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托福语法易错题笔记 2

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1. Frances Perkins, _________ of the United States cabinet, served in the cabinet as secretary of labor from 1933 to 1945.

A. the first female member

B. was the first female member

C. the first female member who

D. of whom the first female member

答案:A

分析:主语同位语结构。B中多了一个谓语was,因为后面已经有一个谓语动词served, 一个句子中出现2个谓语且没有连接词就一定错; C中who多余,用法也不正确;D中of whom多余,不是定语从句,考的是同位语结构。

参考译文:Frances Perkins,是美国内阁的第一为女性成员,她从1933到1945年在内阁担任劳工部秘书。

2. When _________ to dough and heated, carbon dioxide is released, causing the dough to rise.

A. is added baking powder

B. added baking powder is

C. is baking powder added

D. baking powder is added

答案:D

分析:When为状语从句引导词;语序应该为正常语序,A,C错;B语序混乱,明显应该用被动形式,而且有固定结构add to.

参考译文:当把烘烤用粉加到面团里加热的时候,会释放出二氧化碳,使得面团涨开。

3. _________ the percentage of individuals with similar traits in succeeding generations, geneticists use the theory of probability.

A. The calculation of

B. To calculate

C. Is calculating

D. Calculated

答案:B

分析:to calculate,这里用不定式表示“目的”,前半句的逻辑主语是geneticists,只有B符合要求;A中只有主语,句子不完整。

参考译文:遗传学家运用概率的理论来计算在后代中拥有相似特点个体占有的百分比。

补充: 如同A的形式, 逗号前面就是一个名词短语, 然而正确的句子里, 名词短语要么作为主语的同位语, 要么本身是主语, 如11题。 否则就是脱离句子成分, 成为错误。

4. Big-band uaaz relies on fixed arrangements, where_______than one instrument playing some of the parts, rather than on improvisation.

A. is more

B. whenever more

C. there is more

D. more

答案:C

分析:where引导状语从句,后面缺主谓。

参考译文:大型乐队爵士依赖于固定的安排,其中演奏相同部分音乐的乐器超过一个,而不是现声发挥。

5. Because of _________ diversity, seven separate groupings or divisions of algae have been established by botanists.

A. them

B. so that

C. those

D. their

答案:D

分析:those是泛指,这里应该用their来特指seven separate groupings or divisions of algae.

参考译文:因为海藻们的不同特性,植物学家把他们分成7个不同的组别或分支。

6. Chromosomes are regarded today as the major carriers of genetic material, _________ of DNA and various types of protein.

A. consisting

B. as to consist

C. consist

D. which consisting

答案:A

分析:分词作状语。如果用consist的话,应该用个conj.后面加个完整的句子。

参考译文:染色体现今被认为是主要的遗传物质携带者,这些遗传物质由DNA和各种各样的蛋白质组成。

7. The leopard seal is the only pinniped _________ preys on penguins and other seals.

A. that normally

B. of which it normally

C. normally

D. that it normally

答案:A

分析:句中出现is和preys两个谓语动词,一定是个复合句;用that引导定语从句,pinniped为先行词,that后为不完整句。

参考译文:美洲虎海豹是仅有的捕食企鹅和其他海豹的鳍足类动物。

8. _________ “nova” means new, novas are actually stars that have existed for a long time and suddenly flare into brilliance.

A. That

B. Why

C. Although

D. It is

答案:C

分析:空格后有2个完整句,空格处需要一个conj.

参考译文:尽管nova意味着新的,但其实新星们是存在了很久而突然闪耀出光辉的恒星。

9. Because Mars is farther from the Sun than _________, Mars takes longer to complete a revolution.

A. Earth is

B. is from Earth

C. what is Earth

D. is it Earth

答案:A

分析:比较结构的对称性:Mars is farther …… than Earth is,is后省略了from the Sun

参考译文:因为火星比地球离太阳要远,火星绕太阳转一圈的时间要比地球长。

10. A social system is _________ of social relations that draws the behavior of its members toward the core values of the group.

A. a complex network

B. how a complex network

C. a complex network and

D. a network that is complex

答案:A

分析:缺宾语。B中的从句只有主语,句子不完整,错;C中and作为连词,后面缺谓语,错;D错,因为of前应该为名词。

参考译文:社会系统就是一个社会关系的复杂网络,这个网络里把成员的行为方式向核心价值观靠拢。


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