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实例讲解托福阅读句子简化题解题思路

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  句子简化题 Sentence Simplification questions

  句子简化题是新题型之一,在这里我们先讲解一下。对于句子简化题,有一些题目如果句子不长,我们做题的基本原则就是:同义替换。找到原句中的关键词在选项当中进行同义替换。例如,

  In evolutionary history, the development of language set humans apart from the rest of the animal kingdom. Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  A. Humans evolved as the most powerful species after they are developed language.

  B. The creation of human language has its origins in the language of animals.

  C. The emergence of language distinguished early humans from other animals.

  D. Humans and animals developed completed different systems of communication.

  先来看题干:Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  该题要求从选项中选择一个能够表达原文阴影句子核心信息的句子。很多同学采用翻译的方法做题,即首先翻译原句,然后逐个翻译四个选项。这种做法不仅浪费时间,而且对我们读句子的能力要求极高。更好的做法是,首先判断句子的核心信息。这是考题当中为数不多的原句比较简单的句子释义题,原句的核心概念在于强调区分(apart from)。因此找到同义替换,即是C 项当中的distinguished。但是大多数题目的原文不会是一个简单句,多数是带有逻辑关系的复杂句。那么简单的同义替换技巧就无法操作了。如何快速解决这种题型呢?我们主要分两个部分来解析。

  其实,我们在读原句的时候并不需要完整的彻底的摄取信息,相反,我们通过快速浏览,只需要关注两个关键点:一是原句当中的表示程度,频率的词,二是原句当中的逻辑关系。并不需要吸收所有信息,只需要快速浏览将所关注的信息点抓住即可,这样便节省了大量的时间。

  The extreme seriousness of desertification results from the vast areas of land and the tremendous numbers of people affected, as well as from the great difficulty of reversing or even slowing the process. Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  A. Desertification is a significant problem because it is so hard to reverse and affects large areas of land and great numbers of people.

  B. Slowing down the process of desertification is difficult because of population growth.

  C. The spread of deserts is considered a very serious problem that can be solved only if large numbers of people in various countries are involved in the effort.

  D. Desertification is extremely hard to reverse unless the population is reduced in the vast areas affected.

  解题思路:

  句子中最核心的信息首先就是该句的逻辑关系。原句的逻辑关系可以由result from 来判断,为因果关系。借此我们就可以缩小选项范围,首先排除掉C,D 选项。剩下的A,B 两个选项均包含因果的逻辑关系。接下来我们可以根据句子的第二种核心信息:主语,来判断。原句的主语是Desertification 沙漠化,而B 项的主语是Slowing down the process of desertification 减缓沙漠化进程。所以排除掉B 选项,A 为正确答案。

  将通过程度词解题和借助逻辑关系解题结合起来,对于解答带有逻辑关系的复杂句的释义题很有帮助。我们看下面这道题目:

  It is one of the most important sensations because it is translated into a negative reaction, such as withdrawal from danger.

  Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  A. Escaping from danger is a negative reaction, but it is the most important thing an individual learns.

  B. The ability to sense pain is extremely important because pain signals the body to respond to a threat.

  C. Experiencing pain is one type of reaction to a negative stimulus; another type is avoiding danger.

  D. We experience a lot of sensations, and the most important ones are translated into appropriate actions.

  ( 本题节选自,新托福考试备考策略与模拟试题,群言出版社,P150,第1 题)

  浏览原句,从because 可以看出逻辑关系为因果关系,并且原句当中有绝对化词汇most。仅仅凭借most 这个程度很强的词汇我们可以排除C 选项。因为原文当中带有绝对化词汇而选项中没有,那么这个选项为必错选项。接下来利用逻辑关系排除A 项,A 中为转折关系。而B 恰恰有because 这个词,此外B 中的extremely 可以作为most的同义替换。正确答案为B。

  几乎每一篇文章后面都会有一道释义题,因此考生应加强练习。平时在阅读文章,或者报刊杂志的时候不仅仅要把注意力放在读懂原文上,还应该注意原文的逻辑关系,培养根据逻辑关系思考的习惯。另外,一些程度词的存在也会影响我们对原文的精确理解,平时阅读的时候应当多加关注。


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