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  We grew up interacting with the physical objects around us. There are an enormous number of them that we use every day. Unlike most of our computing devices, these objects are much more fun to use. When you talk about objects, one other thing automatically comes attached to that thing, and that is gestures: how we manipulate these objects, how we use these objects in everyday life. We use gestures not only to interact with these objects, but we also use them to interact with each other. A gesture of "Namaste!", maybe, to respect someone, or maybe -- in India I don't need to teach a kid that this means "four runs" in cricket. It comes as a part of our everyday learning.

  我们生长在 和周围物体互动的环境里 有很多很多物品, 是我们每天都要用到的 和大部分计算机软件相比, 这些实体有趣多了。 当我们提到物品, 会立即出现和这东西有关的另一件事 -- 姿势: 也就是:我们怎么使用这些物品, 我们在每日生活中如何使用这些物品 我们不只运用不同姿势来使用物体 也用来和别人沟通。 合十的姿势,可能是表示尊敬某人 或者是 -- 在印度,不必教,小孩都知道这是 -- 板球的"4"的意思 这是我们的生活常识

  So, I am very interested, from the beginning, that how -- how our knowledge about everyday objects and gestures, and how we use these objects, can be leveraged to our interactions with the digital world. Rather than using a keyboard and mouse, why can I not use my computer in the same way that I interact in the physical world?

  所以,我一开始,就很有兴趣 想了解, -- 我们对于 日常用品和姿势的认知, 以及,如何把这些物品 运用在我们和数字世界的沟通上 为什么没有键盘和鼠标, 我就没办法使用计算机? 为什么和计算机沟通,不能和实体世界沟通一样?

  So, I started this exploration around eight years back, and it literally started with a mouse on my desk. Rather than using it for my computer, I actually opened it. Most of you might be aware that, in those days, the mouse used to come with a ball inside, and there were two rollers that actually guide the computer where the ball is moving, and, accordingly, where the mouse is moving. So, I was interested in these two rollers, and I actually wanted more, so I borrowed another mouse from a friend -- never returned to him -- and I now had four rollers. Interestingly, what I did with these rollers is, basically, I took them off of these mouses and then put them in one line. It had some strings and pulleys and some springs. What I got is basically a gesture interface device that actually acts as a motion-sensing device made for two dollars. So, here, whatever movement I do in my physical world is actually replicated inside the digital world just using this small device that I made, around eight years back, in 2000.

  我的探索从八年前开始 从我桌上的鼠标开始 我不是在计算机屏幕上使用它 而是拆开它, 你们都知道,在那个年代, 鼠标里面有个球, 还有两个滚轮, 所以,当鼠标移动时, 滚轮会告诉计算机,球滚动的方向。 我对滚轮有兴趣, 但还需要多几个,所以就跟朋友借他的鼠标 一直没还他 -- 这样就有了四个滚轮。 我怎么用这些滚轮呢-- 基本上,我把它们从鼠标里拿出来 放在一条在线 有线、滑带和弹簧 我做出了一个侦测姿势的接口装置。 像个动作侦测装置, 成本只要两块美元。 所以,现在,不论我在实体世界做什么, 在数字的世界里就会反映出来 只要用这个我8年前做的小东西就可以, 那是2000年。

  Because I was interested in integrating these two worlds, I thought of sticky notes. I thought, "Why can I not connect the normal interface of a physical sticky note to the digital world?" A message written on a sticky note to my mom on paper can come to an SMS, or maybe a meeting reminder automatically syncs with my digital calendar -- a to-do list that automatically syncs with you. But you can also search in the digital world, or maybe you can write a query, saying, "What is Dr. Smith's address?" and this small system actually prints it out -- so it actually acts like a paper input-output system, just made out of paper.

  我对于整合实体和数字世界有兴趣, 我想到便利贴。 我想, "何不把 实体便利贴的接口,和 数字便利贴整合在一起?" 在便利贴上写给我妈妈的留言 纸条 可以用简讯传递。 或是写在纸上的会议通知 自动和我的数字行事历同步 -- 待办事项会自动在计算机上同步。 但你也同时可以在数字环境里搜寻, 或者是,你可以写下问题, 如, "史教授的地址?" 然后这个小系统就把地址打印出来 -- 这就像是个纸做的输出入系统, 用纸就可以做到.

  In another exploration, I thought of making a pen that can draw in three dimensions. So, I implemented this pen that can help designers and architects not only think in three dimensions, but they can actually draw so that it's more intuitive to use that way.

  另一项探索是, 我想到用一枝可以画3D效果的笔 所以就设计出这支笔 帮助设计师和建筑师 不只以三度空间思考, 也可以画3D图形 这样用起来就更直觉多了。

  Then I thought, "Why not make a Google Map, but in the physical world?" Rather than typing a keyword to find something, I put my objects on top of it. If I put a boarding pass, it will show me where the flight gate is. A coffee cup will show where you can find more coffee, or where you can trash the cup.

  我又想, "何不做一个实体世界的 Google地图?" 不必输入关键词来找东西, 而是放这个东西在地图上。 如果我把登机证放在地图上,它会显示登机口的位置 放咖啡杯,它会显示咖啡厅的位置, 或垃圾筒的位置.

  So, these were some of the earlier explorations I did because the goal was to connect these two worlds seamlessly. Among all these experiments, there was one thing in common: I was trying to bring a part of the physical world to the digital world. I was taking some part of the objects, or any of the intuitiveness of real life, and bringing them to the digital world, because the goal was to make our computing interfaces more intuitive.

  这些是早期我做的实验, 我的目的是紧密衔接这两个世界. 在这些实验之中, 有一个共通点: 我都会把实体的东西带进数字环境里. 我把物品, 或生活中,直觉式的东西, 带进数字世界里, 目的是让计算机接口更人性化

  But then I realized that we humans are not actually interested in computing. What we are interested in is information. We want to know about things. We want to know about dynamic things going around.

  但是后来我了解到 人们对计算机没有兴趣 人们有兴趣的是信息。 我们想知道更多事情. 我们想知道周围的各种动态

  So I thought, around last year -- in the beginning of the last year -- I started thinking, "Why can I not take this approach in the reverse way?" Maybe, "How about I take my digital world and paint the physical world with that digital information?" Because pixels are actually, right now, confined in these rectangular devices that fit in our pockets. Why can I not remove this confine and take that to my everyday objects, everyday life so that I don't need to learn the new language for interacting with those pixels?

  所以,大约在去年,去年年初的时候-- 我开始想, "我何不颠倒我的研究方向呢?" 或许, "把数字世界的数字信息, 描画在实体世界里??" 因为这些影像,都被包在这些方方的装置里 然后放进口袋里. 我何不把这个形体打破 把信息放进日常生活中? 这样我也不必学新的、 和这些象素沟通的语言?

  So, in order to realize this dream, I actually thought of putting a big-size projector on my head. I think that's why this is called a head-mounted projector, isn't it? I took it very literally, and took my bike helmet, put a little cut over there so that the projector actually fits nicely. So now, what I can do -- I can augment the world around me with this digital information.

  为了实现这个梦想, 我真的想过把一个投影机放在我的头上 这就是所谓「投(头)影机」的意思,对吧?! 我照着字面意思做了 我把自行车的头盔 割掉一点,让投影机可以放得进去. 这样,我可以 -- 在真实世界中用数字讯息环绕我

  But later, I realized that I actually wanted to interact with those digital pixels, also. So I put a small camera over there, that acts as a digital eye. Later, we moved to a much better, consumer-oriented pendant version of that, that many of you now know as the SixthSense device.

  但是,后来 我想到 我也要和这些计算机像素沟通. 所以我加了一个小摄影机, 当作数位眼睛. 之后, 我们进一步,做成-- 使用者导向的颈挂式, 就是很多人知道的「第六感计算装置」.

  But the most interesting thing about this particular technology is that you can carry your digital world with you wherever you go. You can start using any surface, any wall around you, as an interface. The camera is actually tracking all your gestures. Whatever you're doing with your hands, it's understanding that gesture. And, actually, if you see, there are some color markers that in the beginning version we are using with it. You can start painting on any wall. You stop by a wall, and start painting on that wall. But we are not only tracking one finger, here. We are giving you the freedom of using all of both of your hands, so you can actually use both of your hands to zoom into or zoom out of a map just by pinching all present. The camera is actually doing -- just, getting all the images -- is doing the edge recognition and also the color recognition and so many other small algorithms are going on inside. So, technically, it's a little bit complex, but it gives you an output which is more intuitive to use, in some sense.

  这技术最有趣的地方是 你可以把数字世界带着走 到任何地方都可以. 你可以用任何表面或墙壁, 当成界面. 这录像机随时都在侦测你的动作. 不论双手在做什么, 它都知道. 还有,你看那些色笔 那是我们早期用的. 可以在任何墙壁上画画. 可以停在墙壁前面,开始在墙上作画. 而且我们不只侦测一根手指. 我们让你可以用两只手全部, 所以可以用两只手去放大缩小-- 地图,用捏的. 录像机 -- 收集所有影像 -- 执行动作辨识和颜色辨识 有很多小程序在里面跑 技术上有点复杂, 但是让人可以用的很自然

  But I'm more excited that you can actually take it outside. Rather than getting your camera out of your pocket, you can just do the gesture of taking a photo and it takes a photo for you.

  我更兴奋的是,可以带到户外去用 不必掏出口袋里的照相机, 只要一个照相的姿势 它就替你照相了.



  Thank you.


  And later I can find a wall, anywhere, and start browsing those photos or maybe, "OK, I want to modify this photo a little bit and send it as an email to a friend." So, we are looking for an era where computing will actually merge with the physical world. And, of course, if you don't have any surface, you can start using your palm for simple operations. Here, I'm dialing a phone number just using my hand. The camera is actually not only understanding your hand movements, but, interestingly, is also able to understand what objects you are holding in your hand.

  拍完之后,我随便找一面墙, 就开始浏览这些照片 或, "我想修改一下这些照片 然后用电子邮件寄给朋友." 我们面对的世代是 -- 与实体世界融合在一起的运算 如果你没有平面可用, 手掌也可以处理简单的功能. 我在这里只用我的手,拨电话号码. 摄影机不只了解你手部的动作, 而且, 它还知道在你手里拿着的是什么东西.

  What we're doing here is actually -- for example, in this case, the book cover is matched with so many thousands, or maybe millions of books online, and checking out which book it is. Once it has that information, it finds out more reviews about that, or maybe New York Times has a sound overview on that, so you can actually hear, on a physical book, a review as sound. ("famous talk at Harvard University ...")

  我们现在正在做的是 -- 举个例, 在这里, 这本书的封面 正在和在线的数以百万计的书封面比对, 找寻这是哪一本书. 一旦找到数据, 它会找到书评, 或者,可能纽约时报有个有声的简介, 你就可以, 在实体书上,听到 有声的书评. ("哈佛大学的著名演讲 ...")

  This was Obama's visit last week to MIT. ("... and particularly I want to thank two outstanding MIT ...") So, I was seeing the live [video] of his talk, outside, on just a newspaper. Your newspaper will show you live weather information rather than having it updated -- like, you have to check your computer in order to do that, right?

  这是欧巴玛总统上周来MIT的演讲. ("... 我特别要感谢2位MIT ...") 我从报纸上,看到他演讲的实况录像. 你的报纸会给你看动态天气报导 不必去更新数据 – 这原本,要上计算机 才找得到, 是吗?



  When I'm going back, I can just use my boarding pass to check how much my flight has been delayed, because at that particular time, I'm not feeling like opening my iPhone, and checking out a particular icon. And I think this technology will not only change the way -- yes. (Laughter) It will change the way we interact with people, also, not only the physical world. The fun part is, I'm going to the Boston metro, and playing a pong game inside the train on the ground, right? (Laughter) And I think the imagination is the only limit of what you can think of when this kind of technology merges with real life.

  我回印度时, 我只要拿出我的登机证 就可以知道我的班机延误多久, 因为在这种时候, 我不想打开iPhone, 点选某个功能图案. 我相信这个技术不只改变-- 是的. (笑声) 也会改变我们和别人的交流 不只在实体世界里. 好玩的是,我在波士顿的捷运上 玩踢毽子游戏 在地上玩, 不错吧? (笑声) 我相信,当这种技术和实体生活混在一起时 想象力是唯一能限制-- 我们的东西。

  But many of you argue, actually, that all of our work is not only about physical objects. We actually do lots of accounting and paper editing and all those kinds of things; what about that? And many of you are excited about the next generation tablet computers to come out in the market. So, rather than waiting for that, I actually made my own, just using a piece of paper. So, what I did here is remove the camera -- All the webcam cameras have a microphone inside the camera. I removed the microphone from that, and then just pinched that -- like I just made a clip out of the microphone -- and clipped that to a piece of paper, any paper that you found around. So now the sound of the touch is getting me when exactly I'm touching the paper. But the camera is actually tracking where my fingers are moving.

  但很多人会说-- 我的工作和实体物品没什么关系. 我们做的大多是会计、编辑这类的事 对于这些,你怎么处理? 很多人很期待新一代的平板计算机 上市 与其等待 ,我干脆自己做一个﹐只用了一张纸 我把录像机上的-- 所有网络度影机上都有个麦克风 . 我把麦克风拿下来 夹在-- 就像是做了个夹式麦克风 -- 夹在纸上, 随便的一张纸. 每当我碰到纸的时候, 这在纸上接触的声音就会通知计算机. 录像机还在追踪我的手指的移动

  You can of course watch movies. ("Good afternoon. My name is Russell ... and I am a Wilderness Explorer in Tribe 54.")

  你当然也可以看电影 ("午安,我叫罗素 ...") ("... 我是第54团的荒野探险者.")

  And you can of course play games. (Car engine) Here, the camera is actually understanding how you're holding the paper and playing a car-racing game. (Applause)

  也可以玩游戏. (汽车引擎声) 摄影机知道你拿纸的方向 就可以玩赛车游戏 (掌声)

  Many of you already must have thought, OK, you can browse. Yeah. Of course you can browse to any websites or you can do all sorts of computing on a piece of paper wherever you need it. So, more interestingly, I'm interested in how we can take that in a more dynamic way. When I come back to my desk I can just pinch that information back to my desktop so I can use my full-size computer.

  很多人早又想到了,可以浏览 对,当然可以浏览任何网站 甚至在纸上做各种运算 在任何你需要的地方 更有趣的是 我想把这个功能变得更强大一点 当我回到桌上,我可以捏住那个信息,-- 然后放到我的计算机屏幕上 这样我就可以用我的桌上计算机



  And why only computers? We can just play with papers. Paper world is interesting to play with. Here, I'm taking a part of a document and putting over here a second part from a second place -- and I'm actually modifying the information that I have over there. Yeah. And I say, "OK, this looks nice, let me print it out, that thing." So I now have a print-out of that thing, and now -- the workflow is more intuitive the way we used to do it maybe 20 years back, rather than now switching between these two worlds.

  为什么要计算机? 用纸也很好玩. 纸的世界很好玩. 我把文章的一部分 放在这里, 当成第二部份 -- 然后调整-- 这里的信息. 好,然后我说, "OK, 这样很好, 我要打印出来." 就有了一份打印文件, 这样 -- 工作流程比我们以前用的方式更人性了 像20年前的工作方式, 而不是像现在,要在两个世界里切换

  So, as a last thought, I think that integrating information to everyday objects will not only help us to get rid of the digital divide, the gap between these two worlds, but will also help us, in some way, to stay human, to be more connected to our physical world. And it will actually help us not end up being machines sitting in front of other machines.

  最后, 我相信把信息和所有对象整合, 不仅可以消灭数字落差、 把两个世界间的鸿沟填满, 还可以帮助我们, 保有人性, 让我们和实体世界更连结. 最终会帮助我们,不要变成-- 坐在机器前面的另一部机器。

  That's all. Thank you.

  就这样. 谢谢.



  Thank you.




  Chris Anderson: So, Pranav, first of all, you're a genius. This is incredible, really. What are you doing with this? Is there a company being planned? Or is this research forever, or what?

  Chris Anderson: 嗯﹐Pranav, 首先,你是个天才. 这真的太棒了,真的 你预备怎么做? 你想开个公司吗﹖ 还是一直继续研究下去?还是有其它的打算?

  Pranav Mistry: So, there are lots of companies -- actually sponsor companies of Media Lab -- interested in taking this ahead in one or another way. Companies like mobile phone operators want to take this in a different way than the NGOs in India, [who] are thinking, "Why can we only have 'Sixth Sense'? We should have a 'Fifth Sense' for missing-sense people who cannot speak. This technology can be used for them to speak out in a different way with maybe a speaker system."

  Pranav Mistry: 很多公司 -- 就是 Medi L b的赞助者 -- 有兴趣以其它方法继续研究 像行动通讯公司 和印度非营利机构的应用方法便不同 这些机构想 "为什么只有'第六感'? 我们应该为残障人士,设置第五感 如,哑巴. 这种技术可以让他们用另一种方式「说」出来 配个喇叭就可以."

  CA: What are your own plans? Are you staying at MIT, or are you going to do something with this?

  C : 你自己的打算呢? 要留在MIT吗 还是你也要参与这些计划?

  PM: I'm trying to make this more available to people so that anyone can develop their own SixthSense device, because the hardware is actually not that hard to manufacture or hard to make your own. We will provide all the open source software for them, maybe starting next month.

  PM: 我正试着让这技术更广泛的被人们使用 让大家都能开发自己的"第六感"装置 因为硬件其实不难制造 自己做也不难 我们会提供开放式程序代码软件给大家 可能下个月就可以

  CA: Open source? Wow.

  C :开放程序代码﹖哇



  CA: Are you going to come back to India with some of this, at some point?

  C : 你会回到印度做这些计划吗?

  PM: Yeah. Yes, yes, of course.

  PM: 是,是,当然.

  CA: What are your plans? MIT? India? How are you going to split your time going forward?

  C : 你的计划呢? MIT? 印度? 未来怎样分配你的时间?

  PM: There is a lot of energy here. Lots of learning. All of this work that you have seen is all about my learning in India. And now, if you see, it's more about the cost-effectiveness: this system costs you $300 compared to the $20,000 surface tables, or anything like that. Or maybe even the $2 mouse gesture system at that time was costing around $5,000? So, we actually -- I showed that, at a conference, to President Abdul Kalam, at that time, and then he said, "OK, we should use this in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for some use of that." So I'm excited about how I can bring the technology to the masses rather than just keeping that technology in the lab environment.

  PM: 这里有很大的能量. 很多东西可以学 你刚刚看到的,都是我在 印度学的. 往成本效益方面去考虑: 这个系统只要300美元 和2万美元的桌面计算机相比 或甚至2块美元的鼠标 当年可能要价 5,000 美元? 不久前,我把这东西展示给 印度总统看 他说: "我们应该在原子研究所里 用这个技术做些研究." 我很期待可以把这些技术带给普罗大众 而不是把这些技术留在实验室里



  CA: Based on the people we've seen at TED, I would say you're truly one of the two or three best inventors in the world right now. It's an honor to have you at TED. Thank you so much. That's fantastic.

  C : 我们在 TED,遇过的人之中 我可以说你是少数2-3个 世界上顶尖的发明家之一 TED很荣幸邀你来演讲. 非常感谢. 真是太棒了.



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