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托福语法:冠词的正确使用方法

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2015年08月07日

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  一说到语法我们也都醉了。各种词,各种句式都傻傻分不清,童鞋们,我们可是要去征服美帝的孩纸,不会的语法怎么能打怪兽?觉得不会的童鞋,默默地来补课吧,新东方网托福频道为大家整理了托福语法中冠词的正确使用方式:

  一、基本规律 (Basic rules)

  1.Indefinite article (不定冠词)

  我们用 "a , an "当我们不知道他是诸多人或事中的哪一个:

  * is one of many. ( 是许多个中的一个)

  He is an artist.(=there are many artists)

  * is not unique. (不是唯一的)

  I have just bought a book

  * has not been mentioned before. (之前没有提到过)

  There was a new student in class today.

  2.Definite article (定冠词)

  我们用 "the "当我们知道他是诸多人或事中的哪一个:

  * is unique (or unique in that context) (是唯一的)

  The Australian Prime Minister. (=there is only one)

  I looked inside, the engine was in a terrible state. (=there is only one engine, in this case)

  * has been mentioned before. (之前提到过)

  The man gave me a ticket. I looked at it, and saw that the ticket was a single.

  * is defined by the phrase which follows it. (要被接下来的短语详细说明)

  What is the new student's name?

  3. No articles (无冠词)

  我们不用冠词当我们普遍地提及事物的时候:

  * using plural or uncountable nouns (在使用复数或不可数名词时)

  Do you like sport?

  * with the names of people or places, but there are many exceptions (人名和地名的时候不用冠词,但是地名有许多例外,下文一一介绍)

  He is Professor Jones

  4. Fixed phrases ( 固定短语)

  有许多固定搭配需要用或者不用冠词,我们应该来单独学习,他们包括:

  a few/at home/at work/at the beginning/at the end/go to bed/go to the cinemas,shops,station/in the world/once a week/sixty kilometres an hour/the next/the other the other day/the same

  二、 经常发生问题的区域 (Areas that often cause problems)

  1.Jobs (工作)如果有许多人做这个工作我们用 a 或 an

  My husband is an architect. (=there are many architects)

  但是如果一个工作特别对应一个人,我们就要用“the”了:

  He is having talks with the French foreign minister(外交部长). (=there is only one)

  2.Superlative (最高级)

  我们使用“the”在形容词最高级前面:

  She is the best person for the job.

  3.Last and next

  有一些形容词如 “last” 和 “next ”同时可以用也可以不用定冠词“the”但是句意会发生变化

  I saw James last night. (=the one before this one)

  It is the last night of our holiday. (=the fanal one)

  I will see you next week.(=the one after this one)

  4. Institutions: school, prison, university, church, home, hospital和以上机构连用时我们不用定冠词“the”

  My sister had to stay in hospital overnight.

  然而,如果我们指的是这个建筑,我们就要用“the”

  Our flat is opposite the hospital.

  三 在表示时间和地点的短语中用或不用定冠词 (phrases of time and place)

  1.Phrases of time 有些时间短语必须用“the”

  Dates: the 25th of December / December the 25th

  Parts of the day: in the afternoon, in the evening, in the morning ( but at night, at lunchtime)

  Decades or Centuries: the 1980s, the 21st century

  另外一些时间短语不用“the”

  Years or Seasons: in 2002, in summer

  Months or Days: in August, on Friday, see you tomorrow

  2.Place names

  国家,大洲,岛屿,洲,省,城市前不加“the”(countries, continents, islands, states, provinces, town, cities)in Asia, to Sydney from Texas in Turkey in Britain in America

  例外情况:the Netherlands, the UK, the USA, the Arab World (可以发现国家名作为缩写的话要加“the”)

  如果我们指的是一个地区(region)那么我们不需要用“the”:North-west Inida, Northern Europe.

  但是如果我们指的是对于一个地区的方位或方向就要加上“the”:in the east of the country, in the south of Italy, on the coast

  大多数路,街,公园,桥梁,商店,酒店不用加“the”(raods, streets, parks, bridges, shops, restaurants):Central Park, Oxford Street, Tower Bridge

  但是有命名的剧院,电影院,旅馆,画廊,博物馆加“the”(names of theatres, cinemas, hotels, galleries, museums):the Hermitage, the National Theatre, the Odeon, the Ritz 特别的山和湖不加“the”

  Lake Victoria, Mount Everest山脉,河流,海洋,运河要加“the”:the Atlantic, the Yangtze River, the Himalayas, the Panama Canal


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