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薄冰英语语法 第十九章 省略 倒装(4-6)

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  一、倒装

  19.4 概说

  倒装(inversion)是一种语法手段,用以表示一定句子结构的需要和强调某一句子成分的需要。英语的最基本的结构是主、谓结构,倒装就是将这种比较固定的词序加以颠倒。

  倒装有两种。将主语和谓语完全颠倒过来,叫做完全倒装(complete inversion)。如:

  (1)How goes the time? 几点钟了?

  (2)Then began a bitter war between the two countries. 于是两国之间开始了恶战。

  只将助动词(包括情态动词)移至主语之前,叫做部分倒装(partial inversion)。如:

  (3)At no time was the entrance left unguarded. 入口无时无人把守。

  (4)Seldom have we felt as comfortable as here. 我们难得像在这里这么舒服。

  19.5 句子结构需要的倒装

  为了句子结构的需要而进行倒装的情况有下列几种。

  1)疑问句。如:

  (1)Are you from here? 你是本地人吗?(一般疑问句)

  (2)Who was that? 那人是谁?(特殊疑问句)

  2)祝愿句。如:

  (3)Long live peace! 和平万岁!

  (4)May you succeed! 祝你成功!

  (5)So be it. 就这样吧。

  3)某些感叹句。如:

  (6)There goes the bell. 打铃了。

  (7)Here comes the bus! 公共汽车来了!

  (8)Judith, Judith, how lovely are you! 朱迪思啊,朱迪思,你多么可爱!

  [注]由副词there和here引导的倒装感叹句不可用人称代词,如不可说Here comes he而须说Here he comes。

  4)there be结构。如:

  (9)There is a man at the door wants to see you. 门口有一个人要见你。

  (10)There lived an old peasant in that house. 有一位老农住在那栋房子里。

  (11)There seems to be some misunderstanding about the matter. 在这个问题上似乎有些误会。

  5)其直接引语位于句首的陈述句。如:

  (12)“It’s too late.” said Milian. “天太晚了。”米利安说。

  (13)“This is the house where Shakespeare was born.” said George“这就是莎士比亚诞生的那座房子。”乔治说。

  6)地点状语位于句首、主语为名词而谓语为不及物动词的陈述句。如:

  (14)From the window came sound of music. 从窗户里传来了音乐声。

  7)某些条件从句。如:

  (15)Had I the time, I would go. 如有时间我就去。

  (16)We’ll join them for dinner should they ask. 他们如邀请的话,我们就会和他们一起进餐。

  (17)Were you in my position, you would do the same. 你如处在我的地位,也会这样做的。

  (18)She’ll be sixteen come May. 到5月她就16岁了。

  (19)All right, if stay you must, go and sit down properly over there. 好吧,如你必须留下,那你就在那里坐好。

  8)某些让步从句。如:

  (20)Look as I would up and down, I could see no human being. 我尽管望上望下,还是看不到一个人。

  (21)Toil as he would, he might fail, and go down and be destroyed! 他尽管苦干,还是可能失败,沉沦而被毁灭!

  (22)Change your mind as you will, you will gain no additional support. 你即使改变主意,也不会再得到援助。

  9)代词so,neither,nor等副词置于句首时,全句常需倒装。如:

  (23)If you can do it, so can I. 你如能做,我也能做。

  (24)If you don’t go, neither shall I. 你不去,我也不去。

  (25)I don’t know, nor do I care. 我不知道,我也不知道。

  10)never,seldom,little,nor,hardly,scarcely,no sooner,not only等表否定的副词或连词位于句首时,全句需要倒装。如:

  (26)Never in my life have I seen such a thing. 我一生中从未见过这样的事。

  (27)Seldom have we felt as comfortable as here. 我们很少像在这里住得舒适。

  (28)No sooner had he arrived than he fell ill. 他还没来就病了。

  (29)Scarcely had he arrived when they asked him to leave again. 他一刚到来,他们就又请他离去。

  (30)Not only did he hear it, but saw it as well. 他不但听见,而且也看见了。

  11)only位于句首并后跟状语时,全句需要倒装。如:

  (31)Only than did he understand it. 只有那时,他才明白。

  由only引导的从句位于句首时,主语亦应倒装。如:

  (32)Only when she came home did he learn the news. 只有当他回家时他才知道这消息。

  12)主语部分较长需要后置时,全句需要倒装。如:

  (33)They erect a bronze tablet on which is carved “The Yellow River Source.” 他们立了一面铜牌,上面写着“黄河之源”(on which…是倒装结构)

  (34)To this class belongs the most astonishing work that the author accomplished. 属于这一类的有作者所完成的一部最惊人的著作。

  (35)Sitting at her desk in deep concentration was my sister Flora. She looked as though she had spend a sleepless night. 我妹妹弗洛拉伏案沉思,好像一夜未睡似的。(后一句意义上相等于从句)

  13)为了上下文的衔接,全句需要倒装。如:

  (36)“Now, I have no opinion of that policy.” “我可对这项政策没有好感。”

  (37)“I sure have,” came a sarcastic gravelly growl from the admiral. “我当然有啰,”这是发自海军将军的讥讽而粗哑的咆哮声。(用came…admiral倒装结构是为了和上下文相衔接)

  (38)The girl who loves him so deeply finds herself unable to forgive his mistake. Around this point develops the sketch, which is humourous and full of a strong local flavour. 那个钟爱他的姑娘觉得她不能饶恕他的错误。围绕这一点就写成了这一短剧,它不但幽默,而且充满了浓郁的地方风味。(第二句倒装。显然由于句首around this point与上文衔接的缘故)

  19.6 强调需要的倒装

  这是为了强调某一句子成分而进行的倒装。这种倒装大致有下列几种。

  1)谓语置于句首。

  a)谓语动词置于句首。如:

  (1)I’m going back to Washington fight for it, believe you me. 我要回到华盛顿为此而斗争,你相信我吧。(强调believe)

  (2)At last he finds himself in a garden, full of beautiful flowers of strange forms, and watered by streams of crystal in which are swimming marvelous fish with scales of rubies and gold. 他终于发现来到了一个花园,这里到处是奇异的花卉,还有那清澈的溪水,里面游着珍贵的具有红玉般和金黄色的鱼鳞的鱼。(这里将谓语are swimming前置也是由于主语较长之故)

  有时倒装结构为主要动词+主语+助动词。如:

  (3)Go I can’t. 我不能去。(强调主要动词go)

  (4)Yield he would not. 屈服他是不干的。(强调主要动词yield)

  有时倒装结构为主要动词+宾语+主语+助动词,其主要动词往往是重复前文中的动词。如:

  (5)They have promised to finish the work and finish it they will. 他们保证完成这项工作,而且他们一定会完成的。(强调主要动词finish)

  (6)Save him she could not, but she avenged him in the most terrible fashion afterwards. 她不能救他,但后来她以最可怕的方式为他报了仇。(此句中的倒装结构强调主要动词save,其上下文虽无save一词,但有与其类似的动词)

  有时倒装结构为助动词+主语+(主要动词)。如:

  (7)John was taken completely by surprise by the news, as was Susan. 这消息完全出乎约翰的意料,也完全出乎苏珊的意料。(as后的助动词was置于主语之前,是为强调主语;省去了主要动词)

  (8)They looked upon him as a trusted friend, as did many others he had deceived. 他们和他所欺骗的许多人一样,也把他看作可以信赖的朋友。(替代词did置于主语之前以强调主语,省去了主要动词)

  b)过去分词置于句首。如:

  (9)Also discussed was a revenue-raising proposal to hike the sales tax… 也讨论了增加销售税的提高税收建议….(这里倒装是由于主语较长)

  (10)Also said to be under consideration is a performance in Beijing. 据说也考虑在北京上演。(这里过去分词与also连用,全句强调主语performance,倒装亦与上下文衔接有关)

  c)现在分词+be+主语。如:

  (11)Covering much of the earth’s surface is a blanket of water. 地球表面上许多地方都布满了水。

  (12)Facing the lake was a little inn with its pillared veranda. 湖的对面是一个有柱廊的小旅店。

  这种倒装结构多半已变成词序固定的句型。在新闻文体中,现在进行时的现在分词亦可进行倒装。如:

  (13)Throwing the hammer is champion William Anderson, who is a hard-working shepherd in Highlands of Scotland. 正在掷链球的是冠军威廉•安德森,他是苏格兰高地上的一位勤劳的牧民。(这里自然是强调现在分词throwing,但倒装亦与主语较长有关)

  )引述动词+主语+直接引语。这种结构常用于新闻体。如:

  (14)Declared prosecutor Roy Amlot: “It was one of the most callous acts of all time.” 检察官罗伊•阿默朗特宣称:“这是最最淡漠无情的行为之一。”

  (15)Said he: “We confront great evils and we need great solutions.” 他说道:“我们面对着重大的邪恶,我们需要重大的决策。”

  2)表语置于句首。如:

  a)形容词+连系动词+主语。如:

  (16)Present at the meeting were Professor Smith, Professor Brown, Sir Hugh and many other celebrities. 到会的有史密斯教授、勃朗教授、休爵士以及许多其他知名人士。(这种倒装结构已经定型)

  (17)Far be it from me to condemn him in any way. 我决不会以任何方式遣责他。(这种倒装结构亦已成定型)

  b)过去分词+连系动词+主语。如:

  (18)Gone at the days when they could do what they liked to the Chinese people. 他们能够对中国人民为所欲为的日子一去不复返了。(强调过去分词gone,同时也是由于主语较长)

  c)介词短语+be+主语。如:

  (19)Among the goods are Christmas trees, flowers, candles, turkeys and toys. 货品中有圣诞树、花卉、蜡烛、火鸡和玩具。(这种倒装结构已经定型)

  (20)Amid the gaseous pollutants they inhale are carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrochloric acid, ammonia and hydrocarbons. 在他们所呼吸的污染气体中有一氧化碳、二氧化硫、氮氧化物、盐酸、氨和碳氢化合物。(此种倒装亦已定型)

  d)不定式+be+主语。如:

  (21)First to unfold were the two 14-foot-wide drogue chutes, which oriented the craft and continued slowing it. 首先要打开的是那两个14英尺宽的拖靶斜槽,这两个东西使飞机定向,并继续使之减速。

  3)宾语置于句首。如:

  (22)“Yes,” said the youth shortly. “是的,”那个小伙子简短地说道。

  (23)Someone once said Australia is a country born to alcoholism,. A man would pay $ 5 to get drunk and $ 8 to get home, goes the jest. 有人说过,澳大利亚是一生性嗜酒的国家。有一个笑话说,那里的人会花5元钱喝醉后,再花8元钱回家。

  4)状语置于句首。

  a)某些副词+倒装结构。如:

  (24)Just then along came Tom. 就在这时,汤姆来了。

  (25)Just then in walked labella with a radiant face. 正值此时刻,伊莎贝拉容光焕发地走了进来。

  [注]短语动词的小品词一般不可前置,如不可说Up cracked the soldier。又,上述例句中如用人称代词则不可倒装,如必须说In she walked。

  (26)Then did I throw myself in to a chair, exhausted. 这时我累得一下就坐在椅子上了。

  (27)Only in this way can we learn English. 只有这样才能学会英语。

  [注]副词only后接非状语时则不可倒装。

  (28)So bright was the moon that the flowers bright as by day. 皓月当空,花朵就像白天那样鲜艳。

  (29)Crack goes the whip. 啪的一声鞭子响了。

  b)介词短语+倒装结构。如:

  (30)By his side sat his faithful dog. 在他的旁边蹲着他的忠实的狗。(介词短语表地点)

  (31)Many a time as a boy have I climbed that hill. 我在童年时期曾多次爬过那座山。(介词短语表时间)

  (32)Up the valleys, down the valleys go they, saying, “Here is a place to build a breast-work; here can you pitch a fort…” 他们沿着山谷走上走下,说着“这里是筑胸墙的地方,这里可以修一堡垒…”(介词短语表方向)

  (33)With it was mingled far-away cheering. 远处的欢呼声与此吞融在一起。(介词短语表伴随)

  c)表示否定的词语+倒装结构。如:

  (34)Not once did he talk to me. 他一次也没有和我谈过。

  (35)Never did he speak about his own merits. 他从不讲他自己的功绩。

  (36)Seldom has a devoted teacher been so splendidly rewarded. 一位忠诚的教师很少受到如此好的报答。

  (37)Hardly had he arrived when she started complaining. 他一到家,她就抱怨起来。

  (38)Little did I think that we were talking together for the last time. 我没有想到我们这次谈话竟成诀别。

  (39)No sooner had he arrived than he went away again. 他刚到家就又走了。

  (40)Not only did they present a musical performance, but they also gave a brief introduction to the history of Western brass instruments. 他们不但做了音乐表演,而且简短地介绍了西方铜管乐器的历史。

  [注]但不是所有以not开头的句子都必须倒装,如下面的句子即可不倒装:

  ①Not a soul was to be seen. 一个人也看不见。

  ②Not that I know of. 就我所知不是这样。


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