TPO2 Conversation 1
Listen to a conversation between a student and a professor.
Student：Uh, excuse me, Professor Thompson. I know your office hours are tomorrow, but I was wondering if you had a few minutes free now to discuss something.
Professor：Sure, John. What did you want to talk about?
Student：Well, I have some quick questions about how to write up the research project I did this semester—about climate variations.
Professor：Oh, yes. You were looking at variations in climate in the Grant City area, right? How far along have you gotten?
Student：I've got all my data, so I'm starting to summarize it now, preparing graphs and stuff. But I'm just. . . I'm looking at it and I'm afraid that it's not enough, but I'm not sure what else to put in the report.
Professor：I hear the same thing from every student. You know, you have to remember now that you're the expert on what you've done. So, think about what you'd need to include if you were going to explain your research project to someone with general or casual knowledge about the subject, like . . . like your parents. That's usually my rule of thumb: would my parents understand this?
Student：OK. I get it.
Professor：I hope you can recognize by my saying that how much you do know about the subject.
Student：Right. I understand. I was wondering if I should also include the notes from the research journal you suggested I keep.
TPO 4 Lecture 1 Biology
Listen to part of a lecture in a biology class. The class is discussing animal behavior.
Ok, the next kind of animal behavior I want to talk about might be familiar to you. You may have seen, for example, a bird that's in the middle of a mating ritual, and suddenly it stops and preens, you know, takes a few moments to straighten its feathers, and then returns to the mating ritual. This kind of behavior, this doing something that seems completely out of place, is what we call a ‘Displacement Activity'. Displacement activities are activities that animal's engaging in when they have conflicting drives. If we take our example from a minute ago, if the bird is afraid of its mate, it's conflicted. It wants to mate but it's also afraid and wants to run away. So, instead, it starts grooming itself. So, the displacement activity, the grooming, the straightening of its feathers, seems to be an irrelevant behavior. So, what do you think another example of a displacement activity might be?
How about an animal that, um, instead of fighting its enemy or running away, it attacks a plant or a bush?
That's really good suggestion,