Listen to part of a lecture in a Psychology class.
Ok, we generally assume that babies can feel only very basic emotions like happiness or anger, that is, the babies just react to things that happen directly to them. ①However, some new research’s suggesting that babies may be able to feel concern for others, to have empathy for others.
Now, empathy is a complex emotion. It involves a baby relating to someone else’s emotions, not just reacting to things happening directly to them. Let’s talk about an experiment that may show that babies could be capable of feeling empathy.
Ok, for the first part of the experiment, well, um, we’ve always known that babies start to cry when they hear other babies crying, right? One baby in a room starts crying and all the rest join in. We’ve always assumed that the other babies cry because they were reacting to the noise of crying, that the noise itself was distressing. ②So, in the experiment， researchers play tape recording, a tape of baby’s crying, to another baby.
③And sure enough, the baby started crying when he heard the sound of other baby’s crying. This was no surprise, of course.④ And the researchers assumed that the baby cried because of the noise.
⑤But the next part of the experiment was surprising.⑥ The researchers played the baby a tape of his own crying. Now it was just as noisy, so the researchers expected him to cry. ⑦However, this time the baby did not cry. He wasn’t upset by the sound of his own crying. Why not? Well, maybe it wasn’t the noise that made him cry before when he heard other baby’s crying.
In fact, maybe noise has nothing to do with it. It could be that the baby felt empathy for the other babies. And that was why he got upset when he heard them crying.⑧ Researchers concluded that it is indeed possible that babies feel empathy, concern for others.
Using the points from the lecture explain why researchers think that babies may feel empathy.
In the lecture, the professor talks about babies can feel concern for others, to have empathy for others. She gives us an experiment to demonstrate her point. In the first part of experiment, they played a tape of babies crying to a baby, sure enough the baby heard the tape and started crying, the researcher assumed that the baby cried because of the noise. And then the researchers played the baby a tape of his own crying, the baby didn’t cry despite the noise. In fact, the noise had nothing to do with it. It cried in the first part not because of the noise, but it got upset because it felt empathy, concern for others.
1. ① 主干是some new research’s suggesting ，that引起了宾语从句，be able to do能够做;to feel concern for others和to have empathy for others是并列成分。however转折连词，符合听力十三原则中的转折原则;有一些研究表明孩子可能会同情其它人的遭遇。这句话引出了今天要论证的主题是have empathy for others.、
2. ②5 in the experiment ，暗示教授为了证明自己的观点开始做第一个实验，主干是researchers play tape recording to another baby，a tape of baby’s crying做插入成分。在实验中，研究人员对着另一个小孩播放了一个小孩哭闹的录音.这是这个实验的过程。
3. ③主干是the baby started crying ，when引起了时间状语从句，the sound of …的声音。当这个婴儿听到另一个婴儿哭闹的声音的时候，他也开始哭了。这表明了播放录音之后给这个小孩带来的影响。
4. ④because of因为，它折后跟着短语，because之后接着句子，这句话的主干是the researchers assumed that，that引起了宾语从句。研究人员假设孩子们哭闹的原因是播放别的小孩哭的声音太吵了。这表明了研究人员针对这个实验所得出的一个假设的结果。
5. .⑤but是转折连词，但是，符合听力十三原则中的转折原则。这句话的主语是the next part of the experiment。这句话表明了研究人员将要进行第二个实验。
6. ⑥主语是the researcher，谓语是played，宾语是the baby a tape of his own crying，研究人员这次播放的是孩子自己哭闹的时候的录音。这是这个实验的具体内容。
8. ⑧这句话的主干是Researchers concluded that，that引起了宾语从句，it is indeed possible that babies feel empathy, concern for others.中it做形式主语，that是真正的主语。这句话表明了实验人员得出了孩子哭的是因为他们同情别人的遭遇。
(1.1) Main idea: babies can feel empathy.
(1.2.1) Part one.
(188.8.131.52) Play a baby a tape of other babies crying.
(184.108.40.206) The baby in the experiment starts to cry.
(220.127.116.11) Researcher assumed the baby cried because of the noise.
(1.2.2) Part two.
(18.104.22.168) Play the baby a tape of his own crying.
(22.214.171.124) The baby doesn’t cry to the noise.
(1.3.1) Baby cried in the first part of the experiment because he felt empathy, concern for others.
In the lecture, the professor talks about
She gives us an experiment to demonstrate her point. In the first part of experiment,
And then the researchers