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亚美尼亚人也“抓周”,半岁开始“职业规划”

所属教程:职场人生

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2017年03月16日

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Children in Armenia start thinking about their careers at a very young age — around six months or so.

亚美尼亚的孩子在很小的时候——大约六个月大时——就开始考虑自己的职业。

When an infant’s first tooth arrives, typically in four to seven months, a celebration takes place known variously as the “agra hadig” or “atam hatik.”

当婴儿长出第一颗牙时——往往是在四个月到七个月大期间——会举行一场庆祝活动。人们对这个活动的叫法不一,有人叫它agra hadig,也有人叫它atam hatik。

As part of the ritual, objects symbolizing different professions are arrayed in front of a child: a microphone for an entertainer, a stethoscope for a doctor, scissors for a tailor or money for a banker. Whichever object the baby chooses first is thought to be a sign of where the child’s professional aptitude lies.

作为庆祝仪式的一部分,象征不同职业的物品会被摆在孩子面前:象征艺人的麦克风、象征医生的听诊器、象征裁缝的剪刀或象征银行业从业人员的现金。无论孩子选择哪一样,都会被认为象征着孩子的职业倾向。

With the appearance of teeth, a child can begin to eat solid food, and the acquisition of this skill is believed to be a propitious time to foretell what the future holds, said Yulia Antonyan, a professor in the department of cultural studies at Yerevan State University in Armenia’s capital.

位于亚美尼亚首都的埃里温国立大学(Yerevan State University)文化研究学院教授尤利娅·安东尼扬(Yulia Antonyan)说,随着牙齿的长出,孩子可以开始吃固体食物,获得这种能力的时候,被认为是预测孩子未来的最佳时机。

There are no obligatory objects, but sets available for purchase will often include traditional artisan tools and choices epitomizing a more modern lifestyle. Parents are free to add to or omit from the mix as they wish.

没有必须要出现的物品,不过能买到的成套物品常常包括传统的匠人工具和象征更现代的生活方式的选择。父母可按自己的意愿随意增减物品。

“Parents may orchestrate the future life of their offspring by choosing only those objects that symbolize prestigious and desired professions,” Professor Antonyan said. “A book for a scientist or writer; a pencil for an architect, designer or artist; a calculator for an accountant.”

“家长也许会通过只选那些象征有声望的理想职业的物品来安排子女未来的生活,”安东尼扬说。“一本象征科学家或作家的书,一支象征建筑师、设计师或艺术家的铅笔,或是一个象征会计师的计算器。”

Parents can also game the selection by positioning objects nearer to or farther from their infant’s reach. At one recent ceremony, “the father of the baby asked to place a ladle a bit far from his daughter to save her from a destiny of a housewife,” Professor Antonyan said.

家长也可以通过把物品放在离孩子更近或更远的地方,来左右孩子的选择。在最近的一场仪式上,“孩子的父亲要求把一个长柄勺放在离他女儿稍微远一点的地方,以防她落入家庭主妇的命运,”安东尼杨说。

At the foundation of the ritual, and reflected in its names, is a magical association between teeth (agra or atam) and grain (hadig or hatik), according to Professor Antonyan.

据安东尼扬介绍,作为该仪式的基础,是牙齿(agra或atam)和谷物(hadig或hatik)之间的奇妙联系,这在它的名字中也有反映。

The ceremony begins by pouring various cereal grains over and around the child. Typically but not always, the baby’s head is protected by a piece of fabric, a pair of hands or sometimes even an umbrella.

仪式开始时,人们会朝孩子身上和周围撒各种谷物颗粒。孩子的头部往往会用一块布料、一双手有时候甚至是一把雨伞保护起来,但也不总是这样。

The ritual sprinkling is thought to ensure that the child will have healthy, even teeth. It could also have fertility associations, akin to throwing rice at a wedding, according to Levon Abrahamian, a cultural anthropologist in Yerevan.

仪式上抛撒谷物这个环节被认为是确保孩子将拥有一口健康、整齐的牙齿。据埃里温的文化人类学者列翁·阿布拉哈米安(Levon Abrahamian)称,这么做还和子孙兴旺的寓意有关,类似于在婚礼上撒大米。

Today, teeth-shaped cakes, toys, candy and balloons are popular party favors at these celebrations, which are widely practiced in Armenia and across the Armenian diaspora.

如今,做成牙齿形状的蛋糕、玩具、糖果和气球都是这些庆祝活动上的热门物品。在亚美尼亚国内和身居国外的亚美尼亚人群体中,这种仪式广泛存在。

In the earliest written references to the ritual, from the 19th century, just two objects were put before the teething child. The prediction then was not about an adult profession but the sex of the next sibling: Grasping a knife meant a brother was on the way, a comb (or mirror) a sister.

提到该仪式的最早文献出现在19世纪。据记载,当时摆在正在长牙的孩子面前的只有两样东西,预测的也不是孩子成年后的职业,而是下一个孩子的性别:拿起小刀意味着会迎来一个弟弟,拿起梳子(或镜子)则意味着接下来会是个妹妹。

“The divination for the future profession was developed much later in the urbanized and modernized environment of Soviet Armenia and the diaspora,” Professor Antonyan said, “when the future career would determine the baby’s life.”

“预测未来的职业是很久后在苏联时代的亚美尼亚城市化、现代化环境下以及国外侨民中发展出来的,”安东尼扬说。“当时,未来的职业会决定孩子的生活。”
 


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