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  Rhetorical Purpose questions 目的题

  目的题的提问方式一般为:

  Why does the author mention/include/use …?

  The author …in order to …

  The author uses the example to ?

  …for … purpose?

  这种题目一般问的是作者举某个例子,说某句话的目的是什么,判断好题干是第一步。一般的阅读文章的思路,作者在举例子的时候的主要目的都是为了证明自己的观点,所以在做这类题目的时候,真正的解题关键在于,所问例子前方的观点,我们来看一道例题:

  The first generation to experience these changes did not adopt the new attitudes easily. The factory clock became the symbol of the new work rules. One mill worker who finally quit complained revealingly about "obedience to the ding-dong of the bell-just as though we are so many living machines." With the loss of personal freedom also came the loss of standing in the community. Unlike artisan workshops in which apprentices worked closely with the masters supervising them, factories sharply separated workers from management. Few workers rose through the ranks to supervisory positions, and even fewer could achieve the artisan’s dream of setting up one’s own business. Even well-paid workers sensed their decline in status.

  4. In paragraph 4, the author includes the quotation from a mill worker in order to

  ○ Support the idea that it was difficult for workers to adjust to working in factories

  ○ To show that workers sometimes quit because of the loud noise made by factory machinery

  ○ Argue that clocks did not have a useful function in factories

  ○ Emphasize that factories were most successful when workers revealed their complaints

  题目问,作者为什么引用工人的话。工人的话“One mill worker who finally quit complained revealingly about "obedience to the ding-dong of the bell-just as though we are so many living machines."”在文章的第三句出现,作为和例子一样的目的,来支持本段的观点句,即第一句,The first generation to experience these changes did not adopt the new attitudes easily.(第一代经历这些变化的人没有轻易的适应新的观点)。所以正确选项应该为观点句的同义替换。正确答案选择A,即支持一种观点,对于工人来说很难调整在工厂工作。B 选项里面的工人退出(workers sometimes quit)没有提到,C 选项里面的clocks did not have a useful function(钟表不能发挥有效作用)不对,最后D 选项里面说到当工人抱怨的时候工厂最成功,显然是不正确的。

  但是不是所有的作者目的题,都只是段落的第一句话。每个段落的topic sentence 位置不一样,或者说,每个例子对应的topic sentence 位置不一样。我们再来看一个例子,

  Sensitivity to physical laws is thus an important consideration for the maker of applied-art objects. It is often taken for granted that this is also true for the maker of fine-art objects. This assumption misses a significant difference between the two disciplines. Fine-art objects are not constrained by the laws of physics in the same way that applied-art objects are. Because their primary purpose is not functional, they are only limited in terms of the materials used to make them. Sculptures must, for example, be stable, which requires an understanding of the properties of mass, weight distribution, and stress. Paintingsmust have rigid stretchers so that the canvas will be taut, and the paint must not deteriorate, crack, or discolor. These are problems that must be overcome by the artist because they tend to intrude upon his or her conception of the work. For example, in the early Italian Renaissance, bronze statues of horses with a raised foreleg usually had a cannonball under that hoof. This was done because the cannonball was needed to support the weight of the leg. In other words, the demands of the laws of physics, not the sculptor’s aesthetic intentions, placed the ball there. That this device was a necessary structural compromise is clear from the fact that the cannonball quickly disappeared when sculptors learned how to strengthen the internal structure of a statue with iron braces (iron being much stronger than bronze).

  6. Why does the author discuss the bronze statues of horses created by artists in the early Italian Renaissance?

  ○ To provide an example of a problem related to the

  laws of physics that a fine artist must overcome

  ○ To argue that fine artists are unconcerned with the

  laws of physics

  ○ To contrast the relative sophistication of modern

  artists in solving problems related to the laws of

  physics

  ○ To note an exceptional piece of art constructed

  without the aid of technology

  在这道题目当中,我们需要先确定例子的位置,即加了阴影的地方。这个题目的特色是,出题点是一个非常长的自然段,一般这种比较长的自然段往往会有段落分层或者段中的转折,这样的话我们需要确定例子所在的位置在哪一层或者是在转折前还是转折后。我们先来分析一下这个段落的结构:

  Sensitivity to physical laws is thus an important consideration for the maker of applied-art objects. It is often taken for granted that this is also true for the maker of fine-art objects. This assumption misses a significant difference between the two disciplines. 这句话对前面的内容作了否定,即:这种假设忽视了两个规律之间的重要差别。 Fine-art objects are not constrained by the laws of physics in the same way that applied art objects are. Because their primary purpose is not functional, they are only limited in terms of the materials used to make them. Sculptures must, for example, be stable, which requires an understanding of the properties of mass, weight distribution, and stress. Paintings must have rigid stretchers so that the canvas will be taut, and the paint must not deteriorate, crack, or discolor. These are problems that must be overcome by the artist because they tend to intrude upon his or her conception of the work. 这句才是例子真正对应的核心句,作者举例子是为了证明这个观点 For example, in the early Italian Renaissance, bronze statues of horses with a raised foreleg usually had... 在这个段落当中,例子所对应的topic sentence 变成了第八句,即These are problems that must be overcome by the artist because they tend to intrude upon his or her conception of the work.(这些都是艺术家必须克服的问题...)根据关键句的同义替换,我们选择第一个选项作为正确答案,即To provide an example of a problem related to the laws of physics that a fine artist must overcome (举一个关于艺术家必须跨越的关于物理学规律的例子)。


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