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经济学人下载:国际学校 飞入寻常土豪家






International schools


The new local


English-language schools once aimed at expatriates now cater to domestic elites


IN 1979, when Ken Ross was eight, his family moved from Scotland to France for his father's job with IBM. The computer firm paid the fees at the English School of Paris, where his classmates were mostly children of expats from Britain and elsewhere: managers, army officers, diplomats and the like. A couple were Saudi princes. For the most recent class reunion, old boys and girls flew in from as far afield as China and South Africa.

1979年,那时候Ken Ross年8岁,因为父亲在IBM上班,他的家从苏格兰搬到法国。IBM支付了他在巴黎上英文学校的学费。在那里,他的同学大都从英国和其他地方来的移民的孩子:经理的、军官的、外交官等的孩子。其中一对夫妇是还是沙特王子。为了参加最近的一次班级聚会,已经成年的男孩子、女孩子要从中国和沙特这样远的地方飞过来。

Since then, there has been a boom in such “international schools”, which teach in English in non-Anglophone countries, mostly offering British A-levels, American APs and SATs, or the International Baccalaureate. During the past quarter-century, according to the International School Consultancy Group (ISC), based in Britain, their number has grown from under 1,000 to more than 7,300. In the 2013-14 academic year they generated $41.6 billion in revenue and taught 3.75m pupils globally (see chart). Twenty-two countries have more than 100 international schools, headed by the UAE, with 478, and China, with 445.

从他那个时代开始,许多这样的“国际学校”冒了出来,这些学校在非英语国家用英文教学,大都提供英国高考、美国预科及高考服务或颁发国际文凭。在过去的25年里,根据在总部设在英国的国际学校咨询集团(ISC)的统计,这些学校的数量已经从不到1000所增长到超过7300所。在2013-14学年,它们在全球创造了416亿美元的收益,培养了375万学生(见图表)。有22 个国家拥有的国际学校数量超过100所,阿联酋以478所独占鳌头,中国则紧随其后,有445所。

But nowadays international schools increasingly belie their name. Though their clientele varies from place to place, four-fifths of the pupils they teach around the world are locals, the ISC calculates. Thirty years ago, just a fifth were. The main reason is increased demand for schooling mostly or entirely in English, both in rich countries (Mr Ross's alma mater now has a large French contingent), and even more from rich parents in developing countries who want their children to be able to go to university in Britain or North America. “When people make money, they want their children to learn English,” says Nicholas Brummitt of the ISC. “When they make some more money, they want them to learn in English.”

可是,如今的国际学校却越来越名不副实。据ISC的计算,尽管各个地方客户的情况有所不同,但全世界在国际学校上课学生中4/5是本地人。而30年前,这个比例仅仅是1/5。这里的主要原因是对以英语为主或全英语教学的需求增加了。在富裕国家如此(Ross的母校现在就有一大票法国学生);甚至是在发展中国家的富裕家庭也是如此,这些父母希望子女有机会在英国或北美上大学。“人们挣钱了,就希望孩子学习英语,”ISC的Nicholas Brummitt如是说:“挣的钱越多,越希望孩子用英语学习

This new elite can outspend even very highly paid foreign managers—and multinationals trying to cut costs are ever less willing to pay school fees. Locals are more appealing clients, too: their children tend to stay for their entire schooling, unlike “expat brats”, who are always moving on, leaving seats to be filled. And a parent-teacher association packed with the local elite is more help with bolshie bureaucrats than one full of foreigners.


Further growth is on the cards. In another decade, the ISC predicts, there will be 14,400 international schools worldwide, teaching 8.9m pupils. Many will be run by local or regional firms who spy an opportunity (two-thirds of international schools are now run for profit, up from almost none 30 years ago). But ISC's market research suggests that quite a few British “public” (ie, private) schools plan to set up foreign outposts; some already have, including Harrow, Marlborough, Wellington College and Dulwich College, the last of which opened its seventh overseas arm in Singapore in August. Most are franchise arrangements (though Marlborough's Malaysian branch is directly managed). For-profit global chains such as Nord Anglia Education, Cognita and GEMS are also planning new schools.

国际学校还可能会进一步增长。ISC预测,10年后全球将拥有14400所国际学校,在校学生890万人。许多学校将由那些一直跃跃欲试的本土或本地公司运营。(如今2/3的国际学校以盈利为目的,而30年前几乎没有。)但是ISC的市场调研认为,相当一部分英国“公立”(说白了是私立)学校计划在国外建立前哨站;一些学校已经暗渡陈仓,包括哈罗公学、马尔伯勒中学、威灵顿公学、达利奇学院等,其中达利奇学院光8月就在新加坡开设了7个海外分支机构。这些机构大多数是授权当地经营(虽然马尔伯勒的马来西亚公司是直营)。此外,诺德安达教育机构 、COGNITA机构和巴乐基教育机构也都在规划新学校。

The biggest growth is forecast in the Middle East and East Asia. But which countries prove the most rewarding for investors depends partly on governments. Some countries make it hard for those who have been schooled outside the national system to get into university, meaning international-school customers risk closing off their children's future options. Chinese pupils without a foreign passport are barred from international schools. Singaporean citizens require government permission to attend international schools, rarely granted unless they have lived abroad. In South Korea a maximum of 30% of an international school's pupils can be locals.


Malaysia's experience shows what would happen if any of these were to relax their rules. In 2012 it removed a 40% cap on the share of international schools' pupils allowed to be locals, partly to encourage the expansion of a sector seen as important in attracting foreign investment and partly to please parents who were becoming ever less willing to send their children to boarding schools overseas. In just two years the number of locals at the country's international schools has risen by a third, and Malaysians now account for more than half their pupils.

马来西亚的经验足以说明,如果这些国家放松规则会发生什么。2012年,马来西亚取消了对于当地人占国际学校学生人数比例40%的上限,一方面鼓励学校的扩张被看作了吸引外资的重要手段,应一方面也为了取悦那些越来越不愿意送孩子们去海外寄宿学校的家长。在短短两年中,在该国国际学校的本国人的数量增加了 1/3,如今马来西亚人超过学生总数的一半。

China-watchers are always alert to any hint of liberalisation. The country has 2.5m dollar millionaires, many of whom would pounce at an international schooling for their offspring if they were allowed to. Since 2001 foreign groups and individuals have been allowed to own schools in partnership with Chinese ones, and since 2003 schools can be run for profit—but only authorised international schools can follow a foreign curriculum. The government fears losing control over what children are taught. Officials also argue that without strict rules Chinese parents could be gulled by greedy foreigners.

中国的观察家们总是对自由化思潮防微杜渐。该国拥有250万个百万富翁(美元),如果条件允许,其中许多人愿意为其下一代博取一个国际学校的功名。自从 2001年以来,外国组织和个人已被允许和中方联合办学,而从2003年开始,这些学校获得盈利许可,但只有经过授权的国际学校才能引入国外课程。政府担心对孩子们的教学内容中失去控制权。此外当局还坚称,如果没有严格的规定,中国的家长们会被贪心的老外坑一把。

One way to profit in China despite the restrictions is to offer English-language international programmes in Chinese schools. Dipont Education, a Chinese-owned firm that grew out of an Australian one that helped Chinese students arrange foreign study trips and apply for visas, now runs centres in 27 Chinese schools in 17 cities. These teach A-levels, AP courses and the International Baccalaureate to 6,000 15- to 18-year-olds.


A natural next step, says Vanessa Cumbers, Dipont's director of recruitment, would be for the firm to start training Chinese teachers in foreign teaching methods. “Like anything in China, it's about localising,” she says. That prescription may make for less diverse class reunions, but it is ensuring the rude health of international schools everywhere.

自然而然,狄邦教育的招生主管Vanessa Cumbers说:对于公司而言,必然要开始用国外教育模式培养中国教师。“像中国其他任何领域一样,都要本土化,”她说。本土化也许会让未来的班级聚会失色不少,但能确保各地的国际学校的健康发展。

1.aim at 瞄准; 针对

Republican strategists are taking particular aim at Democratic senators.


His criticism stuck out a mile to aim at us.


2.according to 根据,按照;据…所说

The route that the boatmen choose varies according to the water level.


He advocates streaming children, and educating them according to their needs.


3.willing to 乐意;乐于;愿意去

He is always eager for new experiences and ever-willing to experiment.


He was willing to make any sacrifice for peace.


4.run for 竞选

The vote was seen as a test run for elections to come.


Look. The train's in. We'll have to run for it now.


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