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托福阅读材料之三岁看大真有可能

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  It's worrying news for any parent who's struggled with a headstrong young child.

  对于那些被任性小孩搞得焦头烂额的父母来说,下面这个消息将让他们感到忧心。

  But scientists claim that children who have low levels of self-control at three are more likely to have health and money problems and a criminal record by the age of 32, regardless of background and IQ.

  科学家称,不管成长背景和智商如何,如果一个孩子在三岁时表现出偏弱的自制力,那么他在32岁以前有金钱和健康问题、甚至犯罪记录的可能性会更高。

  Researchers from Britain, the US and New Zealand analysed data from two large studies in which children completed a range of physical tests and interviews to assess genetic and environmental factors that can shape their lives.

  英国、美国和新西兰的研究人员分析了两项大型研究中的数据后得出以上结论。在这两项研究中,研究人员要求接受调查的孩子完成一系列体能测试和面谈,以评估影响他们生活的基因和环境因素。

  They found that children with low self-control were more likely to have health problems in later life including high blood pressure, being overweight, breathing problems and sexually transmitted infections.

  科学家们发现,自制力弱的孩子在日后的生活中患高血压、肥胖、呼吸系统疾病和性传染病等健康问题的可能性更大。

  They were also more likely to be dependent on substances such as tobacco, alcohol and drugs, more likely to be single parents, have difficulty managing money and have criminal records.

  这些孩子同时也更容易依赖烟酒和毒品等药物、更有可能成为单身父母、在金钱管理方面更容易出现问题、有犯罪记录的可能性也更大。

  'Mastering self-control and managing impulses are some of the earliest demands that society places on children,' said lead researcher Dr Terrie Moffitt, of King's College London and Duke University in the US.

  同时在伦敦国王学院和美国杜克大学任职的首席研究员特里 莫菲特博士说:“克制自己和抑制冲动是社会对孩子们的一些最早的要求。”

  'Our study shows, for the first time, that willpower as a child really does influence your chances of a healthy and wealthy adulthood.'

  他接着说:“我们的研究第一次发现,孩子们的意志力确实会影响到他们成年后的健康和财富。”

  The researchers firstly looked at data from around 1,000 children born in New Zealand between April 1972 and March 1973.

  研究人员首先分析了约1000个于1972年4月到1973年3月间出生在新西兰的孩子们的资料。

  The participants' self-control was assessed by teachers, parents, observers and the children themselves and included things like having low frustration tolerance, lacking persistence in reaching goals, being over-active and acting before thinking.

  参与者的自控能力由老师、父母、观察员和孩子自己作出评估。自控能力差的表现包括挫折容忍度低、实现目标时缺乏毅力、过分活跃、以及没想好就行动等。

  Dr Moffitt's team then found that when the participants reached their early 30s, this impulsivity and relative inability to think about the long-term gave them more problems with finances, including savings, owning a home and credit card debt.

  后来,莫菲特博士的团队发现,当参与者到了三十出头时,这种易冲动的性格和做长远打算的能力的欠缺会给他们带来更多的金钱问题,包括存款、买房以及信用卡债务。

  The children with lower self-control scores also scored highest for things like sexually transmitted diseases, weight problems, having high cholesterol and high blood pressure.

  在自控方面得分较低的孩子在性传染病、体重问题、患高胆固醇和高血压方面的得分也最高。

  The findings were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal.


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