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薄冰英语语法 第十六章 句子的类型(10-11)

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  (84)He doesn’t mind inconveniencing others just so he’s comfortable. 他只要自己舒服,别人不方便他就不管了。

  (85)Given that they’re inexperienced, they’ve done a good job. 考虑到他们缺乏经验,他们的工作已做得很好。

  (86)In case it rains, do not expect me. 如若下雨,就不要等我了。

  (87)You may borrow the book, on condition that you do not lend it to anyone else. 你可以把这本书借走,只要你不把它再借给别人。

  (88)You may use the room as long as you clean it afterward. 你可以随意用这个房间,只要你用完后弄干净就行。

  英语中有一种条件状语从句与主句并无直接关系,这种从句叫做间接条件从句。如:

  (89)She’s far too considerate, if I may say so. 如我可直言,她太体谅人了。(=I am telling you, if I may, that she’s too considerate.)

  英语中还有一种修辞性条件状语从句。如:

  (90)If you believe that, you’ll believe anything. 你如果相信此话,你将无话不信。(=You certainly can’t believe that.)

  if从句可省去其与主句相同的部分。如:

  (91)I’m happy if you are. 你高兴我就高兴。(if从句省去happy)

  if从句常可省去主语和连系动词或助动词be。如:

  (92)Send the goods now if ready. 货物如已备好,请即送来。(if从句省去they are)

  (93)If necessary, ring me at home. 必要时可打电话到我家找我。(if从句省去it is)

  if常和某些不定代词构成省略结构。如:

  (94)If anyone, he knows. 如有人知,那就是他了。

  (95)There are few people nowadays, if any, who remember him. 当今记得他的人,如有的话,也不多了。

  (96)He seems to have little, if anything, to do with this. 若要说他和这事有关的话,那也似乎是很少的。

  8)让步状语从句(adverbial clause of concession)表“虽然”、“尽管”、“即使”等概念,其关联词有though,although,if,even though (if),when,while,whereas,granting that,granted that,admitting (that),for all (that),in spite of the fact that等。让步状语从句可置于主句之前或之后。如:

  (97)Though it was only nine o’clock, there were few people in the streets. 虽然时间才九点钟,可街上已没什么人了。

  (98)Although you are a little older than I, you belong essentially to the same generation. 虽然你比我长几岁,可你基本上还属于同一辈。

  (99)If he is little, he is strong. 他人虽小,但很壮。

  (100)Jaures is an honest man; I say it, even though I have opposed him. 饶勒斯是个诚实的人;我这样说,尽管我曾经反对过他。

  (101)He refuses help when he has many friends. 他虽有许多朋友,但却拒绝其援助。

  (102)While I understand your point of view, I do not share it. 我虽了解你的观点,但不敢苟同。

  (103)They want a house, whereas we would rather live in a flat. 他们想要一幢房子,可我们却宁愿住在公寓。

  (104)Granted that he has enough money to buy the house, it doesn’t mean he’s going to do so. 尽管他有足够的钱买房子,但这并不意味着他就打算买。

  (105)Admitting that he is naturally clever, we do not think he will make much improvement, as he pays no attention to his lessons. 他即使天资聪颖,我们也不认为他会有多大长进,因为他对功课不用心。

  (106)They are good people, for all that their ways are not the same as ours. 他们是好人,尽管他们的生活习惯和我们不同。

  (107)He went out in spite of the fact that he had a bad cold. 尽管他患感冒很厉害,但还是外出了。

  疑问词+ever构成的复合词亦可引导让步状语从句,具有“不管”或“不论”的含义。如:

  (108)You can’t come in, whoever you are. 不管你是谁,都不能进来。

  (109)Don’t change your plans whatever happens. 不管发生什么事,别改变你的计划。

  (110)However busy he is, he will find time to help us. 不管他怎么忙,他也会抽时间帮我们。

  (111)Whenever I’m unhappy, he cheers me up. 每当我不高兴时,他总给我鼓劲儿。

  (112)Whichever book you borrow, you must return it in a week. 不管你借哪本书,都必须在一周内归还。

  (113)The dog follows me wherever I go. 我不论走到哪里,这狗都跟着我。

  上述结构在口语中可用“no matter+疑问词“结构替代。如:

  (114)Don’t believe him, no matter what he says. 不管他说什么,也别相信他。(=whatever he says)

  (115)He had to get the car fixed no matter how much it cost. 不管花多少钱,他也得把车子修好。(=however much it cost)

  从属连词whether….or….亦可意谓no matter whether….or….,引导让步状语从句。如:

  (116)I am going whether it is raining or not. 不论下不下雨,我都要去。(常用whether….or not….)

  (117)Whether or not it rains, I’m giving a party tomorrow. 不管是否下雨,我明天都要举行晚会。(也可用whether or not…结构)

  (118)I’ll go, whether you come with me or stay at home. 你不论跟我来还是留在家里,我都要走。(也可不用not,只用whether….or)

  whether和if(是否)之前亦可用no matter,表示“不论”。如:

  (119)“I hope I can find a good woman, no matter whether (if) she is handicapped or not,” he said. “我希望能找到一个好的对象,不管她是否有残疾,”他说。

  在正式文体中,从属连词as和thought亦可用于一种不以其为首的让步状语从句。这种从句须以形容词、名词或动词(原形)等开头,整个从句须置于主句之前。如:

  (120)Old as I am, I can still fight. 我虽老,但仍能战斗。(以形容词old开头)

  (121)Try as you may, you will never succeed. 你尽管试吧,但决不会成功。(以动词try开头)

  (122)Fool as he looks, he always seems to make the wisest proposals. 他看样子傻,可似乎总是能提出最聪明的建议。(以名词fool开头,注意fool前没有冠词)

  (123)Exhausted though she was, there was no hope of her being able to sleep. 她虽然很累,但却没有能入睡的希望。(以已变成形容词的过去分词开头)

  有时亦可用as (so)….as…结构表示让步。如:

  (124)As (so) bad as he is, he has his good points. 他虽不好,但也有其优点。

  9)方式状语从句(adverbial clause of manner)表动作的方式,其关联词有as,as if,as though,the way,how等,多置于主句之后。如:

  (125)You ought to write as he does. 你应该像他那样写。

  (126)You answer as if you did not know this rule. 你回答问题好像不知道这条规则似的。

  (127)She closed her eyes as though she were tired. 她闭上眼睛,好像她累了。

  (128)Do it the way you were taught. 要照教你的那样做。(the way= the way that=the way in which)

  (129)Do it how you can. 你可按自己之所能去做。(how=in whatever manner)

  as之前常可用just或exactly加强语势。如:

  (130)I did just as you told me. 我正是照你说的办的。

  方式状语从句中有的成分亦可省略。如:

  (131)He did as told. 他遵嘱而行。(=as he had been told)

  (132)He paused as if expecting her to speak. 他停顿了一下,好像是等待她说话似的。(as if后省去he was)

  (133)When he had finished he waited as though for a reply. 他说完之后,他好像在等待答复。(as though后省去he was waiting)

  在非正式英语中,like亦可用作关联词引导方式状语从句。如:

  (134)Birds don’t have feelings like we do. 鸟儿不像我们,它们没有感情。

  比较状语从句(adverbial clause of comparison)也是一种方式状语从句,其关联词有as (或so)….as,than,according as,in proportion as等。如:

  (135)He woke up as suddenly as he had fallen asleep. 他醒来得和入睡一样突然。(第一个as是副词)

  (136)I have never seen so much rain as fell that February. 我从未见过像那个二月那么多雨。(否定结构常用so….as,as….as也可用)

  (137)I can walk faster than you can run. 我可以走得比你跑得还要快。

  (138)You will be praised or blamed according as your work is good or bad. 你受表扬或批评将决定于你干得好或坏。

  (139)Some people are happy in proportion as they are noticed. 有些人越受到注意就越高兴。

  as…. so结构可表类比。如:

  (140)As unselfishness is the real test of strong affection, so unselfishness ought to be the real test of the very highest kind of art. 正如无私是钟爱的真正考验,无私也是最高艺术的真正考验。(as引导的是比较状语从句)

  关联词while与whereas可表对比。如:

  (141)I like tea while she likes coffee. 我喜欢茶,而她喜欢咖啡。

  (142)Whereas he’s rather lazy, she’s quite energetic. 她精力非常充沛,而他却相当懒惰。

  除外状语从句也有比或对照的含义,其关联词有except (that),excepting (that),but (that)等。如:

  (143)Except that he speaks too fast he is an excellent teacher. 他是一位优秀教师,可就是讲话太快。

  (144)He is a good man excepting that he is too fond of drinking. 他是个好人,可就是太爱喝酒。

  (145)Nothing would satisfy that child but that I place her on my lap. 那孩子什么都不要,只要我把她抱在怀里。

  (146)It never rains but it pours. 祸不单行。(此句中不可用but that)

  [注]关于从属连词as与than引导的比较状语从句的省略结构见本书“形容词和副词”一章的“形容词和副词的比较等级”一节。

  16.11 句型的转换

  句型转换就是将一种型式的句子改变为另一种型式的句子。英语的三种句型即简单句、并列句与复合句,均可以相互转换。如:

  (1)I help him and he helps me. 我帮助他,他帮助我。

  →He and I help each other. (并列句转换为简单句)

  (2)The old man wants a small but comfortable room. 老人要一间虽小但舒服的房间。

  →The old man wants a room that is small but comfortable. (简单句转换为复合句)

  (3)I lent my bicycle to John, who lent it to George. 我把我的自行车借给了约翰,他又把它借给了乔治。

  →I lent my bicycle to John and he lent it to George.(复合句转换为并列句)

  学会句型的转换有助于对英语句型的精确掌握,从而可运用不同的句型来表达基本相同的意思。可转化的句型有下列三种:

  (4)He succeeded through hard work. 他靠勤奋工作取得了成功。(简单句)

  (5)He worked hard and so he succeeded. 他勤奋工作,所以他取得了成功。(并列句)

  (6)He succeeded because he worked hard. 他成功是因为他勤奋工作。(复合句)

  [注]简单句有时亦可引用it和there进行内部转换。如:

  ①You need not put your foot in it. 你不必自找麻烦。

  →It is necessary for you to put your foot in it.

  ②What have you got in your pocket? 你口袋里是什么?

  →What’s there in your pocket?

  ③It will rain next week. 下星期要下雨。

  →There will be rain next week.

  1)简单句与并列句的转换

  简单句与并列句可相互转换

  简单句转换为并列句,多由短语变为分句。如:

  (7)He came too late to see the first part of the show. 他来得太晚了,没赶上节目的第一一部分。

  →He came late, so he missed the first part of the show.

  (8)Sleeping but little and thinking much, I find nights long. 我入不了睡,思绪万千,故觉得夜很长。

  →I find nights long, for I sleep but little and think much.

  并列句转换为简单句,多将分句变为短语。如:

  (9)Tom wants to buy a bicycle, so he’s saving up. 汤姆要买一辆自行车,为此他正在攒钱。

  →Tom is saving up for a bicycle.

  (10)She was young and beautiful, and yet I did not love her. 她年轻貌美,但我却不爱她。

  →I did not love her, with all her young and beauty.

  2)简单句与复合句的转换

  简单句与复合句可相互转换

  简单句转换为复合句,多将短语变为从句。如:

  (11)The meeting over, we all went home. 散会后,我们就都回家了。

  →When the meeting was over, we all went home.

  (12)To my knowledge, they never lost a package from the Unite States. 据我所知,他们从未丢失过一件从美国寄来的包裹。

  →As far as I knew, they never lost a package from the Unite States.

  复合句转换为简单句,多将从句变为短语。如:

  (13)He went all the same although it was raining. 尽管下雨他还是走了。

  →He went all the same in spite of the rain.

  (14)If you make your own clothes, it will save you money. 自己做衣服,你就会省钱。

  →You will save money by making your own clothes.

  3)并列句与复合句的转换

  并列句与复合句可相互转换

  并列句转换为复合句,多将一分句变为从句。如:

  (15)Try again and you will succeed. 再努力一次,你就会成功。

  →If you try again, you will succeed.

  (16)I’ve been away only for three years, yet I can hardly recognize my hometown. 我仅在外三年,可我几乎辨认不出我的故乡了。

  →Although I’ve been away only for three years, I can hardly recognize my hometown.

  复合句转换为并列句,多将从句变为一分句。如:

  (17)As Jane was the eldest, she looked after the others. 珍妮是大姐,所以她照顾其他弟妹。

  →Jane was the eldest, and so she looked after the others.

  (18)If milk is not kept in a cool place, it will go sour. 牛奶如不存放在阴凉处,很快就会变坏的。

  →Milk must be kept in a cool place, or else it will go sour.

  4)句子的结合与分离

  有时一个以上的句子可合并为一个句子,这也是一种转换。如:

  (19)The bird was a cock. The fox was looking at it hungrily. 那是一只公鸡。狐狸正以贪婪的目光看着它。

  →The bird which the fox was looking at hungrily was a cock.

  (20)It was a snowy day. A small girl was making her way down the street. She was holding a box of matches in her hand. 一个下雪天,一个小女孩在街上走着。她手上拿着一盒火柴。

  →It was a snowy day and a small girl was making her way down the street, holding a box of matches in her hand.

  有时一个句子可分离一个以上的句子,这又是一种转换。如:

  (21)My ruler has a scale marked in centimeters. 我有一把标有厘米的尺子。

  →I’ve got a ruler. It has a scale. The scale is marked in centimeters.

  (22)Instead of hating him, I like him all the more for it. 我不但不恨他,相反为此更爱他。

  →I don’t hate him. On the contrary, I like him all the more for it.


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