sweetheart hidden somewhere that you leave me in the cold? 你是不是暗中又有情人因而冷落我呢?

  (58)She sat behind me so that I could not see the expression on her face. 她坐在我身后,所以我看不见她脸上的表情。

  (59)His anger was such that he lost control of himself. 他勃然大怒,以致不能自制。

  (60)I was in the bath, with the result that I didn’t hear the telephone. 我在洗澡,所以没听见电话铃声。

  5)程度状语从句(adverbial clause of degree)表动作或状态所达到的程度,其关联词有so (that),such that,as (so) far as,as (so) long as,to the degree (extent) that,in so far as等。如:

  (61)Her heart beat so that he could hardly breathe. 她的心跳得几乎喘不过气来。

  (62)His courage is such that he does not know the meaning of fear. 他胆子大,以致不知恐惧为何物。

  (63)So far as the weather is concerned, I do not think it matters. 只就天气而论,我认为没有什么要紧。

  (64)So long as you need me, I’ll stay. 你需要我待多久,我就待多久。(或译作:只要你需要我,我就会待下去)

  (65)At that time politicians were not known to the degree they are today. 那时政治家并不像现在这样出名。

  (66)A computer is intelligent only to the extent that it can store information. 计算机的智能只限于它能储存信息。

  (67)I’ll help you in so far as I can. 我会尽力帮助你的。

  6)目的状语从句(adverbial clause of purpose)表目的,其关联词有so,so that,in order that等。目的状语从句常用情态动词may(might),有时亦用shall(should)和will(would);现在这种从句亦可用can(could)。目的状语从句多置于主句之后。如:

  (68)I’ll ring him up at once so he shouldn’t wait for me. 我马上给他挂电话,让他别等我了。

  (69)He drew a plan of the village so that she could find his house easily. 他画一张这个村子的草图,以便她会容易找到他的房子。

  (70)I lent him £5 in order that he might go for a holiday. 我借给他5英镑,让他去度假。

  so that和in order that引导的目的状语从句被强调时,可置于句首。如:

  (71)So that the coming generation can learn the martial arts, he has recently devoted much time to writing books on the subject. 为了下一代能够学会这些武术,他近来花了许多时间著书立说。

  (72)In order that the grass and flowers could bloom again, it was necessary that the rocks should be removed. 为了这些花草能再开花,这些石头必须搬走。

  lest和in case也可以引导目的状语从句,但有否定意义,意谓“以免”或“以防”。 lest引导的从句常用助动词should,would,might等虚拟式,现只用于书面语,在日常生活中常代这以for fear (that)。in case引导的从句则常不用虚拟式。如:

  (73)Take your umbrella with you, lest it should rain. 带上你的雨伞,以防下雨。(should rain是虚拟式)

  (74)Take your umbrella in case it rains. 带上你的雨伞,以防下雨。(in case从句常不用虚拟时态)

  (75)He took an umbrella with him for fear it might rain. 他带了一把雨伞,以防下雨。(for fear之后省去that)

  7)条件状语从句(adverbial clause of condition)表条件,条件有真实条件和非真实条件两种。前者表现实的或可能变为现实的条件,后者表非现实的或不可能或不大可能变为现实的条件。关于非真实条件,已在本书“虚拟语气”一章讲过。这里只讨论真实条件。

  真实条件状语从句用直陈语气,其关联词有if,unless,suppose,supposing (that),assuming (that),providing (that),provided (that),in the event (that),just so (that),given (that),in case (that),on condition (that),as (so) long as等。这种状语从句可置于主句之前或之后。如:

  (76)If the weather is fine tomorrow, we shall go to the country. 如果明天天晴,我们就到乡下去。

  (77)He won’t finish his work in time unless he works hard. 除非他努力干,否则他就不会按时把他的活干完。

  (78)Suppose they did not believe him what would they do to him? 如果他们不信任他,他们会对他怎么样。

  (79)Supposing he can’t come, who will do the work? 如果他不能来,这事谁来干。

  (80)Assuming that you are right, we’ll make a great deal of money from the project. 假定你是正确的,那我们将会从这项工程中赚得许多钱。

  (81)Providing (that) there is no opposition, we shall hold the meeting here. 如果没有人反对,我们就在这里开会。

  (82)She will go provided her friends can go also. 如果她的朋友们也能去,她就去。

  (83)In the event that our team wins, there will be a celebration. 如果我们队胜了,那就要庆祝一番。


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