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布什于2002年在清华大学的演讲

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2018年06月14日

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布什于2002年在清华大学的演讲 英文版

Vice President Hu, thank you very much for your kind and generous remarks. Thank you for welcoming me and my wife, Laura, here. I see she’s keeping pretty good company, with the Secretary of State, Colin Powell. It’s good to see you, Mr. Secretary. And I see my National Security Advisor, Ms. Condoleezza Rice, who at one time was the provost at Stanford University. So she’s comfortable on university campuses such as this. Thank you for being here, Condi.

I’m so grateful for the hospitality, and honored for the reception at one of China’s, and the world’s, great universities.

This university was founded, interestingly enough, with the support of my country, to further ties between our two nations. I know how important this place is to your Vice President. He not only received his degree here, but more importantly, he met his gracious wife here.

I want to thank the students for giving me the chance to meet with you, the chance to talk a little bit about my country and answer some of your questions.

The standards and reputation of this university are known around the world, and I know what an achievement it is to be here. So, congratulations. I don’t know if you know this or not, but my wife and I have two daughters who are in college, just like you. One goes to the University of Texas. One goes to Yale. They’re twins. And we are proud of our daughters, just like I’m sure your parents are proud of you.

My visit to China comes on an important anniversary, as the Vice President mentioned. Thirty years ago this week, an American President arrived in China on a trip designed to end decades of estrangement and confront centuries of suspicion. President Richard Nixon showed the world that two vastly different governments could meet on the grounds of common interest, in the spirit of mutual respect. As they left the airport that day, Premier Zhou Enlai said this to President Nixon:“Your handshake came over the vastest ocean in the world—25 years of no communication.”During the 30 years since, America and China have exchanged many handshakes of friendship and commerce.

And as we have had more contact with each other, the citizens of both countries have gradually learned more about each other. And that’s important. Once America knew China only by its history as a great and enduring civilization. Today, we see a China that is still defined by noble traditions of family, scholarship, and honor. And we see a China that is becoming one of the most dynamic and creative societies in the world—as demonstrated by the knowledge and potential right here in this room. China is on a rising path, and America welcomes the emergence of a strong and peaceful and prosperous China.

As America learns more about China, I am concerned that the Chinese people do not always see a clear picture of my country. This happens for many reasons, and some of them of our own making. Our movies and television shows often do not portray the values of the real America I know. Our successful businesses show a strength of American commerce, but our spirit, community spirit, and contributions to each other are not always visible as monetary success.

Some of the erroneous pictures of America are painted by others. My friend, the Ambassador to China, tells me some Chinese textbooks talk of Americans of“bullying the weak and repressing the poor.”Another Chinese textbook, published just last year, teaches that special agents of the FBI are used to“repress the working people.”Now, neither of these is true—and while the words may be leftovers from a previous era, they are misleading and they’re harmful.

In fact, Americans feel a special responsibility for the weak and the poor. Our government spends billions of dollars to provide health care and food and housing for those who cannot help themselves—and even more important, many of our citizens contribute their own money and time to help those in need. American compassion also stretches way beyond our borders. We’re the number one provider of humanitarian aid to people in need throughout the world. And as for the men and women of the FBI and law enforcement, they’re working people; they, themselves, are working people who devote their lives to fighting crime and corruption.

My country certainly has its share of problems, no question about that. And we have our faults. Like most nations we’re on a long journey toward achieving our own ideals of equality and justice. Yet there’s a reason our nation shines as a beacon of hope and opportunity, a reason many throughout the world dream of coming to America. It’s because we’re a free nation, where men and women have the opportunity to achieve their dreams. No matter your background or your circumstance of birth, in America you can get a good education, you can start your own business, you can raise a family, you can worship freely, and help elect the leaders of your community and your country. You can support the policies of our government, or you’re free to openly disagree with them.

Those who fear freedom sometimes argue it could lead to chaos, but it does not, because freedom means more than every man for himself.Liberty gives our citizens many rights, yet expects them to exercise important responsibilities. Our liberty is given direction and purpose by moral character, shaped in strong families, strong communities, and strong religious institutions, and overseen by a strong and fair legal system.

My country’s greatest symbol to the world is the Statue of Liberty, and it was designed by special care. I don’t know if you’ve ever seen the Statue of Liberty, but if you look closely, she’s holding not one object, but two. In one hand is the familiar torch we call the“light of liberty”. And in the other hand is a book of law.

We’re a nation of laws. Our courts are honest and they are independent. The President—me—I can’t tell the courts how to rule, and neither can any other member of the executive or legislative branch of government. Under our law, everyone stands equal. No one is above the law, and no one is beneath it.

All political power in America is limited and it is temporary, and only given by the free vote of the people. We have a Constitution, now two centuries old, which limits and balances the power of the three branches of our government, the judicial branch, the legislative branch, and the executive branch, of which I’m a part.

Many of the values that guide our life in America are first shaped in our families, just as they are in your country. American moms and dads love their children and work hard and sacrifice for them, because we believe life can always be better for the next generation. In our families, we find love and learn responsibility and character.

And many Americans voluntarily devote part of their lives to serving other people. An amazing number—nearly half of all adults in America—volunteer time every week to make their communities better by mentoring children, or by visiting the sick, or caring for the elderly, or helping with thousands of other needs and causes.

This is one of the great strengths of my country. People take responsibility for helping others, without being told, motivated by their good hearts and often by their faith.

America is a nation guided by faith. Someone once called us“a nation with the soul of a church”. This may interest you—95 percent of Americans say they believe in God, and I’m one of them.

When I met President Jiang Zemin in Shanghai a few months ago, I had the honor of sharing with him how faith changed my life and how faith contributes to the life of my country.

Faith points to a moral law beyond man’s law, and calls us to duties higher than material gain. Freedom of religion is not something to be feared, it’s to be welcomed, because faith gives us a moral core and teaches us to hold ourselves to high standards, to love and to serve others, and to live responsible lives.

If you travel across America—and I hope you do some day if you haven’t been there—you will find people of many different ethic backgrounds and many different faiths. We’re a varied nation. We’re home to 2.3 million Americans of Chinese ancestry, who can be found working in the offices of our corporations, or in the Cabinet of the President of the United States, or skating for the America Olympic team. Every immigrant, by taking an oath of allegiance to our country, becomes just as just as American as the President. America shows that a society can be vast and it can be varied, yet still one country, commanding the allegiance and love of its people.

And all these qualities of America were widely on display on a single day, September the 11th, the day when terrorists, murderers, attacked my nation. American policemen and firefighters, by the hundreds, ran into burning towers in desperation to save their fellow citizens. Volunteers came from everywhere to help with rescue efforts. Americans donated blood and gave money to help the families of victims. America had prayer services all over our country, and people raised flags to show their pride and unity. And you need to know, none of this was ordered by the government; it happened spontaneously, by the initiative of free people.

Life in America shows that liberty, paired with law is not to be feared. In a free society, diversity is not disorder. Debate is not strife. And dissent is not revolution. A free society trusts its citizens to seek greatness in themselves and their country.

It was my honor to visit China in 1975—some of you weren’t even born then. It shows how old I am. And a lot has changed in your country since then. China has made amazing progress—in openness and enterprise and economic freedom. And this progress previews China’s great potential.

China has joined the World Trade Organization, and as you live up to its obligations, they inevitably will bring changes to China’s legal system. A modern China will have a consistent rule of law to govern commerce and secure the rights of its people. The new China your generation is building will need the profound wisdom of your traditions. The lure of materialism challenges our society—challenges society in our country, and in many successful countries. Your ancient ethic of personal and family responsibility will serve you well.

Behind China’s economic success today are talented, brilliant and energetic people. In the near future, those same men and women will play a full and active role in your government. This university is not simply turning out specialists, it is preparing citizens. And citizens are not spectators in the affairs of their country. They are participants in its future.

Change is coming. China is already having secret ballot and competitive elections at the local level. Nearly 20 years ago, a great Chinese leader, Deng Xiaoping, said this—I want you to hear his words. He said that China would eventually expand democratic elections all the way to the national level. I look forward to that day.

Tens of millions of Chinese today are relearning Buddhist, Taoist, and local religious traditions, or practicing Christianity, Islam, and other faiths. Regardless of where or how these believers worship, they’re no threat to public order; in fact, they make good citizens. For centuries, this country has had a tradition of religious tolerance. My prayer is that all persecution will end, so that all in China are free to gather and worship as they wish.

All these changes will lead to a stronger, more confident China—a China that can astonish and enrich the world, a China that your generation will help create. This is one of the most exciting times in the history of your country, a time when even the grandest hopes seem within your reach.

My nation offers you our respect and our friendship. Six years from now, athletes from America and around the world will come to your country for the Olympic games. And I’m confident they will find a China that is becoming a da guo, a leading nation, at peace with its people and at peace with the world.

Thank you for letting me come.

布什于2002年在清华大学的演讲 中文版

 

胡副主席,非常感谢您的欢迎致辞,非常感谢您在这里接待我和我的夫人劳拉。我发现她与鲍威尔先生相处得很好。今天很高兴看到你,国务卿先生。同时我也看到我的助理赖斯女士,她曾经是斯德莫大学的校长,因此她回到校园是最适合不过的了。谢谢你此时能在这儿,赖斯。

非常感谢各位对我的热情接待,很荣幸能够来到这所中国甚至是世界最伟大的学府之一。

这所大学恰好是在美国的支持下成立的,成立的目的是为了推动我们两国间的关系。我也知道清华这所大学对于副主席先生有着十分重要的意义,他不仅在这里获得了学位,而且还在这里与他优雅的夫人相识。

我想同时也感谢在座的各位学生给我这个机会跟大家见面,谈一谈我自己的国家,并且回答大家的一些问题。

清华大学的治学标准和名声闻名于世,我也知道能考入这所大学本身是一个很大的成就,祝贺你们。我不知道大家是不是知道,我和我的太太有两个女儿,像你们一样正在上大学,一个女儿上的是德州大学,一个女儿上的是耶鲁大学,她们是双胞胎。我们对我们的两个女儿备感骄傲,我想你们的父母对你们的成就也是同样的引以为荣。

我这次访华恰逢一个重要的周年纪念日,副主席刚才也谈到了,三十年前的这一周,一个美国总统来到了中国,他的访华之旅是为了结束长达数十年的隔阂,和长达数百年的相互猜疑。理查德·尼克松总统向世界展示了两个迥然不同的政府能够本着相互利益,本着相互尊重的精神站在一起。那天他们离开机场的时候,周恩来总理对尼克松总统说:“你与我的握手越过了世界上最为辽阔的海洋,这个海洋就是互不交往的二十五年。”自从那时以来,美国和中国已经握过多次的友谊之手和商业之手。

随着我们两国间接触的日益频繁,我们两国的国民也逐渐地加深了对彼此的了解,这是非常非常重要的。曾经一度,美国人只知道中国是一个历史悠久的伟大国家,有伟大的文明。今天,我们仍然看到中国奉行着重视家庭、学业和荣誉的优良传统,同时,我们所看到的中国正日益成为世界上最富活力和最富创造力的国家之一,这一点最佳的验证便是在座诸位所具备的知识和潜力。中国正走在一个发展的道路上,而美国欢迎一个强大、和平与繁荣的中国出现。

正当美国人在更进一步了解中国的同时,我却担心中国人不一定总是能够很清楚地看到我的国家的真实面貌,这里面有多种原因,其中有一些是我们自己造成的。我们的电影,还有电视节目,往往并没有全面反映出我所认识的美国的真正的价值观。我们成功的企业显示了美国商业的力量,但是我们的精神、我们的社区精神,还有我们相互对彼此的贡献往往并不像我们在金钱方面的成功那样显而易见。

有些关于美国错误的描述则是他人做出的。我的朋友美国驻华大使告诉我,有些中国的教科书里面讲到美国人欺负弱者,压制穷人;另外,有一本去年刚出版的中国教科书,书里面说联邦调查局的特工们被用来压制劳动人民。这两种说法都是不真实的,这种措词很可能是过去时代遗留的产物,不过它确实是误人子弟,而且是有害的。

事实上,美国人民能感受到对弱者和贫者的一种特殊责任感。政府花费数亿美元来向那些无助的人提供卫生保健、食物、房屋。更重要的是,许多公民捐献出自己的时间和金钱来帮助那些需要帮助的人。美国人民甚至将其同情延伸到他国,我们是世界上向需要帮助的人提供人道主义援助的首善。至于联邦调查局和执法机关的人们,他们是劳动人民,是致力于打击犯罪和腐败的劳动人民。

毫无疑问,美国也有自己的问题,我们也有我们的过失。像大多数国家一样,我们在实现平等和公正方面还有很长的路要走。美国成为希望和机会的灯塔,成为全世界的梦想之地是有其原因的。那就是我们是一个自由的国度,无论男性还是女性都有机会实现他们的梦想。无论你的背景如何,无论你的出生环境如何,在美国你都有机会接受良好的教育,可以做自己的生意,可以养家糊口,可以信仰自由,也可以自主选择你所在社区和国家的管理者。你可以支持我们政府的政策,同时你也可以公开地毫不掩饰地表述不同的观点。

有些人害怕自由,他们说自由可能导致混乱,但是实际上并不会这样。因为自由的含义远远超越了人人为己,自由赋予了我们国民许多的权利,同时也邀请他们履行重大的责任。我们的自由因为有道德,所以是一种有方向,有目的的自由。我们的自由在强健的家庭中,在强健的社区中,在强健的宗教团体生活中得到了熏陶,同时也为一个强大而公平的法律制度所监督。

我的国家显示给世界最伟大的象征是自由女神像,她是经过精心设计而成的。我不知道大家是否见过自由女神像,如果仔细观察会发现她手里拿着两件东西,其中一只手拿的是大家比较熟悉的火炬,那是自由之光,另一只手拿的是一部法典。

我们美国是一个法制的国家,我们的法院是清廉、独立的。即使是总统,哪怕是我,也无法告诉法院要如何来判案,行政部门、立法部门任何一个成员都不可以。根据我们的法律每个人都是平等的,没有任何一个人是凌驾于法律之上的,也没有任何一个人是为法律所不耻的。

在美国,所有的政治权利都是有限的、暂时的,只有通过人民的自由投票才能得到。我们拥有一部宪法,现在已经有两百年的历史,它限制并且平衡三个部门之间的权力,这三个部门就是司法、立法和行政机构。我是行政机构中的一员。

我们美国生活中的很多价值观,首先都是在家庭中陶冶形成的,就像在中国一样,美国的妈妈、爸爸们疼爱他们的孩子,为他们的健康成长作出牺牲,因为我们相信下一代的生活总会更好。在我们的家庭中,我们可以找到关爱,可以学习如何负起责任,如何陶冶人格。

很多美国人都主动抽出时间为其他人提供服务,这是一个惊人的数字,几乎一半的成年人每周都拿出时间使他们的社区办得更好,他们辅导儿童、探访病人、照顾老人,并且帮助许许多多其他的人,这种事情数不胜数。

这就是我的国家的一大优点。人们主动地承担起责任帮助他人,他们的原动力就是善良的心,还有他们的信仰。

美国是一个受信仰指导的国度,曾经有人称呼我们为教会之魂的国度,美国有95%的人称他们信仰上帝,我便是其中之一。

我几个月之前在上海见到江泽民主席时,我非常荣幸和他分享了我个人的经历,信仰如何影响了我的一生,信仰如何充实了我们国家的生活。

信仰为我们指出一种道德的规范,这超越人们的法律,也号召我们承担比物质利益更为崇高的使命。宗教自由不仅不可怕,而且应当受到欢迎,因为信仰给我们一种道德的支柱,它教授我们如何用高标准来要求自己,如何爱护他人,为他人提供服务,并且如何有责任地过我们的生活。

如果你到美国旅行的话,我希望诸位有机会到美国去旅行,你会见到来自不同背景有着不同信仰的人。我们是一个多元文化多姿多彩的国家,在那里有230万华人在繁衍生息,在我们大公司的办公室里有华人工作,在美国政府的内阁里有华人工作,在奥林匹克运动会中也有华人代表美国参加滑冰比赛,每个移民只要宣誓效忠美国,就可以成为不折不扣的美国公民,毫不亚于美国总统。美国表明一个社会可以是多姿多彩的,但仍然是一个国家,它得到其人民的效忠和热爱。

美国的所有这些特征都在一天之中生动而有力地显示出来,这就是9月11日。那天恐怖分子的凶手们攻击了我的国家,美国的警察和救火队员们带着拯救同胞的一线希望,成百上千地冲进了燃烧的大楼,来自各地的志愿者,帮助救援工作的进行。美国人中有的献血,有的捐钱来帮助那些受难者的家庭。美国各地的民众举行祈祷会,人们升起国旗,表明他们作为美国人的荣誉和团结。这些都不是政府下令让他们做的,这些都是自由的人民自发和主动做出来的。

美国的生活表明,自由在法律的辅佐下不一定令人生畏。在一个自由的社会中,多样化不是混乱,辩论不是争斗,不同政见不是革命。一个自由的社会,信任其公民,会在其自身和国家的身上寻找到一种伟大的境界。

我在1975年有幸访问过中国,在座的有些人也许还没有出生,这也表明现在我有多老了。从那时以来,贵国发生了深刻的变化,中国取得了举世闻名的进步,在开放方面,在企业方面,在经济自由方面都是如此。而这样的进步预示着中国具有巨大的潜力。

中国已经加入了世界贸易组织,在诸位履行新义务的同时,这些新义务将为贵国的法律制度带来变化。一个现代化的中国将有一个统一的法制,规范其商业活动,保障其人民的权力。诸位这一代所建设的新中国将需要贵国传统中博大精深的智慧,而物质主义的诱惑在我们的国家给我们的社会造成挑战,在很多成功的国家也造成挑战。重视个人和家庭责任的古老道德传统将使诸位受益匪浅。

在中国如今经济成功的背后是有活力的人才。在不久将来,这些人将在政府中发挥积极和全面的作用。清华大学不仅在培养专家,也是在培育公民。公民在其国家的事务中不是袖手旁观者,而是建设未来的参与者。

变化正在到来,中国已经在地方一级进行不计名投票和差额选举。将近二十年前,中国伟大的领导人邓小平说,中国最终将把这种民主选举推广到中央一级。我期待这一天的到来。

如今,上千万中国人都在重温佛教、道教和各地的传统信仰,还有信仰基督教、伊斯兰教和其他宗教的。不管这些信徒在哪里,从事何种宗教活动,他们都不会对公共秩序造成威胁,实际上他们是很好的公民。多个世纪以来,中国在包容各种宗教方面有着古老的传统,我为一切迫害的终结祈祷,让所有的中国人都有集会和从事宗教活动的自由。

所有这些变化将导致中国更加强大,更加自信,这样的中国将使世界瞩目,也使世界更加丰富。这样的中国就是诸位这一代人所共同创建的中国。现在是中国的历史上非常令人振奋的时刻,此时此刻就连最宏伟的梦想也似乎唾手可得。

我的国度与中国相互尊重,友好相处。再过六年来自美国和世界的运动员将到贵国参加奥林匹克比赛。我坚信他们见到的中国,将是一个正在变成大国的中国,一个走在世界前沿的国家,一个与其人民无争,与世界和平相处的中国。

谢谢诸位让我来此发言。


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