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新东方权威解析2013年5月11日托福写作考题

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文章是讲的关于Harappan civilization decline的原因的三个假说。

第一个是受到游牧民族nomadic tribe入侵。

第二个是气候变化导致农业垮了,没有食物。

第三个是水源被污染造成一种通过水传播的流行病,所以就搬迁。

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第一个是当时H文明的地盘很大large scale游牧民族虽然打了他几个地区但是还不至于导致他decline。

第二个是同时期的埃及文明和另一种文明同样遭受了气候变化但是都调整了农业有了surplus的food。所以H也不可能因为气候变化而decline。

第三个是H人都是出色的工程师,他们创造了先进的水系统可以防止疾病通过水传播。

独立写作:

People often buy products not because they really need them but because other people have them.

We make regular purchases every day, and most of the time, I believe people buy products because they need them. On the other hand, it is also true that sometimes our purchases are of human desires or so-called "wants", but this does not necessarily mean that we want these goods only because other people have them. It’s very possible for humans to like something purely because it is good to have them. Therefore, in my opinion, whether people buy products because they really need them or other people have them should be discussed case-by-case.

For goods like groceries, we buy them because they are essential for our everyday living. Using my mother as an example, each Friday after work, she would go to the grocery store to do grocery shopping for the family. Although she gets very tired after a week of work, she still does the shopping. She knows the importance of food for a family. Whether for breakfast, lunch, or dinner, she always prepares us a healthy and delicious meal. Giving us food is a way for her to show her love and care. She is not the only mom who does this. Most moms would go to grocery store to pick up food for the family. It is not because other moms buy food for their family so they need to do it as well, but rather, as humans we depend on food for survival. For college students, same principle applies. It is easy for students to get overwhelmed by school work and social life, but when it comes to grocery shopping, students still make time to do their shopping list. Buying healthy and nutritious food is necessary for students’ life. In this case, we buy products because we need them not because others have it.

For some luxurious goods, however, such as an expensive bag or a pair of shoes, people might purchase them because others have them as well. This phenomenon is especially common among high school female students. As girls begin to care more and more about their looks, their perspective on beauty starts to change collectively. For example, a girl who wears a pair of UGG shoes may eventually starts a trend. If her classmates think having a pair of UGG is cool and pretty, then they will want a pair too. So it is common to see within a school that girls dress very similarly with one another. This is an example when purchases are not needs, but simply because others have it and so one wants to have it too. According to a survey conducted by Trend website, a significant percentage of luxurious goods buyers consider luxurious brand as a label for their social status or wealth and they tend to choose the brand that their colleagues or friends recognize or value.

In sum, I think most of the time people make purchases because we need them, but there are rare situations where making a purchase is because others have it.


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