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薄冰英语语法 第十八章 数的一致(1-9)

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第十八章 数的一致

18.1 概说

一致(concord)是一个语法范畴,指词语之间晨人称、数、格、性等方面的一致。人称、格和性的一致比较简单,本书已在有关部分介绍过,本章着重讨论数的一致。

数的一致涉及三个基本原则,即:

1)语法一致(grammatical concord),即形式上的一致。如:

(1)The boy shows his mother much attention. 这男孩对母亲很照顾。(单形名词主语要求单数谓语动词)

(2)The boys are playing outside. 这些男孩正在外面玩耍。(复形名词主语要求复数谓语动词)

2)意义一致(notional concord),即意义或意念上的一致。如:

(3)The crew are paid to do all the work on the ship. 船员受雇干船上的全部工作。(单形名词主语要求复数谓语动词,the crew表一个集体的成员)

(4)Five minutes is enough. 五分钟就够了。(复形名词主语要求单数谓语动词,five minutes表一个数目)

3)邻近原则(principle proximity),即指谓语动词的形式与邻近的名词一致。如:

(5)A man of abilities are needed. 需要一个有能力的人。(动词are不与主语a man一致,而与其邻近的复形名词abilities形式上一致)

18.2 单形与动词的一致

单形名词在句中作主语时用单数动词。

1)单形集体名词被视为一个整体时,用单数动词。如:

(1)Our family has a reunion every year. 我家每年都团聚一次。

(2)The enemy is retreating. 敌人开始撤退了。

被视为若干个体时,则要求复数动词。如:

(3)His family are waiting for him. 他一家人都正在等他。

(4)The enemy were encamped on the hill-side. 敌人在山坡上扎营。

有些单形集体名词,即所谓的“群体名词”,如police,militia,cattle等,则要求复数动词。如:

(5)The police have caught the murderer. 警方已捕获杀人犯。

(6)In that village the Wiltshire militia were quartered. 威尔特郡民兵驻扎在那个村子里。

[注] 单形集体名词之后用什么动词形式,往往因人而异。英国和美国的习惯也不完全一样。英国较多用复数动词,如The government are determined to resist aggression.(政府决心抵抗侵略。),美国英语则多用单数动词。

2)“more than one+单形名词”结构虽有复念,习惯上多要求单数动词。如:

(7)More than one question was asked. 提出的问题不止一个。

(8)More than one person involved in this. 与此事有牵连的人不止一个。

但“more+复形名词+than one”结构一般却多要求复数动词。如:

(9)More members than one have protested against the proposal. 反对这项提议的会员不止一个。

“a+单形名词+or two”结构多要求单数动词。如:

(10)A day or two is enough. 一两天就够了。

(11)A servant or two or three was to accompany them. 将有一个或两个或三个仆人去陪他们。

“one or two+复形名词”结构则要求复数动词。如:

(12)One or two reasons were suggested. 提出一两条理由。

“many a+单形名词”结构要求单数动词,这种结构多用于正式文体。如:

(13)Many a fine man has died in that battle. 许多优秀士兵死于那次战役。

(14)There’s many a slip twixt the cup and the lip. 事情往往会功亏一篑。(格言)

3)在“两个形容词+一个单形名词”结构中,单数名词如有复念(即代表两个事物),则应用复数动词。如:

(15)The red and the white rose are both beautiful. 红玫瑰与白玫瑰都很美。

(16)English and French grammar are not very difficult to learn. 英语语法和法语语法都不很难学。

18.3 复形名词与动词的一致

复形名词(大多以s结尾)在句中作主语要求复数动词。

1)含双数概念的复形名词要求复数动词。如:

(1)Are your kitchen scales accurate? 你的家用天平准吗?

(2)How much are those binoculars? 那架双筒望远镜值多少钱?

2)含复数概念的复形名词要求复数动词。如:

(3)The customs were paid. 关税已付。

(4)My funds are a bit low at present. 我的资金现在不多。

3)含单数概念的复形名词要求单数动词。如:

(5)His works is rather small. 他的工厂相当小。

(6)A gallows is a wooden frame on which criminals are hanged. 绞刑架是一个上面可绞死罪犯的木架。

4)表时间、距离、钱额的复形名词要求单数动词。如:

(7)Ten years is a moment in history. 十年在历史上是一瞬间。(ten years指一段时间)

(8)A hundred miles is a long distance. 一百英里是一段很长的距离。(a hundred miles指一段距离)

(9)Ten thousand dollars is large sum. 一万美元是一大笔钱。

5)外来的复形名词要求单数动词。如:

(10)This data is very interesting. 这项数据很有意思。

(11)The agenda for Monday’s meeting has not yet reached me. 星期一会议的议程,我还没有收到。

(12)Graffiti is spreading like wildfire. 在墙壁上乱涂的现象现在有燎原之势。

6)以-ics结尾表学科的复形名词一般要求单数动词。如:

(13)Politics is often a topic for discussion among us. 政治常常是我们讨论的课题。

(14)Statistics is a principal course at the business school. 统计学是这所职业学校的一门主要学科。

但这类名词运用于实际时,则往往要求复数动词。

(15)What are your politics? 你的政治观点如何?

(16)Statistics prove nothing in this instance. 统计学在这一事例上不说明问题。

7)以’s结尾的某些表疾病的复形名词,要求单数动词。如:

(17)German measles is a dangerous disease for pregnant women. 风疹对于孕妇是一种危险的疾病。

(18)Shingles is a disease by an infection of certain nerves and producing painful red spots often in a band around waist. 带状疱疹是一种由某些神经所感染的疾病,经常在腰部周围生长很痛的带状红斑。

有些这类名词可用单数动词或复数动词。如:

(19)Mumps is (are) fairly rare in adults. 腮腺炎在成年人中相当罕见的。

8)有些复形名词既可用单数动词,亦可用复数动词。如:

(20)Where are (is) your manners? 你怎么不讲礼貌?

(21)His whereabouts are (is) unknown. 他不知在何处?

复形书名一般要求单数动词。如:

(22)The Newcomes is one of Thackeray’s finest books. 《新来的人们》是萨克雷的最好的著作之一。

但有时亦两可。如:

(23)Dickens’s American Notes were (was) published in 1842. 狄更斯著的《美国笔记》出版于1842年。

(24)The Canterbury Tales exist(s) in many manuscripts. 《坎特伯雷的故事》有许多手稿。

18.4 并列主语与动词的一致

并列主语与动词的一致有几种情况。

1)当“名词+and+名词”结构表示一种事物或一种概念时,应用单形动词。如:

(1)Fish and chips is a popular supper. 炸鱼土豆片是一种很受欢迎的晚餐。

(2)The poet and writer has come. 那位诗人兼作家来了。

(3)Peter, and perhaps John, plays football. 彼得,也许还有约翰,常踢足球。

有时并列主语用单数或用复数动词均可。如:

(4)Time and tide wait(s) for no man. 岁月不待人。

2)当“each(every)+ 单形名词+and+ each(every) + 单形名词”结构应分做两个单独结构看待时,应用单数动词。如:

(5)Each book and each paper is found in its place. 每一本书,每一份文件,都可在一定的地方找到。

(6)Every hour and every minute is important. 每一小时,每一分钟,都很宝贵。

3)在“名词(代词)+or+名词(代词)”结构后的动词一般应与or后的名词(代词)一致。如:

(7)He or I am in the wrong. 他或是我错了。

(8)He or his brothers were to blame. 应该怪他或他的兄弟们。

4)“either+名词+ or+名词”结构要求动词一般应与or后的名词一致。如:

(9)Either the shirts or the sweater is a good buy. 这些衬衣,要不就是这件毛衣,买上是会合算的。

(10)Either Tim or his brothers have to shovel the snow. 不是蒂姆,就是他的兄弟们必须把雪铲去。

5)“not only+名词+but(also)+名词”结构要求动词一般应与but(also) 后的名词一致。如:

(11)Not only the students but also their teacher is enjoying the film. 不仅学生们在欣赏这部影片,他们的老师也欣赏这部影片。

6)“neither+名词+nor+名词”结构要求动词一般应与nor 后的名词一致。如:

(12)Neither you nor your brother is fault. 你和你的兄弟都不应怪罪。

(13)Neither he nor they are mistaken. 他和他们都没有错。

18.5 “单形名词+with或as well as等+名词”结构与动词一致

“单形名词+with +名词”结构要求动词一般应与第一个名词一致,即用单数动词。如:

(1)A teacher, with his students, is seeing an English film. 一位教师带着他的学生正在看一部英语影片。

(2)A woman with two children has come. 一位妇女带着两个孩子来了。

“名词+ as well as+名词”结构要求动词一般应与第一个名词一致。如:

(3)The students as well as the teacher were present at the meeting. 学生和他们的老师出席了会议。

(4)I as well as they am ready to help you. 不仅他们愿意帮助你,我也愿意帮助你。

“名词+added to+名词” 结构要求动词一般应与第一个名词一致。如:

(5)The painting of M is constructed by leaning one half an M against a mirror. Reality added to its reflection makes the whole. 给M画像的设计是让他的一半身体靠在镜上。所以整个画像有一半是真实的,一半是镜子反射的。

18.6 “表部分的名词+of+名词”结构与动词的一致

“表部分的名词+of+名词”与动词的一致有几种情况。

1)“one+of+复形名词”结构后的定语从句要求谓语动词应与复形名词一致。如:

(1)This is one of the best books that have appeared. 这是所出版的最好书籍之一。(have与books一致)

但实际应用中多与one一致。如:

(2)She’s one of those women who doesn’t know a thing about furniture. 她是丝毫不懂家具的那些妇女之一。

(3)Singing is one of the activities which generates the greatest enthusiasm. 唱歌是会激起最大热情的活动之一。

2)“a pair+of+复形名词”结构多要求用单数动词,以整个的pair一致。如:

(4)A pair of gloves is a nice present. 一双手套是一件很好的礼物。

(5)A pair of thieves were conspiring to rob us. 有两个贼预谋盗窃我们的东西。

3)“(a)part+of+名词”结构中,如名词为单形,一般要求用单数动词。如:

(6)(A )part of the story is not true. 这一则报道有一部分是不真实的。

如名词为复形,一般要求用复数动词。如:

(7)A part of the apples are bad. 一部分苹果是坏的。

4)“a group+of+复形名词”结构可要求用单数动词,亦可用复数动词。前者强调整体,后者强调各个组成部分。如:

(8)This group of chemicals behaves in the same way. 这一组化学物起同样的作用。(强调group这一整体)

(9)This group of chemical behave in the same way. 这一组化学物都起同样的作用。(强调group中的各成分)

类似group的集体名词还有crowd(人群)、flock(羊群)、file(一列)等。

5)“a number+of+复形名词”结构应用复数动词。如:

(10)A number of people were injured. 不少人受了伤。(亦可用number of,意义不变)

(11)A large number of people have come to see the exhibition. 许多人来看展览会。(亦可用large number of而意义不变)

但也有人用单数名词。如:

(12)A number of books was missing from the library. 图书馆有很多书不见了。

“the number+of+复形名词”结构要求用单数动词。如:

(13)The number of chairs in the room is ten. 屋内椅子共有十把。

(14)The number of stamp-collectors is growing apace. 集邮者在迅速增加。

“an average (total)+of+复形名词”结构要求用复数动词。如:

(15)An average of 3000 letters a month are received by the newspaper’s office. 报馆每月平均收到3000封信。

(16)A total of 3000 letters were received last month. 上月共收到3000封信。

“the average (total)+of+复形名词”结构,要求用单数动词。如:

(17)The average of letters received each month is 3000. 每月平均收到信件共3000封。

(18)The total of letters received last month was 3000. 上月收到信件共3000封。

6)“a lot (mass, heap等)+of+复形名词”结构一般要求用复数动词。如:

(19)A lot of people were out for Sunday. 许多人出来度星期日。(亦可用lots of代替a lot of)

(20)A mass of people were working there. 许多人正在那里劳动。(亦可用masses of代替a mass of)

(21)A heap of apples were seen in there. 那里看到有大量的苹果。(亦可用heaps of代替a heap of)

“a lot (mass, heap等)+of+单形名词”结构要求用单数动词。如:

(22)A lot of money was spent for travel. 旅行花了许多钱。

7)“this kind (sort) of+名词”结构一般要求用单数动词。如:

(23)This kind of apple is sour. 这种苹果是酸的。

如用复形名词,则亦可用复数动词,以强调名词的复数概念。如:

(24)The kind of apples you mean are large and sour. 你说的那种苹果又大又酸。

“these(those) kind+of+名词”结构要求用复数动词。如:

(25)These kind of apple(s) are sour. 这些种类的苹果是酸的。

“what kind+of+单形名词”结构要求用单数动词。如:

(26)What kind of apple is sour? 什么种类的苹果是酸的?

“what kinds+of+单形名词”结构要求用复数动词。如:

(27)What kinds of apple are sour? 哪些种类的苹果是酸的?(这里的主语强调kinds,故须用复数动词)

“these kinds+of+单(复)形名词”结构强调“一种以上”,要求用复数动词。如:

(28)These kinds of apple(s) are sour. 这些种类的苹果是酸的。

8)“the rest (remainder)+of+名词”结构要求何种动词形式应由名词的数形而定。名词如是单形,一般要求用单数动词。如:

(29)The rest of the story needs no telling. 故事的其余部分就不必讲下去了。

名词如是复形,一般要求用复数动词。如:

(30)He stayed at home and the rest of the boys were out at play. 他留在家里,其余的男孩都在外面玩耍。

9)“per cent+of+名词”结构中如名词为单形,一般要求用单数动词。如:

(31)Thirty per cent of the liquor is alcohol. 这酒含百分之三十的酒精。

名词如为复形,一般要求用复数动词。如:

(32)Ten per cent of the apples are bad. 这些苹果中有百分之十是坏的。

如强调per cent所表的抽象概念,即使后面是复形名词,亦要求用单数动词。如:

(33)Over 50 per cent of the loans is extended for 20 years. 有百分之五十多的贷款都为期20年。

10)“分数+ of+名词”结构中如名词为单形,一般要求用单数动词。如:

(34)Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is sea. 地球表面的四分之三是海水。(名词surface是单形)

名词如为复形,一般要求用复数动词。如:

(35)Three-fourths of the people were illiterate. 四分之三的人是文盲。(名词people是复形)

如强调分数所表的抽象概念,则要求用单数动词。如:

(36)Only about one-third of the class is going to make it next year. 班里明年会升级的人大约只有三分之一。(用单形动词is是为了强调one-third所表的抽象概念。如用复形动词were则指班里的三分之一成员)

有时动词的形式与分数本身的数形一致。如:

(37)Three-fourths of anybody’s fame are mere suggestion. 任何人的声誉有四分之三不过是虚名。(复形动词are与分数复形three-fourths一致)

11)“most+of+名词”结构要求用什么动词一般皆由名词的数形而定。单形名词要求用单数动词,复形名词要求用复数动词。如:

(38)Most of his time is spent traveling. 他大部分时间都在旅行。(单形名词time用单数动词is)

(39)Most of his students come from south China. 他的学生大都是南方人。(复形名词students用复数动词come)

most of之后如为集体名词,要求动词应由该名词指整体或指成员而定。如:

(40)Most of the population was young. 那里的居民大都年轻。(population指整体,故用单数动词was)

(41)Most of the audience were college students. 观众大都是在学生。(audience指成员,故用复数动词were)

“plenty+of+名词”结构的用法与“most+of+名词”结构相同。如:

(42)Plenty of space is needed. 需要大量的空间。(单形名词要求用单数动词)

(43)Plenty of chairs are needed. 需要许多椅子。(复形名词要求用复数动词)

12)“worth+of+名词”结构不论名词是单形或复形,一般皆要求用单数动词,与worth一致。如:

(44)The worth of this painting is estimated at a half million dollars. 这幅画估计值50万美元。(worth后接单形名词painting)

(45)The worth of men like Galileo is not always understood while they are alive. 像伽利略这样的人在世时并不总是被人理解的。(worth后接复形名词men)

但当worth表示金额时,其后的动词往往与其前表金额的名词的数形一致。如表金额的名词是复形,其后常用复数动词。如:

(46)Thousands of pounds’ worth of damage have been done to the apple crop. 苹果收成损失以千镑计。(代表金额的名词pounds是复形,故用复数动词have)

18.7 短语、从句或句子作主语与动词的一致

短语、从句或句子作主语时,一般要求用单数动词。如:

(1)No news is good news. 没有消息便是好消息。(no news是名词短语,用作主语)

(2)In the evening is best for me. 对我最适合是在晚上。(in the evening是介词短语)

(3)Slow and steady wins the race. 慢而稳者操胜券。(slow and steady是形容词短语)

(4)Children interfering in their parents’ right to remarry has become a social problem. 子女干预父母再婚已成为一个社会问题。(主语是一个动名词复合结构)

(5)Because they are dead languages is no reason why they should be ignored in academic circles. 不应因它们是死的语言而就在学术界忽视它们。(主语是because引导的从句)

(6)“How do you do?” is not question but a greeting. “你好?”不是一个问题,而是一问候语。(主语是句子How do you do)

18.8 倒装结构中主语与动词的一致

在倒装结构中,主语即使是复形名词,往往也用单数动词,尤其在非正式英语中。如:

(1)On the mother’s side comes teachers also one actor. 母系亲属中出了许多教师,也出了一位演员。

(2)Just then in the distance was heard the horns of two motor-cycles speeding swiftly in the direction of this very spot. 正值此时,从远处传来了两辆摩托车的警报声,它们正向这个地方快速驶来。

有时在单数动词后有一连串并列的名词。如:

(3)Her face wore a puzzled, troubled, nervous look, in which was mingled fear, sorrow, depression, distrust, a trace of resentment and a trace of despair. 她的神色显得不解、苦恼、不安,其中还交织着恐惧、忧伤、沮丧、不信任、一丝愤懑和一丝绝望。

在“there+is(was)”的结构中,也常可接复形名词,因为人们常常是先说出there is(was)后才想及后面的名词的,但多用在口语中。如:

(4)There’s hundreds of people on the waiting list. 登记等候的有数百人。

(5)As for risks, there’s risks in pretty near everything you do in this world. 至于风险,在这个世界上,不论你做什么事,几乎都有风险。

18.9 名词化的形容词和过去分词作主语与动词的一致

名词化的形容词和过去分词作主语与动词的一致应决定于主语的数念。主语表单念,就要求单数动词。如:

(1)The true is to be distinguished from the false. 真实应与假相区别。(主语the true表单念)

(2)The accused was acquitted. 被告获释。(主语the accused表单念)

如表复念,则要求用复数动词。如:

(3)The innocent are often deceived by the unscrupulous. 天真的人常为奸诈之徒所欺骗。(主语the innocent表复念)

(4)The dispossessed are demanding their rights. 被剥夺者在要求归还他们的权利。(主语the dispossessed表复念)

有些名词化的形容词和过去分词有复形,皆要求复数动词。如:

(5)The Christians are believes in Christ. 基督徒就是基督的的信徒。

(6)The newlyweds are now spending their honeymoon abroad. 新婚夫妇现正在国外度蜜月。


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