我发现，我最好和最差的学生之间的差异 并不仅仅是智商。 有些非常优秀的学生 智商并非特别得高 有些非常聪明的学生，学业也并非很好。
And that got me thinking. The kinds of things you need to learn in seventh grade math, sure, they're hard: ratios, decimals, the area of a parallelogram. But these concepts are not impossible, and I was firmly convinced that every one of my students could learn the material if they worked hard and long enough.
这引发了我的思考。 七年级数学要学的东西 确实挺难：比例、小数、 平行四边形的面积。 但这些概念并不是不能理解， 我也坚信我的每一位学生 都能学会这些知识， 只要他们足够认真、坚持用功。
After several more years of teaching, I came to the conclusion that what we need in education is a much better understanding of students and learning from a motivational perspective, from a psychological perspective. In education, the one thing we know how to measure best is I.Q., but what if doing well in school and in life depends on much more than your ability to learn quickly and easily?
教了几年以后， 我得出一个结论： 我们的教育所需要的 是一种对学生、对学习更好的理解—— 从动机的角度、 从心理的角度去理解。 在教育领域，我们最擅长测试的指标 是智商， 但如果说在学校和生活中的表现好坏 不仅仅取决于 你是否能又好又快地学习呢?
So I left the classroom, and I went to graduate school to become a psychologist. I started studying kids and adults in all kinds of super challenging settings, and in every study my question was, who is successful here and why? My research team and I went to West Point Military Academy.
于是，我离开了课堂， 来到了研究所，成为了一名心理学家。 我开始研究儿童与成人 处于各种艰巨挑战中的表现。 在每次研究中，我关注的是： 谁会成功?爲什麽会成功? 我和我的研究团队去了西点军校。
We tried to predict which cadets would stay in military training and which would drop out. We went to the National Spelling Bee and tried to predict which children would advance farthest in competition.
我们试着预测哪些学员 能通过军事训练，哪些会放弃。 我们去看全国拼字比赛， 试着预测哪些孩子能在比赛中 笑到最后。
We studied rookie teachers working in really tough neighborhoods, asking which teachers are still going to be here in teaching by the end of the school year, and of those, who will be the most effective at improving learning outcomes for their students?
我们研究在非常艰苦的环境下 工作的新教师， 预测哪些教师在学年末时 还能坚持在岗位上。 当然还有，哪些教师教出的学生 成绩的提高最为显着?
We partnered with private companies, asking, which of these salespeople is going to keep their jobs? And who's going to earn the most money? In all those very different contexts, one characteristic emerged as a significant predictor of success. And it wasn't social intelligence. It wasn't good looks, physical health, and it wasn't I.Q. It was grit.
我们和私人公司合作， 预测哪些销售人员能保住工作?谁能赚最多钱? 在这些非常不同的背景下， 我们发现有一个特质 能够很好地预测成功。 它不是社交能力。 不是美丽的外貌，不是健康的身体，也不是智商。 而是意志力。
Grit is passion and perseverance for very long-term goals. Grit is having stamina. Grit is sticking with your future, day in, day out, not just for the week, not just for the month, but for years, and working really hard to make that future a reality. Grit is living life like it's a marathon, not a sprint.
意志力是面对长远目标时的热情和毅力。 意志力是有耐力的表现。 意志力是日复一日依然对未来坚信不已 不只是这周、 不只是这个月， 而是年复一年。用心、努力工作 来实现所坚信的那个未来。 意志力是将生活看作是一场马拉松，不是短跑。
A few years ago, I started studying grit in the Chicago public schools. I asked thousands of high school juniors to take grit questionnaires, and then waited around more than a year to see who would graduate. Turns out that grittier kids were significantly more likely to graduate, even when I matched them on every characteristic I could measure, things like family income, standardized achievement test scores, even how safe kids felt when they were at school.
几年前，我在芝加哥公立学校 开始研究意志力。 我请数以千计的高中生 填写关于意志力的问卷。 然后等了大约一年多 看看谁会毕业。 结果发现，意志力越坚定的孩子 毕业的可能性明显越高， 其他所有可能的影响因素都被考虑并排除了 比如家庭收入， 标准化测验的分数， 甚至孩子们在学校时的安全感。
So it's not just at West Point or the National Spelling Bee that grit matters. It's also in school, especially for kids at risk for dropping out. To me, the most shocking thing about grit is how little we know, how little science knows, about building it. Every day, parents and teachers ask me, "How do I build grit in kids? What do I do to teach kids a solid work ethic? How do I keep them motivated for the long run?" The honest answer is, I don't know.
所以意志力并不只是在 西点军校或全国拼字比赛中 非常重要。在学校， 尤其是对有辍学危险的孩子来说， 意志力同样重要。 关于意志力，最令我吃惊的事情 是我们以及科学界 对于如何锻炼意志力知之甚少。 每天，家长和老师都会问我， "如何锻炼孩子们的意志力? 我怎么教会孩子坚实的职业道德? 怎样才能让他们有长远的动力?” 最诚实的回答是，我不知道。
What I do know is that talent doesn't make you gritty. Our data show very clearly that there are many talented individuals who simply do not follow through on their commitments. In fact, in our data, grit is usually unrelated or even inversely related to measures of talent.
我所知道的是，有才华不意味着就有意志力。 我们的资料非常清楚地揭示 有很多才华横溢的人 并不能坚持到底，实现承诺。 事实上，我们的研究发现， 意志力通常与才华无关， 有时甚至成反比。
So far, the best idea I've heard about building grit in kids is something called "growth mindset." This is an idea developed at Stanford University by Carol Dweck, and it is the belief that the ability to learn is not fixed, that it can change with your effort. Dr. Dweck has shown that when kids read and learn about the brain and how it changes and grows in response to challenge, they're much more likely to persevere when they fail, because they don't believe that failure is a permanent condition.
关于锻炼孩子们的意志， 到目前为止，我听过的最好的方法 叫做“成长型思维模式”理论。 这是史丹福大学的 Carol Dweck 的研究的成果。 这个理论相信 学习的能力不是一成不变的， 它会由于你的努力发生变化。 Dweck 博士已证明，当孩子们 阅读和学习大脑的相关知识 以及大脑在面对挑战时 会怎样变化和成长时， 他们更有可能在失败时继续坚持， 因为他们不相信 他们永远会失败。
So growth mindset is a great idea for building grit. But we need more. And that's where I'm going to end my remarks, because that's where we are. That's the work that stands before us. We need to take our best ideas, our strongest intuitions, and we need to test them. We need to measure whether we've been successful, and we have to be willing to fail, to be wrong, to start over again with lessons learned.
所以，成长型思维模式是 一种锻炼意志力的好方法。 但我们还需要更多这样的理念。 而今天我的演讲就到此为止， 因为这就是我们当下的认知。 这就是摆在我们面前的任务。 我们需要拿出我们最好的想法、最强的直觉 对他们进行检验。 我们需要衡量我们是否取得了成功， 我们必须愿意失败、愿意犯错、 愿意吸取教训并从头开始。
In other words, we need to be gritty about getting our kids grittier.