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TED演讲:全球食物浪费的丑闻(含双语演讲稿)

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ヾJoseph

2015年07月31日

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  西方国家丢弃将近一半的食物,并不是因为那些食物不可食用,而是因为它们看起来不够美味。崔斯特瑞姆-斯图尔特展示了深入调查得到的关于浪费食物的震撼力数据,呼吁大家更有责任的使用全球资源。

  The job of uncovering the global food waste scandalstarted for me when I was 15 years old.I bought some pigs. I was living in Sussex.And I started to feed them in the most traditionaland environmentally friendly way.I went to my school kitchen, and I said,"Give me the scraps that my school friends have turnedtheir noses up at."I went to the local baker and took their stale bread.I went to the local greengrocer, and I went to a farmerwho was throwing away potatoes because they werethe wrong shape or size for supermarkets.This was great. My pigs turned that food wasteinto delicious pork. I sold that porkto my school friends’ parents, and I madea good pocket money addition to my teenage allowance.

  这项揭露全球粮食浪费丑闻的任务从我15岁起便开始了。我买了一些猪。当时我住在萨塞克斯郡。我开始用最传统和环保的方式饲养它们。我去了学校的厨房,我说,“把那些我朋友们所看不上的残羹剩饭都给我。”我去了当地的面包店,向他们要了那些不新鲜的面包。我去了当地的蔬菜水果店,还去找了一个正在丢弃土豆的农民,仅仅是因为它们形状和尺寸不符合超市的需求。一切都很顺利。我养的那些猪把食物残渣都转变成了美味的猪肉。我把猪肉卖给学校里朋友们的家长,并且我也从中赚到额外的零花钱。

  But I noticed that most of the food that I was giving my pigswas in fact fit for human consumption,and that I was only scratching the surface,and that right the way up the food supply chain,in supermarkets, greengrocers, bakers, in our homes,in factories and farms, we were hemorrhaging out food.Supermarkets didn’t even want to talk to meabout how much food they were wasting.I’d been round the back. I’d seen bins full of foodbeing locked and then trucked off to landfill sites,and I thought, surely there is something more sensibleto do with food than waste it.

  但是后来我意识到,我喂猪所用的大部分食物都是人类可食用的,而我也只触到了问题表面,在整条食物链的最上面,在超市里,在蔬菜水果店里,在面包店里,在我们的家里,在工厂和农场里,我们都在大量地、疯狂地浪费着食物。那些超市的负责人甚至都不愿意跟我讨论那些他们到底浪费了多少粮食的话题。我曾经绕到超市的后面。我亲眼目睹了那些装满食物的垃圾桶被锁在卡车里,然后被送往垃圾场填埋,然后我就在想,肯定有更合理的处理食物的方法,而不是浪费它们。

  One morning, when I was feeding my pigs,I noticed a particularly tasty-looking sun-dried tomato loafthat used to crop up from time to time.I grabbed hold of it,sat down, and ate my breakfast with my pigs. (Laughter)That was the first act of what I later learned to call freeganism,really an exhibition of the injustice of food waste,and the provision of the solution to food waste,which is simply to sit down and eat food,rather than throwing it away.That became, as it were, a way of confrontinglarge businesses in the business of wasting food,and exposing, most importantly, to the public,that when we’re talking about food being thrown away,we’re not talking about rotten stuff, we’re not talking aboutstuff that’s beyond the pale.We’re talking about good, fresh food that is being wastedon a colossal scale.

  一天早上,当我正在喂我的猪时,我看到一块看起来很美味的晒干的西红柿面包,它们常常会出现。我抓起了它,坐了下来,跟我的那些猪共进早餐。(笑声)这就是我第一次做出这种后来被我称呼为“免费素食主义"的举动,实际上体现出的是对浪费食物的不满,并且提供了浪费食物的解决方案,那就是,坐下来,吃完它,而不是把它丢掉。这种行为变成一种对大型产业浪费食物行为的抵抗,更重要的是,去向大众揭露,当我们在说被丢弃的食品时,我们说的不是腐烂的食品,我们说的不是那些难以下咽的食物。我们说的是那些完好的,新鲜的食物在被大规模地浪费掉。

  Eventually, I set about writing my book,really to demonstrate the extent of this problemon a global scale. What this shows isa nation-by-nation breakdown of the likely levelof food waste in each country in the world.Unfortunately, empirical data, good, hard stats, don’t exist,and therefore to prove my point, I first of all had to findsome proxy way of uncoveringhow much food was being wasted.So I took the food supply of every single countryand I compared it to what was actually likelyto be being consumed in each country.That’s based on diet intake surveys, it’s based onlevels of obesity, it’s based on a range of factorsthat gives you an approximate guessas to how much food is actually going into people’s mouths.That black line in the middle of that tableis the likely level of consumptionwith an allowance for certain levels of inevitable waste.There will always be waste. I’m not that unrealisticthat I think we can live in a waste-free world.But that black line shows what a food supply should bein a country if they allow for a good, stable, secure,nutritional diet for every person in that country.Any dot above that line, and you’ll quickly notice thatthat includes most countries in the world,represents unnecessary surplus, and is likely to reflectlevels of waste in each country.

  终于,我决定写一本书,来说明这个问题在国际上的广度。这个显示出的是世界上每个国家对食物可能的浪费程度。但是很可惜,实际、确凿的数据很难统计,因此,为了证明我的观点,我首先得通过一些替代的方式来揭露有多少食物被浪费了。于是,我把各国的食物供应量跟其自身的实际消耗量拿来做比较。这些数据是基于食物摄入量的调查问卷基础上,再加上肥胖程度和很多其他不同的因素,来得出一个大概的关于究竟有多少食物真正进入了人们的口中的推测。表格中间的黑线是食物消耗量的大概数值当中包括了一定量的无法避免的浪费。浪费永远都会存在。 我还不至于不切实际到去以为我们可以生活在一个毫无浪费的世界里。但是那条黑线显示出一个具备良好的,稳定的,安全的有营养的食品的国家应该供应给每个人的食物量。你会发现,世界上绝大多数的国家都处于这条线的上方,代表着不必要的盈余,也反映出每个国家的食物浪费量。

  As a country gets richer, it invests more and morein getting more and more surplusinto its shops and restaurants,and as you can see, most Europeanand North American countriesfall between 150 and 200 percentof the nutritional requirements of their populations.So a country like America has twice as much foodon its shop shelves and in its restaurantsthan is actually required to feed the American people.

  当一个国家变富裕时,它会投入越来越多的资产来购买大量的、额外的存货导致商店和餐馆里产生更多的浪费,同时你可以看到,大多数欧洲和北美的国家消耗着150%到200%的国家总人口营养需求量。所以一个像美国这样的国家在它商店货架上和餐馆里所拥有的食物比实际需要喂饱所有美国人的量还多出一倍。

  But the thing that really struck me,when I plotted all this data, and it was a lot of numbers,was that you can see how it levels off.Countries rapidly shoot towards that 150 mark,and then they level off, and they don’t really go on risingas you might expect.So I decided to unpack that data a little bit furtherto see if that was true or false.And that’s what I came up with.If you include not just the food that ends upin shops and restaurants, but also the foodthat people feed to livestock,the maize, the soy, the wheat, that humans could eatbut choose to fatten livestock instead to produceincreasing amounts of meat and dairy products,what you find is that most rich countrieshave between three and four times the amount of foodthat their population needs to feed itself.A country like America has four times the amount of foodthat it needs.

  但是当我处理这些大量的数据时,一件深深震撼我的事就是,如你所见,数据点逐渐趋于平缓。各个国家的点很快升至150的标记,而在到达这个界限后便趋于平稳,而非像你所预期的那样继续上升。所以我决定更近一步的解读这些数据来看这到底是准确的还是错误的。这就是我所发现的。如果不仅仅包括是那些最终流向在商店和餐馆的食物,而且还包括人们用来饲养牲畜的食物:那些玉米、大豆、小麦,等等人类本可以食用但是却选择给牲畜用来增肥以便制造更多肉类和奶制品,你会发现,大多数富裕的国家消耗着它人口所需要的三到四倍多的食物。一个像美国这样的国家有着它人口所需要的四倍的食物。

  When people talk about the need to increase globalfood production to feed those nine billion peoplethat are expected on the planet by 2050,I always think of these graphs.The fact is, we have an enormous bufferin rich countries between ourselves and hunger.We’ve never had such gargantuan surpluses before.In many ways, this is a great success storyof human civilization, of the agricultural surplusesthat we set out to achieve 12,000 years ago.It is a success story. It has been a success story.But what we have to recognize now is that we arereaching the ecological limits that our planet can bear,and when we chop down forests, as we are every day,to grow more and more food,when we extract water from depleting water reserves,when we emit fossil fuel emissions in the questto grow more and more food,and then we throw away so much of it,we have to think about what we can start saving.

  当人们在讨论着需要扩大全球粮食产量来喂饱2050年之际预计的全球90亿人口,我总是会想起这些图表。实际上,富裕的国家为我们和饥饿之间提供庞大的缓冲。我们之前从未有过如此庞大的盈余。在很多方面,这是一个人类文明的成功的故事:在农业富余方面我们达到了12,000年前所定的目标。这是一个成功的故事。这一直都是一个成功的故事。但是我们现在要认识到的是我们已经要达到地球所能承受的生态极限,每天,当我们砍下一片片树林,来增加越来越多的食物,当我们从渐渐耗尽的水资源中提取水,当我们排放着化石燃料的废气来增加越来越多的食物,然后再把这么多的食物都丢弃,我们必须想一想我们能开始保存下些什么。

  And yesterday, I went to one of the local supermarketsthat I often visit toinspect, if you like, what they’re throwing away.I found quite a few packets of biscuits amongstall the fruit and vegetables and everything elsethat was in there.And I thought, well this could serve as a symbol for today.

  昨天,我去了一家我常去的本地的超市去察看他们丢弃了些什么。我找到了很多包饼干还有很多水果蔬菜和其他的一些东西都在废弃物之列。然后我想到,这个可以作为今天的一个象征。

  So I want you to imagine that these nine biscuitsthat I found in the bin represent the global food supply,okay? We start out with nine.That’s what’s in fields around the world every single year.The first biscuit we’re going to losebefore we even leave the farm.That’s a problem primarily associated withdeveloping work agriculture, whether it’sa lack of infrastructure, refrigeration, pasteurization,grain stores, even basic fruit crates, which meansthat food goes to waste before it even leaves the fields.The next three biscuits are the foods that we decideto feed to livestock, the maize, the wheat and the soya.Unfortunately, our beasts are inefficient animals,and they turn two-thirds of that into feces and heat,so we’ve lost those two, and we’ve only kept this onein meat and dairy products.Two more we’re going to throw away directly into bins.This is what most of us think of when we thinkof food waste, what ends up in the garbage,what ends up in supermarket bins,what ends up in restaurant bins. We’ve lost another two,and we’ve left ourselves with just four biscuits to feed on.That is not a superlatively efficient use of global resources,especially when you think of the billion hungry peoplethat exist already in the world.

  所以我想让你们把这9块我在垃圾桶里找到的饼干想象成全球粮食供应,好吗?我们最初有9块。这是全球每年的食物产量。第一块饼干在我们离开农场之前就会失去。这个问题主要与农业工作发展有关,不管它是缺乏基础设施,制冷设备,杀菌技术,以及粮油店,甚至基本的水果箱,这意味着食物在离开产地之前就会被浪费掉。下面三块饼干是在我们决定用来饲养牲畜用的食物:玉米,小麦和大豆。不幸的是,我们的野兽们是低效的动物们,它们把2/3都转换成粪便和热量,因此我们丢失了两块饼干,我们只保留下这一块代表肉类和奶制品。还有两块我们会直接丢进垃圾桶里。这就是我们大多数人所认为的食物浪费,那些最终到了垃圾桶里的,最终到了超市的垃圾桶里的,最终到了餐馆的垃圾桶里的。于是我们又失去了两块,而我们只为自己留下四块能食用的饼干。这种利用全球资源的方式并不高效,特别是当你想起这个世界上有多少亿的人们正在挨饿着。

  Having gone through the data, I then neededto demonstrate where that food ends up.Where does it end up? We’re used to seeing the stuffon our plates, but what about all the stuffthat goes missing in between?

  研究过这些数据,我还需要演示这些食物最终去了那里。它去了哪里呢?我们习惯于看到那些在我们盘子上的食物,但是那些在这之前不见的食物去了哪里呢?

  Supermarkets are an easy place to start.This is the result of my hobby,which is unofficial bin inspections. (Laughter)Strange you might think, but if we could rely on corporationsto tell us what they were doing in the back of their stores,we wouldn’t need to go sneaking around the back,opening up bins and having a look at what’s inside.But this is what you can see more or less onevery street corner in Britain, in Europe, in North America.It represents a colossal waste of food,but what I discovered whilst I was writing my bookwas that this very evident abundance of wastewas actually the tip of the iceberg.When you start going up the supply chain,you find where the real food waste is happeningon a gargantuan scale.

  超市是个容易开始着手的地方。而这是我爱好的结果,就是非官方的垃圾桶检查。(笑声)你会想这很奇怪,但是如果我们能靠企业来告诉我们他们在店里都在做些什么,我们就不必要偷偷摸摸的跑到店后面,打开垃圾桶去看里面有什么。但是这就是你或多或少能在英国,欧洲和北美的大街小巷里看到的。这表明了庞大的食物浪费,但是在写书期间我发现这些显而易见的大量浪费其实只是冰山一角。当你开始从食物供应链往上,你就会发现庞大规模的食物浪费正在发生

  Can I have a show of handsif you have a loaf of sliced bread in your house?Who lives in a household where that crust --that slice at the first and last end of each loaf --who lives in a household where it does get eaten?Okay, most people, not everyone, but most people,and this is, I’m glad to say, what I see across the world,and yet has anyone seen a supermarket or sandwich shopanywhere in the world that serves sandwicheswith crusts on it? (Laughter)I certainly haven’t.So I kept on thinking, where do those crusts go? (Laughter)This is the answer, unfortunately:13,000 slices of fresh bread coming out ofthis one single factory every single day, day-fresh bread.In the same year that I visited this factory,I went to Pakistan, where people in 2008 were going hungryas a result of a squeeze on global food supplies.We contribute to that squeezeby depositing food in bins here in Britainand elsewhere in the world. We take foodoff the market shelves that hungry people depend on.

  我想让在座的各位来次举手投票:如果你的家里有一条切片面包,谁会把那些面包皮——就是那第一片和最后一片面包片——哪些家庭会把这些吃掉?好的,大部分人,不是所有人,但是绝大多数人,而这也是,我很高兴地说,全球都是这样,但是有没有人看到超市或者三明治店里世上任何地方卖的三明治上面有面包皮?(笑声)至少我没见过。所以我继续想,这些面包皮都去了哪里?(笑声)这就是答案,很不幸:每天都有13,000块新鲜面包从这一个工厂里产出,这是非常新鲜的、刚出炉的面包。在我访问这个工厂的同一年,我去了巴基斯坦,那儿2008年时还有很多人还在挨饿。这是全球粮食供应紧张造成的。是我们导致了供给紧张,我们把食物丢进英国垃圾桶里还有世界各处。我们把那些饥饿的人赖以生存的食物从商店货架上拿了下来。

  Go one step up, and you get to farmers,who throw away sometimes a third or even moreof their harvest because of cosmetic standards.This farmer, for example, has invested 16,000 poundsin growing spinach, not one leaf of which he harvested,because there was a little bit of grass growing in amongst it.Potatoes that are cosmetically imperfect,all going for pigs.Parsnips that are too small for supermarket specifications,tomatoes in Tenerife,oranges in Florida,bananas in Ecuador, where I visited last year,all being discarded. This is one day’s wastefrom one banana plantation in Ecuador.All being discarded, perfectly edible,because they’re the wrong shape or size.

  往上走一步,你就能找到农民,他们把三分之一或者更多的收成都丢掉,只因为外形标准。举例说,这个农民投资了16,000英镑来种菠菜,但是没有收割一片叶子,因为菠菜之间长了一些草。那些外形不完美的土豆都归猪所有。对超市来说太小的欧洲萝卜,特内里费的西红柿,佛罗里达的橙子,厄瓜多尔的香蕉,那是我去年去过的地方,都被丢弃了。这是厄瓜多尔的一个香蕉种植园一天之内的废弃量。全部被丢弃了,明明完全都能食用,只因为它们的形状或者大小不对。

  If we do that to fruit and vegetables,you bet we can do it to animals too.Liver, lungs, heads, tails,kidneys, testicles,all of these things which are traditional,delicious and nutritious parts of our gastronomygo to waste. Offal consumption has halvedin Britain and America in the last 30 years.As a result, this stuff gets fed to dogs at best,or is incinerated.This man, in Kashgar, Xinjiang province, in Western China,is serving up his national dish.It’s called sheep’s organs.It’s delicious, it’s nutritious,and as I learned when I went to Kashgar,it symbolizes their taboo against food waste.I was sitting in a roadside cafe.A chef came to talk to me, I finished my bowl,and halfway through the conversation, he stopped talkingand he started frowning into my bowl.I thought, "My goodness, what taboo have I broken?How have I insulted my host?"He pointed at three grains of riceat the bottom of my bowl, and he said, "Clean." (Laughter)I thought, "My God, you know, I go around the worldtelling people to stop wasting food.This guy has thrashed me at my own game." (Laughter)

  如果我们对水果和蔬菜这样做,我们肯定也会这样对待动物。肝脏,肺脏,头部,尾部,肾脏,睾丸,所有这些被丢弃的脏器都是传统意义上可口又营养的美食部分。最近30年,内脏消费量在英国和美国减少了一半。结果是,这些东西最好的下场是喂狗吃了,或者被焚烧。这个男人,在中国西部的新疆省喀什市,正在做他的民族佳肴。它叫做羊内脏。既美味又有营养,还有我去喀什的时候学到,它代表食物浪费的禁忌。当我坐在路边的咖啡馆里,一个厨师来跟我说话,我刚吃完了我碗里的饭,而话谈到一半,他不说话了然后开始对着我的碗皱眉头。我想,“天啊,我打破了哪些禁忌?我如何侮辱了这个厨师?“他指着我碗底的三粒米,然后说"吃干净。" (笑声)我想,”天啊,你知道,我到世界各地告诉大家停止浪费食物。这个人居然在我的游戏里让我输得一败涂地。”(笑声)

  But it gave me faith. It gave me faith that we, the people,do have the power to stop this tragic waste of resourcesif we regard it as socially unacceptableto waste food on a colossal scale,if we make noise about it, tell corporations about it,tell governments we want to see an end to food waste,we do have the power to bring about that change.

  但是这给了我信心。它给了我信心,我们人类有力量来停止这种悲剧般的资源浪费如果我们把大规模的食物浪费视作不被社会接受的,如果我们发出声音,告诉企业,告诉政府我们不想再看到食物被浪费,我们有能力来带来变化。

  Fish, 40 to 60 percent of European fishare discarded at sea, they don’t even get landed.In our homes, we’ve lost touch with food.This is an experiment I did on three lettuces.Who keeps lettuces in their fridge?Most people. The one on the leftwas kept in a fridge for 10 days.The one in the middle, on my kitchen table. Not much difference.The one on the right I treated like cut flowers.It’s a living organism, cut the slice off,stuck it in a vase of water,it was all right for another two weeks after this.

  鱼,40%到60%的欧洲的鱼被丢弃在海里,他们甚至都没上过岸。在我们的家里,我们已经失去了与食品的接触。这是一个我在三棵生菜上做的实验。谁把生菜放在冰箱里?大部分人。左边的是在冰箱放了10天的。中间的那棵,是放在我厨房桌上的。没什么区别。右边的这棵我把它视为精心修剪的花。它是一个有生命的机体,我把它一片一片切下来,放在一个有水的花瓶里,它在两周后都是好的。

  Some food waste, as I said at the beginning,will inevitably arise, so the question is,what is the best thing to do with it?I answered that question when I was 15.In fact, humans answered that question 6,000 years ago:We domesticated pigsto turn food waste back into food.And yet, in Europe, that practice has become illegalsince 2001 as a result of the foot-and-mouth outbreak.It’s unscientific. It’s unnecessary.If you cook food for pigs, just as ifyou cook food for humans, it is rendered safe.It’s also a massive saving of resources.At the moment, Europe depends on importingmillions of tons of soy from South America,where its production contributes to global warming,to deforestation, to biodiversity loss,to feed livestock here in Europe.At the same time we throw away millions of tonsof food waste which we could and should be feeding them.If we did that, and fed it to pigs, we would savethat amount of carbon.If we feed our food waste which is the currentgovernment favorite way of getting rid of food waste,to anaerobic digestion, which turns food wasteinto gas to produce electricity,you save a paltry 448 kilograms of carbon dioxideper ton of food waste. It’s much better to feed it to pigs.We knew that during the war. (Laughter)

  有些食物浪费,像我在一开始说的那样,是不可避免的,所以问题是,最好的解决方法是什么?我15岁就回答了那个问题。实际上,人类在6,000年前就回答了这个问题:我们驯化了猪,把食物残渣转换成食物。然而,在欧洲,这种做法已成为非法行为自从2001年口蹄疫爆发后。这不科学,也毫无必要。如果你做饭给猪,就像你做饭给人类一样,就是安全的。同时也能减少很多资源利用。现在,欧洲依赖着从南美进口几百万吨黄豆,其生产导致全球气候变暖,大片森林遭砍伐以及生物多样性的丧失,来饲养在欧洲的牲畜。同时我们扔掉几百万吨可以饲养这些牲畜的食物。如果我们那样做了,把它喂给猪,我们可以减少那么多的二氧化碳。如果我们浪费的食物,这是现在政府最喜欢用的处理剩余的食物的方法,进行厌氧消化,将食物渣滓转换成汽油来生产电,你能省下微不足道的448公斤的二氧化碳在每吨食物残渣里。把这些食物残渣喂给猪更好。在战争时期我们就懂得。(笑声)

  A silver lining: It has kicked off globally,the quest to tackle food waste.Feeding the 5,000 is an event I first organized in 2009.We fed 5,000 people all on food that otherwisewould have been wasted.Since then, it’s happened again in London,it’s happening internationally, and across the country.It’s a way of organizations coming togetherto celebrate food, to say the best thing to do with foodis to eat and enjoy it, and to stop wasting it.For the sake of the planet we live on,for the sake of our children,for the sake of all the otherorganisms that share our planet with us,we are a terrestrial animal, and we depend on our landfor food. At the moment, we are trashing our landto grow food that no one eats.Stop wasting food. Thank you very much. (Applause)(Applause)

  有一线希望:它在全球已经拉开序幕,就是寻求解决粮食的浪费的方法。Feeding the 5000是一个我在2009年第一次组织的活动。我们用本会被丢弃的食物喂饱了5000个人。从那以后,在伦敦又进行过一次,全国各地以及国际上也在进行着。这是所有组织在一起赞美食物,并同意处理食物的最好方法就是吃它和享受它,而不要去浪费。为了我们所赖以生存在的地球,为了我们的孩子,为了其它跟我们一起分享地球的生物,我们是陆生动物,而我们依赖我们的土地来给我们供应食物。此刻,我们正在摧毁我们的土地来栽种没有人吃的食物。停止浪费食物。非常感谢。



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