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星火30篇文章贯通考研词汇14

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Unit 14 Information Systems Today ………………227

今天的信息系统

信息技术对于人类的生活是重要的和不可或缺的。信息的传送、记录或存储和处理是信息的三种基本步骤。科技不断发展,对信息技术的掌握可以使人类的进化更加迅速……

Information technology is important and indispensable to the life of human beings. Trammission, recording or memory and processing of information are three essential process of information.

Virtually, the information technology has been changing everyday. The basic challenge of the coming decade is how to make the already available technologies as useful and friendly to a user as the telephone or television set is to the common man.

Computers are a major segment of the new information technologies. The constant growth of semiconductor technology and the proliferation (增殖) of the semiconductor memory devices has brought possibilities that you use personal computers to do anything you want to,for instance, record a message and phone back an answer.

With the help of satellite communication, the transmission of data has become very fast. The data can be telexed(电传);the voice over a telephone can be transmitted on local, national and international network. The transmission of images through technology, that’s via a TV, is again going to be a major challenge, as how to combine all these three components of information technology into one. It will bring about various problems. The first is the privacy that goes with it. For further addition to the impact of communication, one can switch over from voices to images and data, depending on an individual’s need.

It is major challenge before the society at large and the library professionals as how to compress a library into a computer. Moreover, on the user’s part it is not easy to sit at a terminal and read. Basically some psychological and social changes especially exert a subtle influence on the minds of the young children, so that they grow up with the habit of reading on a computer screen.

It is also a fact that a large number of computers have been used as sophisticated typewriters. If you ask somebody who is the actual user of the computer, it is probably the secretary. A lot of PCs have dust covers on them and one cannot be sure how frequently they are removed. It is a strange phenomenon that people haven’t come out of their “hang-ups”. The terminal or keyboard of a personal computer is looked up as an extension of a sophisticated typewriter. Also there is a conventional barrier in sitting and typing out the matter, which needs to be overcome.

That’s why the advertising expenditures have to be toned down(降低) to a certain level of reality. There is worldwide a competition going on as to how quickly you can gather, dispatch or transmit the information. There has been a tremendous bombardment(爆炸) of information from all sides. As the demand grows from the public to share the information, at the same time every section of the society is demanding more and more its share of message that goes across. Besides, the homes have been invaded by the message of consumerism(消费主义)--information about goods, marketing, politics, etc. The tender minds of children are gradually corroded by all the matter.

It is going to be a long struggle to convert all the paper knowledge into the electronic medium. Moreover, if we want to solve the literacy problem, the computers may help in self-learning. The noble place of a teacher will be taken up by a personal computer, as whatever one will see on the screen will become a reality, why should anyone go to one’s parents or teachers when the PC can provide answers to all your questions. Already, the latest PC is there in the market in the United States, which can store all full encyclopedias in it, even the whole library.

With the widespread of information, the categorized structure of the organization breaks up.There is no need of various layers of management to perform the varied tasks that are easier to be done by computers. During the last decade there was an open declaration that one person can manage a project or a company. In the 70’s there was the concept of controlling finance(财务控制). Today, the widespread of information through various media has to be managed.

In the 1940’s there used to be radio sets that had vacuum tubes, which have been replaced today by the integrated circuit(集成电路). A technological advancement is gauged by the power it gives or the energy it consumes and the cost that is involved. The technology that was prevalent in the 1940’s used to be about 100 percent more expensive and about 1 000 times energy consuming. Electronics in turn has revolutionized(使…根本改变) the computer industry today.

Today, in the field of digital communication, there is digital transmission, digital switching and signaling that is taking place. The progress of the digital techniques mainly depends on computer’s development and the progress of digital transmission systems based on it have merged computer and communication.It has made possible the realization of the three basic functions, i.e. , the transmission, memory and processing in a simple form and realization of further advanced and more complicated systems. This progress has given us many useful means to better our social life and welfare.

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