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2015年考研英语一完形填空真题及答案

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  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Though not biologically related, friends are as “related” as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is _(1)_a study, published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has__(2)_.

  The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted _(3)__1,932 unique subjects which __(4)__pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both_(5)_.

  While 1% may seem_(6)_,it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, “Most people do not even _(7)_their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who_(8)_our kin.”

  The study_(9)_found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity .Why this similarity exists in smell genes is difficult to explain, for now,_(10)_,as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more_(11)_it. There could be many mechanisms working together that _(12)_us in choosing genetically similar friends_(13)_“functional Kinship” of being friends with_(14)_!

  One of the remarkable findings of the study was the similar genes seem to be evolution_(15)_than other genes Studying this could help_(16)_why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major_(17)_factor.

  The findings do not simply explain people‘s_(18)_to befriend those of similar_(19)_backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to_(20)_that all subjects, friends and strangers, were taken from the same population.

  1. [A] when [B] why [C] how [D] what

  2. [A] defended [B] concluded [C] withdrawn [D] advised

  3. [A] for [B] with [C] on [D] by

  4. [A] compared [B] sought [C] separated [D] connected

  5. [A] tests [B] objects [C]samples [D] examples

  6. [A] insignificant [B] unexpected [C]unbelievable [D] incredible

  7. [A] visit [B] miss [C] seek [D] know

  8. [A] resemble [B] influence [C] favor [D] surpass

  9. [A] again [B] also [C] instead [D] thus

  10. [A] Meanwhile [B] Furthermore [C] Likewise [D] Perhaps

  11. [A] about [B] to [C]from [D]like

  12. [A] drive [B] observe [C] confuse [D]limit

  13. [A] according to [B] rather than [C] regardless of [D] along with

  14. [A] chances [B]responses [C]missions [D]benefits

  15. [A] later [B]slower [C] faster [D] earlier

  16. [A]forecast [B]remember [C]understand [D]express

  17. [A] unpredictable [B]contributory [C] controllable [D] disruptive

  18. [A] endeavor [B]decision [C]arrangement [D] tendency

  19. [A] political [B] religious [C] ethnic [D] economic

  20. [A] see [B] show [C] prove [D] tell

  【参考答案】:

  1、【答案】[D] what

  【解析】该题考查的是语法知识。根据句子结构和选项的特点,可以判断出空格处应填从属连词引导从句;再根据句子的内容,可以看出该从句是一项研究的相关内容(what),不是指研究的时间(when), 原因(why)和方式(how),因此,该题的答案为what.

  2、【答案】[B] concluded

  【解析】从此题所在的句子的前后内容可以判断出,that is_______ 中的that是指第一句话的内容(朋友与我们基因上的相关性),很显然是研究得出的结论。因此,答案为concluded.

  3、【答案】[C] on

  【解析】根据空格所在句子的内容(研究对1932分独特的受试者进行分析)判断出进行分析的对象是1932 unique subjects.conduct analysis on…是固定表达。

  4、【答案】[A] compared

  【解析】该空格所在的句子是which 引导的定语从句修饰study,意思是:对几对基因不相关的朋友和陌生人进行_______.因为“研究”的内容是关于朋友间基因上的相关性问题,所以完整的意思应该是:对几对基因不相关的朋友和陌生人进行比较。所以最佳答案为compared.

  5、【答案】[C] samples

  【解析】根据空格的前后内容判断,到第五个空为止,文章都在讲实验过程,和实验对象,第五个空格所在句子的内容是:相同的人们都用于实验中的这两类______.所以根据上下文语境和内容,应该选与实验对象相对应的samples(样例)。因此,答案是samples.

  6、【答案】[A] insignificant

  【解析】空的语境为:尽管这1%看起来似乎____,但是遗传学家可不这么认为。空前后形成对比转折的逻辑关系,而从后文列举的例子中可知遗传学家James Fowler对这1%基因的态度是肯定的,故答案为A.

  7、【答案】[D] know

  【解析】空的语境为:大多数人甚至不____他们隔三代的表亲,但却设法选择那些____我们亲戚的人作为朋友。填入的词必须满足前后句之间的转折逻辑关系,四个选项带入,只有D选项符合上下文语义。

  8、【答案】[A] resemble

  【解析】空的语境为:大多数人甚至不认识他们隔三代的表亲,但却设法选择那些____我们亲戚的人作为朋友。根据全文中心:基因上的相似性,可知本题选择A.

  9、【答案】[B] also

  【解析】空所在的句子开头用“The study…”,显然这是对上文话题的继续阐述,前文指出研究发现朋友与我们有1%的基因关系,而空所在句“the genes for smell were something shared in friends”在进一步详细讨论该话题,前后之间是顺接关系,故答案为B.

  10、【答案】[D] Perhaps

  【解析】从选项和文字中句子结构可以判断,空格处要求填入一个能够体现前后两个句子逻辑关系的副词,空前的句子谈到“为什么在嗅觉基因方面存在相似性还很难解释”,空后却紧接着对此得出一个相关结论,很明显是矛盾的,所以此结论只能是一种不确定的推测,故答案为D.

  11、【答案】[B] to

  【解析】该题为介词选择题。后半句出现比较级,可见是和前文形成比较关系,因此和上半句介词保持一致,用介词to.该句翻译:它(这种相似性)吸引我们到相同的环境,并且使我们更为相似。因此答案为to.

  12、【答案】[A] drive

  【解析】该句意思为:很多机制共同作用,从而_____我们选择基因相似的朋友,_____和_____交朋友的“功能关系”。根据上下文可知,此处所填入动词需符合结构_____sb. in doing sth,B选项observe(观察,遵守)和C选项confuse(困惑)均无此用法。符合该结构只有A选项drive(驱使)和D选项limit(限制)。根据上下文可得知:这些机制驱使我们选择基因相似的朋友,符合文章主题。如果选限制则为反向干扰。因此答案为drive.

  13、【答案】[B] rather than

  【解析】所填词为逻辑关系短语,空前说选择基因相似的朋友,空后说具有“实用关系”的朋友,可知前后为对立关系,并且根据文章主题,可知肯定前者而否定后者,可锁定B选项rather than.A选项according to(根据)没有体现出对立及取舍关系,因此排除;C选项regardless of(不管)表让步关系,干扰性较强,但文章更强调取前舍后,因此排除;D选项along with(伴随)表顺接,故排除。故答案为rather than.

  14、【答案】[D] benefits

  【解析】根据前文functional kinship(实用关系)可得出D选项benefits(利益),前后形成呼应。A选项chances(机会)、B选项responses(反应)、C选项missions(使命)均不符合题意。故答案为benefits.

  15、【答案】[C] faster

  【解析】该句为:evolving ______ than other genes(比其他基因进化得______)。 根据同词复现,我们找到该段第二句话中:human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years(人类进化在过去30000年间提速)。C 选项faster与下文picked pace(加速)形成呼应,故答案为faster.

  16、【答案】[C] understand

  【解析】此题考查动词。根据语意。空格后面是一个why引导的宾语从句,意为“人类进化在过去三万年间得以加速的原因”,表示这一研究的结果和意义。能与这一宾语从句构成搭配的只有C选项understand.A选项forecast“预测”与“过去三万年”相矛盾,B选项remember“记住”和D选项“express”均不符合文意。

  17、【答案】[B] contributory

  【解析】此空需要填入一个形容词,表达社会环境对人类进步所起到的作用。help,pick pace这两个词表达的都是积极的含义,因此此处需要填入一个带有褒义的感情色彩的词, 因此排除A选项“不可预测的”和D选项“破坏性的”; B 而C选项“可控的”,与语意无关;因此正确答案为B选项contributory“促进的”。

  18、【答案】[D] tendency

  【解析】此处进一步陈述这一研究的结论。A选项endeavor“努力”,B选项“决定”,C选项“安排”,D选项“倾向”。本文的主旨重在解释人们在交朋友的不自觉的一种倾向,而非通过人为的有意识的举动来选择朋友。因此正确答案为D.

  19、【答案】[C] ethnic

  【解析】结合文意,人们普遍希望和有相似基因背景的人。C选项ethnic意为“种族的,民族的”,是对上文中多次重复出现的genes,以及下文的the same population的同义复现。因此正确答案为C. A选项political“政治的”, B选项“宗教的”,D选项“经济的”均不符合原文文意。

  20、【答案】[A] see

  【解析】此处考察动词,动词势必要看前后搭配。see that 构成固定词组,意为“务必使……”,符合文意,即:即使所有的受访者都拥有欧洲血统,(研究者们)仍然悉心确保所有的受访者、朋友和陌生人都来自于同一群种。选项B“展示”,选项C“证明”,选项D“辨别”均无此含义,且不符合文意。


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