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名师指导:托福阅读修辞目的题之特殊题型趋势解析

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Healing

2015年04月10日

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修辞目的题,是我们常见的一道题目。众所周知,是寻找所提及的片段在文章当中的地位,也就是如何反对或者支持某一个主旨。今天我们一起说一下几个比较抽象的修辞目的题的发展趋势:暗修辞目的题型和段落结构题型。希望大家在做题目的时候能够及时确认题型并且针对题型迅速给出处理办法。

(一) 类细节题目

TPO 27 Crafts in the Ancient near East

Paragraph 4: Objects themselves suggest that they were the work of skilled professionals. In the late Uruk period (3500-3100 B.C.E.), there first appeared a type of object that remained characteristic for Mesopotamia throughout its entire history: the cylinder seal.

This was a small cylinder, usually no more than 3 centimeters high and 2 centimeters in diameter, of shell, bone, faience ( a glassy type of stoneware), or various types of stones, on which a scene was carved into the surface.

11. Paragraph 4 suggests which of the following about the significance of Mesopotamian cylinder seals?

○ They were designed more for home than for legal use

○ They demonstrate that their creators were professionals

○ They were the first example of seals made from materials other than stone

○ They were the first example of carved seals

这个题乍一看是一个细节题,问的是M的重要性,定位原文,并没有关于它很重要的表述;实质上这属于一个修辞目的题,问的是例子存在的价值:支持主旨:这样我们向前找主旨,主旨在段首,关键词是were the work of skilled professionals,也就是技术问题:因此定位答案B.通过这个题目,我们知道,问例子的重要性的,除非原文有专门表达,否则就要考虑修辞目的题。

(二)结构类题目变体:

以往见到的是:what is the structure of paragraph XX? 或者是 What is the purpose of paragraph 3? 再或者是 How does paragraph XX relate to XX? 根据结构的读法,我们基本就能确定结构的发展方向。现在我们看一个这样问的题目:

TPO27 The Formation of Volcanic Islands

Paragraph 3:How can volcanic activity occur so far from a plate boundary? The Hawaiian Islands provide a very instructive answer. Like many other island groups, they form a chain. The Hawaiian Islands Chain extends northwest from the island of Hawaii. In the 1840s American geologist James Daly observed that the different Hawaii Islands seem to share a similar geologic evolution but are progressively more eroded, and therefore probably older, toward the northwest. Then in 1963, in the early days of the development of the theory of plate tectonics, Canadian geophysicist Tuzo Wilson realized that this age progression could result if the islands were formed on a surface plate moving over a fixed volcanic source in the interior. Wilson suggested that the long chain of volcanoes stretching northwest from Hawaii is simply the surface expression of a long-lived volcanic source located beneath the tectonic plate in the mantle. Today’s most northwest island would have been the first to form.

6. In paragraph 3, what is the relationship between the scientific contribution of James Daly and Tuzo Wilson?

○ Wilson provided an explanation for the observations made by Daly

○ Wilson challenged the theory proposed by Daly

○ Wilson found numerous examples of island chains that supported Daly’s theory

○ Wilson popularized the explanation of volcanic island formation formulated by Daly

乍一看,这是一个细节题,尤其像关系类细节题。但是定位读完之后,相关专家JD 的理论是“island 分享同样板块并且…因此 更老older…。”专家TW说 this age progression could result ,也就是说这个过程是可以出现的,明显是支持并进一步说明了前边专家的理论。因此关系它们的关系实质是一种支持,是个结构题,正确答案A. 进一步解释。专家W没有用例子证明,无例子一类词汇,排除C;原文没有说理论一有什么weakness之类的缺陷词汇,排除B。原文也没有说他如何普及之前的学说,排除D。

新题中出现了较多段落与细节相互依存的题目,在此不一一详述,希望大家在做题时密切注意段落结构,宏观考虑,才能及时辨认题目类型,准确预测大致答案。


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