托福英语 学英语,练听力,上听力课堂! 注册 登录
> 托福 > 托福阅读 >  列表

托福阅读高分技巧之指代题详解

所属教程:托福阅读

浏览:

微辣

2015年08月07日

随身学
扫描二维码方便学习和分享

  现行的托福考试依然重视对阅读能力的考查,并且托福考试不仅有单独的新托福阅读理解测试,还从各类型题全方位的考查考生的阅读理解能力。下面给大家推荐一篇关于指代题的解析过程:

  一、问题形式

  被考的文章中有一个词或词组被加亮,这个词通常是一个代词或名词。指代题的形式如下:

  The word (or phrase) X in the passage refers to

  二、解题步骤

  1.根据解题技巧确定答案

  2.代入原文验证,看语义、逻辑和语法上是否通顺

  三、基本原则

  1.就近指代

  所谓就近指代,就是被指代对象通常在指代词前不远处,如本句或上一句中。有时也出现在更前面的一句中。例如,

  Large wind farms might also interfere with the flight patterns of migratory birds in certain areas, and they have killed large birds of prey (especially hawks, falcons, and eagles) that prefer to hunt along the same ridge lines that are ideal for wind turbines. The killing of birds of prey by wind turbines has pitted environmentalists who champion wildlife protection against environmentalists who promote renewable wind energy. Researchers are evaluating how serious this problem is and hope to find ways to eliminate or sharply reduce this problem.

  The phrase this problem in the passage refers to

  interference with the flight patterns of migrating birds in certain areas

  building ridge lines that are ideal for wind turbines

  the killing of birds of prey by wind turbines

  meeting the demands of environmentalists who promote renewable wind energy

  本题涉及的是一个词组this problem.寻找这一词组的指代对象时只需向上搜索就行。根据就近原则,前一句中的主语the killing of birds of prey by wind turbines可以初步确定为答案。将其代入原文,符合语义和逻辑,因此第三个选项为正确答案。第一个选项和第三个选项都和this problem相距较远,而且代入时语义和逻辑上不通,因此为干扰选项。

  2.数格一致

  被指代对象通常与指代词在数(如单数或复数)和格(主格或宾格)两方面相同。如单数代词one指代单数名词,复数代词they指代复数名词。

  四、主要思路

  1.主从复合句中的指代

  在主从复合句中,第二句的代词主语经常指代第一句的名词主语。例如,

  The fins are stiff, smooth, and narrow, qualities that also help cut drag. When not in use, the fins are tucked into special grooves or depressions so that they lie flush with the body and do not break up its smooth contours.

  The word they in the passage refers to

  qualities

  fins

  grooves

  depressions

  在这一例子中,从句so that they…中的代词主语they指代主句的名词主语the fins,因此第二个选项为正确答案。

  如果主从复合句中一个句子(可以是主句,也可以是从句)使用被动语态,包含被动语态的句子中的主语常指代另一句中的宾语。例如,

  Similarly, a plant or animal cannot squander all its energy on growing a big body if none would be left over for reproduction, for this is the surest way to extinction.

  The word none in the passage refers to

  food

  plant or animal

  energy

  big body

  在本例中,if引导的从句使用了被动语态,代词主语none指代前面主句中的宾语energy.因此,第三个选项为正确答案。

  2.并列动词中的指代

  如果一个句中有两个并列的动词,第二个动词的代词宾语经常指代前一个动词后的名词宾语。例如,

  Artists are recognizing the distinction between public and private spaces, and taking that into account when executing their public commissions.

  The word “that” in line 27 refers to

  (A)contemporary art

  (B)opportunity

  (C)audience

  (D)distinction

  句中有两个并列的动词recognizing和 taking (into account),其中recognizing的宾语是distinction,而taking 的宾语是that.根据上述技巧,that指代distinction.因此,(D)为正确答案。

  3.平行结构中的指代

  平行结构主要包括some/most/many/such/each…, others…; not only…but also…; the former…the latter等。在这种结构中,平行结构两个部分的两个代词经常指代同一对象:前一句中的名词主语。例如,

  In Southwest France in the 1940s, playing children discovered Lascaux Grotto, a series of narrow cave chambers that contain huge prehistoric paintings of animals. Many of these beasts are as large as 16 feet (almost 5 meters). Some follow each other in solemn parades, but others swirl about, sideways and upside down.

  The word others in the passage refers to

  chambers

  paintings

  beasts

  parades

  原文包含平行结构some…others,它们都指代前一句中的名词主语beasts,因此第三个选项为正确答案。

  4.所有格的指代

  所有格代词经常指代其前面与其最接近的名词。例如,

  Folk-made objects give way to their popular equivalent, usually because the popular item is more quickly or cheaply produced, is easier or time saving to use, or lends more prestige to the owner.

  The word “their” in line 1 refers to

  (A)folk

  (B)nations

  (C)countries

  (D)objects

  根据所有格指代的解题技巧,their指代前面位置最近的名词objects,因此(D)为正确答案。

  5.指代的接力棒现象

  这一现象是指被考的代词对应前面一个相同的代词,而前面的代词指代更前一句中的名词。例如,

  While such interviews can be highly entertaining, they are not necessarily an accurate indication of public opinion. First, they reflect the opinions of only those people who appear at a certain location.

  The word “they” in line 8 refers to

  (A)North Americans

  (B)news shows

  (C)interviews

  (D)opinions

  在这一例子中,第二句中的代词they(reflect the opinions…)对应第一句中的they(are not…),而第一个they指代前面从句中的名词主语interviews,那么第二个they也指代interviews,因此(C)为正确答案。

  除了上述情况之外,其他指代,如定语从句中(of which…, in which…, from which…)的关系代词指代先行词,from there结构中的there指代前面最接近的地点名词等,限于篇幅,不再详述。

  以上是托福阅读中指代题的全方位解析,考生们在备考托福阅读时要养成“边读边记”的习惯,会让阅读效率大大提高。最后小编祝大家考试顺利!


内容来自 听力课堂网:http://www.tingclass.net/show-8350-332600-1.html
用手机学英语,请加听力课堂微信公众号:tingclass123
用户搜索

疯狂英语 英语语法 新概念英语 走遍美国 四级听力 英语音标 英语入门 发音 美语 四级 新东方 七年级 赖世雄 zero是什么意思

  • 微信公众号:每日托福
  • [微信扫码,即可关注]
  • 关注有惊喜,经典托福资料免费送! 每天的精彩内容,不容错过。
  • 频道推荐
  • |
  • 全站推荐
  • 广播听力
  • |
  • 推荐下载
  • 网站推荐
0.093750