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2. What your industry norms are, in terms of salary negotiations.
Generally speaking, hiring managers expect candidates to negotiate. It's also in your best interests to do so – not negotiating can cost you hundreds of thousands of dollars over the course of your career. Raises are based on a percentage of your earnings, so where you start out affects your future salary.
With all rules, however, there are exceptions. Very rarely, you'll hear a story about an offer being pulled when someone tried to negotiate. Most of the time, that means there's something very wrong with the company, and you're better off not working there.
3. For women: the best strategy to copy with bias during the negotiating process.
Women are stuck between a rock and a hard place, when it comes to asking for more money. Behavior that would win a man accolades (and a fat check) is sometimes regarded as aggressive or unfeminine when a woman does it.
The answer is neither to ignore the situation or accept it, but to work within it. Bring as much data to the table as possible, but don't stop there. Be prepared to ask diagnostic questions to determine what the interviewer values, so that you can demonstrate that you'll bring that to the company.