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托福听力演讲类文章关键要素分析之举例子

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2015年08月07日

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托福听力演讲类文章关键要素分析之举例子!屌丝听力文章要素系列专题送给了大家文章开头与结尾的要素分析,今天就给各位分析一下演讲类文章主体部分颜值最高的要素之一——举例子。

Hello everybody,高冷腾老湿强势回归!上两期,屌丝听力文章要素系列专题送给了大家文章开头与结尾的要素分析,今天腾老湿就给各位分析一下演讲类文章主体部分颜值最高的要素之一——举例子。(老湿感觉自己听长句子听多了,连写中文都从句横生,心好累啊!)

今儿老湿要讲的东西你要是学会了,能保得你听力34题中至少能拿到4-5题,再有前两期的开头跟结尾要素加持,不觉已拿下一半的题目了。Now, listen to me carefully,今天老湿要讲的是举例子,倘若您老连文章里例子说的是啥都不知道,劝您回炉练听写跟读吧,一刻都不能停!

在托福听力中,举例子有自己的VIP题型,典型的问法是这样的:Why does the professor mention。。。?教授为什么要提及什么事情?这个mention可以替换成discuss、talk about、compare等等。总之就是教授说了一个事情的目的是什么。那么Here comes the question:我们说话的时候会在什么情况下举例子呢?对,就是在卖萌的时候,滚粗。。。就是在自己说了一个比较抽象的观点怕别人不理解,然后再举个形象生动的例子,那边就立马明白了。另外,例子也很有可能出现在需要解释的专业术语之后。不管怎样,举例子一定跟例子之前的那句话有关,而且往往都是为了解释说明阐述一个观点。所以我们碰到这种题时(老湿就不告诉你她叫观点组织题),一定要回想例子对应了什么观点,也就是例子之前教授所说的话,那么这句话基本上就是正确选项了。有的时候教授会很友好的给我们一个非常紧致丝滑的结构,即观点+事例+观点总结,但是不要奢望每个叫兽都能如此。

怎样能够快速辨别例子:

有信号词:

多数情况下,在教授发表完观点之后,紧接着会有提示性的话语,告诉我们他要举例子了,所以判定是否为举例子,我们就要注意这些信号词。常见的信号词包括:for instance, for example, such as…, as an example, take example for, say, consider, let’s take…

无信号词:

可是有的时候,教授却不那么明确的给出信号词,那么我们一样可以可以辨别。例子往往是一个形象生动具体酷炫的事情,但是观点组织题通常问的都是一个大道理,如果明确了这一点,我们就可以得知,即使没有信号词出现,只要是教授说话开始说到非常具体的事情,而不是观点性概念性的话时,这个时候极有可能是在举例子。(不明白的,老湿稍后给大家具体的例题感受一下)

听到例子时怎么办:

脑子:

听到举例子的提示词,一定要回忆刚才教授说了什么,通常讲例子之前,老师会说一个道理,然后再举例子,一定要听懂例子对应的道理,否则一会出现题目,不要期待着听到listen to part of the lecture。。。

爪子:

举例子是最应该记下来的文章要素。度娘说:“例子是用来帮助说明或证明某种情况或说法的事物”,所以例子本身并不重要,不要记太多例子的细节。例子用eg.表示,如果例子中有出现对比强调等信息也是需要记下来的,如果没有的话,听懂就OK,其实例子是最好拿分的题型。

实战操练:

有信号词:

红色字体为观点,绿色字体为例子

In fact, the techniques of MBWA work so well, they’ve actually been extended to all kinds of different contacts like politics for instance. Um, a few years back the mayor of Baltimore, Um... I think his name is Shapher or something like that. Anyway, he decided that the best way to serve the people of the city of his city was to actually get out there in it and experience the things they experienced, so he ride around the city in, well you know, in all parts of it.

Why does the professor discuss the mayor of Baltimore?

A.To explain the origins of the method of MBWA.

B.To demonstrate that MBWA can be useful outside the business world.

C.To provide an example of MBWA can sometimes fail.

D.To give an example where market research and MBWA provide similar types of information.

无信号词:

(插播上题答案:B)

红色字体为观点,绿色字体为例子

So, if there are no truly non-venomous snakes, were the so-called non-venomous snakes, like constrictors and pythons, were they venomous at some point in their evolution? Well, that’s not clear at this point. Constrictors have evolved to kill their prey by crushing, but perhaps they once were venomous, and then at some point their venom-producing apparatus wasn’t needed anymore, so it gradually disappeared.

There’s one species of snake, the brown tree snake, that uses both constriction and venom, depending on its prey. So, well, it is possible.

Why does the professor mention the brown tree snake?

A. To support a hypothesis about the evolution of constrictor snakes.

B. To support a hypothesis that venomous snakes evolved from constrictor snakes.

C. To give an example of a snake species that was never venomous

D. To give an example of a type of snake that can change its color.

完整的举例结构:

(插播上题答案:A)

红色字体为观点,绿色字体为例子

But for the well-made play, even the exposition had to be logical, believable. So, for example, you might have two servants gossiping as they are cleaning the house. And one says, ‘Oh, what a shame the master’s son is still not married’. And the other might mention a rumor about a mysterious gentleman who just moved into the town with his beautiful daughter. These comments are parts of the play’s logical exposition.

Why does the professor mention a conversation between servants?

A.To give examples of typical characters in a well-made play

B.To show how background information might be revealed in a well-made play

C.To explain why Romeo and Juliet can be considered a well-made play

D.To explain how playwrights develop the obligatory scene of a well-made play.

最后,奉送给各位观点组织题题目选项常见关键词:

(插播上题答案:B)

to illustrate、explain、demonstrate、give an example、emphasize、clarify、prove、describe、show、indicate、point out、provide、support、make a point、suggest…

对于基础稍差的筒子,以上这些词务必要背下来。否则好不容易听懂了例子,一激动却理解错了选项,那就只能感叹人生如梦了。


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