我的工作是设计、构造和研究 那些能够与人交流的机器人。 不过这个故事不是从机器人说起， 而是要从动画说起。 当我第一次看到皮克斯的《顽皮跳跳灯》电影时， 我惊呆了， 一个如此微不足道的台灯 竟能表现如此多的感情。 你看他们啊!电影结尾的时候， 你真的开始喜欢上这两件小小的家具了。 (笑声) 我对自己说，我要学会做这样的东西。 所以我做了一个很坏的职业决策， 我做出这个决定的时候，我妈妈就是这样的。 (笑声) 我辞去了在以色列一个软件公司的 一份非常舒服的技术工作， 我搬到了纽约 去学习动画。 在那，我和我的室友住在 哈莱姆一栋即将坍塌的公寓楼里。 我没有夸张， 有一天天花板真的塌下来了 就塌在了我们的客厅里。 每次报到纽约的违章建筑时， 他们都会跑到们的大楼下进行采访。 就好像让你看看现场有多糟糕一样。
Anyway, during the day I went to school and at night I would sit and draw frame by frame of pencil animation. And I learned two surprising lessons -- one of them was that when you want to arouse emotions, it doesn't matter so much how something looks, it's all in the motion -- it's in the timing of how the thing moves. And the second, was something one of our teachers told us. He actually did the weasel in Ice Age. And he said: "As an animator you are not a director, you're an actor." So, if you want to find the right motion for a character, don't think about it, go use your body to find it -- stand in front of a mirror, act it out in front of a camera -- whatever you need. And then put it back in your character.
言归正传，我上学的日日夜夜， 我不停地一幅又一幅地用铅笔画着画。 我学到了两个让我惊讶的东西—— 其中一个是： 当你想要唤起某些情感时， 外观并不算太重要， 关键是动作——物体运动时，对时间的把握。 关键是动作——物体运动时，对时间的把握。 第二个是我们的一个老师告诉我们的。 他正是电影《冰河世纪》的黄鼠狼。 他说： ”作为一个动画制作者， 你不是一个导演，而是一个演员。“ 所以如果你要为一个角色找到正确的肢体语言， 不要想，用你的身体找到它， 站在镜子面前，摄像机前，演出来， 无论你需要做什么。 然后再把这个动作放在你的角色上。
A year later I found myself at MIT in the robotic life group, it was one of the first groups researching the relationships between humans and robots. And I still had this dream to make an actual, physical Luxo Jr. lamp. But I found that robots didn't move at all in this engaging way that I was used to for my animation studies. Instead, they were all -- how should I put it, they were all kind of robotic. (Laughter) And I thought, what if I took whatever I learned in animation school, and used that to design my robotic desk lamp. So I went and designed frame by frame to try to make this robot as graceful and engaging as possible. And here when you see the robot interacting with me on a desktop. And I'm actually redesigning the robot so, unbeknownst to itself, it's kind of digging its own grave by helping me. (Laughter) I wanted it to be less of a mechanical structure giving me light, and more of a helpful, kind of quiet apprentice that's always there when you need it and doesn't really interfere. And when, for example, I'm looking for a battery that I can't find, in a subtle way, it will show me where the battery is. So you can see my confusion here. I'm not an actor. And I want you to notice how the same mechanical structure can at one point, just by the way it moves seem gentle and caring -- and in the other case, seem violent and confrontational. And it's the same structure, just the motion is different. Actor: "You want to know something? Well, you want to know something? He was already dead! Just laying there, eyes glazed over!" (Laughter) But, moving in graceful ways is just one building block of this whole structure called human-robot interaction. I was at the time doing my Ph.D., I was working on human robot teamwork; teams of humans and robots working together. I was studying the engineering, the psychology, the philosophy of teamwork. And at the same time I found myself in my own kind of teamwork situation with a good friend of mine who is actually here. And in that situation we can easily imagine robots in the near future being there with us. It was after a Passover seder. We were folding up a lot of folding chairs, and I was amazed at how quickly we found our own rhythm. Everybody did their own part. We didn't have to divide our tasks. We didn't have to communicate verbally about this. It all just happened. And I thought, humans and robots don't look at all like this. When humans and robots interact, it's much more like a chess game. The human does a thing, the robot analyzes whatever the human did, then the robot decides what to do next, plans it and does it. And then the human waits, until it's their turn again. So, it's much more like a chess game and that makes sense because chess is great for mathematicians and computer scientists. It's all about information analysis, decision making and planning.
一年以后，我去了麻省理工大学(MIT)的 机器人生命小组，这是最早 开始研究人类和机器人关系的小组之一。 我依然怀揣着要造一个 真正的、可触碰的顽皮跳跳灯的梦想。 但是我发现机器人完全不是 按照我的动画课程中的那种 引人入胜的方式移动。 相反的，他们都—— 该怎么说呢?他们都有点儿机械化。 (笑声) 我就想，如果我可以把我在动画学校学到的东西 应用于设计我的机器人台灯会怎样? 因此我设计了一幅又一幅， 试图让这个机器人 尽量优雅、有吸引力。 这里你可以看到这个桌子上的机器人 在跟我互动， 我其实是在重新设计这个机器人， 而这个机器人完全不知道， 它帮我，其实是在自掘坟墓呢。 (笑声) 比起把他它做成一个照明的机械， 比起把他它做成一个照明的机械， 我更想要一个能帮忙的、安静的学徒， 随时满足你的需求却不打扰你。 比如，当我要找一个我怎么也 找不到的电池时， 它可以巧妙地提醒我电池在哪里。 你看到我的困惑了吗? 我不是一个演员。 我希望你们注意到，同一个机械如何 在前一刻非常温柔、充满关怀， 在前一刻非常温柔、充满关怀， 下一刻又显得非常暴力，有进攻性。 一模一样的结构，改变的仅仅是动作。 演员：”你想知道吗?你真的想知道吗? 他已经死了! 他就躺在那里，目光呆滞!“ (笑声) 但是，以一种优雅的方式移动只是这整个 人类机器人互动结构的一块基石。 那时候我正在攻读我的博士学位， 我正在研究人类与机器人的团队合作， 也就是人类和机器人一起合作。 我在学习团队合作的工程学， 心理学和哲学。 同时，我意识到自己 和我的一个好朋友(他今天也在这里)， 也碰到了一个团队合作的情境。 在那个情境中，我们很容易想象 不久的将来机器人会和我们在一起。 那是在一个逾越节家宴结束后， 我们要收起大量的折叠椅， 我惊讶于我们迅速找到了各自的节奏。 每个人都做了自己的那部分， 无需分工， 无需特意口头沟通。 就这样发生了。 于是我想， 人类和机器人的互动却完全不是这样。 当人类和机器人互动的时候， 就好像他们在下象棋。 人类走一步， 机器人对此分析一下， 然后机器人决定接下来怎么做， 计划好，走下一步。 这时候人类就等着，直到轮到他们玩为止。 所以，人类和机器人的互动更像下象棋， 这很好理解，因为 对数学家和计算机科学家来说，象棋很好， 它们都是关于信息分析、 决策制定和计划。
But I wanted my robot to be less of a chess player, and more like a doer that just clicks and works together. So I made my second horrible career choice: I decided to study acting for a semester. I took off from a Ph.D. I went to acting classes. I actually participated in a play, I hope theres no video of that around still. And I got every book I could find about acting, including one from the 19th century that I got from the library. And I was really amazed because my name was the second name on the list -- the previous name was in 1889. (Laughter) And this book was kind of waiting for 100 years to be rediscovered for robotics. And this book shows actors how to move every muscle in the body to match every kind of emotion that they want to express.
但比起象棋玩家，我更希望我的机器人是一个行动者， 但比起象棋玩家，我更希望我的机器人是一个行动者， 可以和人类有默契地一起工作。 于是我做了我人生中的第二个糟糕的职业决策： 我决定学习一学期的表演课程。 我放下了我的博士课程，去上了表演课。 我还参与了一个戏剧， 希望现在已经找不到那个视频了。 我找到了每一本关于表演的书， 其中包括一本从图书馆里借来的 19世纪的书。 我震惊地发现我的名字是借阅者名单上的第二个， 之前的一个名字是1889年。(笑声) 这本书已经躺了100年了， 只为了借机器人之名被重新发现。 这本书教演员 如何调动他们身体上的每块肌肉 来表达他们想要表达的情感。
But the real revelation was when I learned about method acting. It became very popular in the 20th century. And method acting said, you don't have to plan every muscle in your body. Instead you have to use your body to find the right movement. You have to use your sense memory to reconstruct the emotions and kind of think with your body to find the right expression. Improvise, play off yor scene partner. And this came at the same time as I was reading about this trend in cognitive psychology called embodied cognition. Which also talks about the same ideas -- We use our bodies to think, we don't just think with our brains and use our bodies to move. but our bodies feed back into our brain to generate the way that we behave. And it was like a lightning bolt. I went back to my office. I wrote this paper -- which I never really published called "Acting Lessons for Artificial Intelligence." And I even took another month to do what was then the first theater play with a human and a robot acting together. That's what you saw before with the actors. And I thought: How can we make an artificial intelligence model -- computer, computational model -- that will model some of these ideas of improvisation, of taking risks, of taking chances, even of making mistakes. Maybe it can make for better robotic teammates. So I worked for quite a long time on these models and I implemented them on a number of robots. Here you can see a very early example with the robots trying to use this embodied artificial intelligence, to try to match my movements as closely as possible, sort of like a game. Let's look at it. You can see when I psych it out, it gets fooled. And it's a little bit like what you might see actors do when they try to mirror each other to find the right synchrony between them. And then, I did another experiment, and I got people off the street to use the robotic desk lamp, and try out this idea of embodied artificial intelligence. So, I actually used two kinds of brains for the same robot. The robot is the same lamp that you saw, and I put in it two brains. For one half of the people, I put in a brain that's kind of the traditional, calculated robotic brain. It waits for its turn, it analyzes everything, it plans. Let's call it the calculated brain. The other got more the stage actor, risk taker brain. Let's call it the adventurous brain. It sometimes acts without knowing everything it has to know. It sometimes makes mistakes and corrects them. And I had them do this very tedious task that took almost 20 minutes and they had to work together. Somehow simulating like a factory job of repetitively doing the same thing. And what I found was that people actually loved the adventurous robot. And they thought it was more intelligent, more committed, a better member of the team, contributed to the success of the team more. They even called it 'he' and 'she,' whereas people with the calculated brain called it 'it.' And nobody ever called it 'he' or 'she'. When they talked about it after the task with the adventurous brain, they said, "By the end, we were good friends and high-fived mentally." Whatever that means. (Laughter) Sounds painful. Whereas the people with the calculated brain said it was just like a lazy apprentice. It only did what it was supposed to do and nothing more. Which is almost what people expect robots to do, so I was surprised that people had higher expectations of robots, than what anybody in robotics thought robots should be doing. And in a way, I thought, maybe it's time -- just like method acting changed the way people thought about acting in the 19th century, from going from the very calculated, planned way of behaving, to a more intuitive, risk-taking, embodied way of behaving. Maybe it's time for robots to have the same kind of revolution.
真正让我受到启示的是 方法演技。 它在20世纪的时候非常流行。 方法演技指出，你不需要安排你的每一块肌肉， 相反，你可以用你的身体找到对的动作。 你应该运用你的感觉记忆， 去重新建构情感， 用你的身体找到对的表情。 即兴发挥，根据你的场景搭档即兴表演。 这个时候我也正读到 认知心理学关于具身认知的东西， 这也谈到同样的观点—— 即我们用我们的身体思考， 我们并不是用大脑思考用身体表现， 而是我们的身体反馈给大脑 并做出相应的动作， 这对我好像一道闪电。 我马上回了我的办公室。 我写了这篇论文，从来也没发表过， 叫做《人工智能的表演课》。 我甚至花了一个月的时间 去做当时第一部由人类和机器人 一起主演的戏剧。 你之前看到的演员和机器人的表演就是这部戏剧。 当时我就想： 我们怎样可以做出这样的人工智能模型—— 计算机、计算机模型等等， 它们会即兴发挥、 会冒险、 甚至会犯错。 它可能会是更好的机器人队友。 因此我花了很多时间去研究这些模型， 我还在几个机器人身上做了试验。 这里你可以看到一个早期的例子， 这个机器人试图运用具身人工智能 来尽量模仿我的动作， 就好像一个游戏。 我们来看一下。 你可以看到我可以糊弄它。 有点像你可能看到的演员们 互相模仿对方 只为了找到他们之间的默契。 然后，我又做了另外一个实验， 我从大街上拉人来使用这个机器人台灯， 试验具身人工智能。 其实，同样的机器人我用了两个大脑， 机器人就是你看到的这个台灯， 我给了它两个大脑。 对一半的人， 我放入了一个传统的、 机械计算的大脑。 它会等，会分析，会计划， 我们暂且称它为“会计算的大脑”。 给另一半人则是那个舞台演员、爱冒险的大脑， 我们暂且称它为“爱冒险的大脑”， 有的时候它在并不知道所有事情的时候行动， 有的时候它会犯错然后去纠正。 我让他们完成一项无比乏味的任务， 这个任务要花近20分钟， 他们必须一起合作完成， 有点类似在工厂工作， 机械地重复一件事情。 我发现人们非常喜欢 那个“爱冒险的机器人”。 他们觉得它非常聪明， 非常忠心，是一个很好的团队成员， 一起帮助团队成功。 他们甚至称它为“他”和“她”， 而另外那些人称那个“会计算的机器人”为“它”， 没有人称它为“他”或“她”。 任务完成后， 那些与“会冒险的大脑”互动的人说： “最后，我们成了好朋友， 还在脑内举手击掌了。” 不管那是啥意思…… (笑声)听上去很…(口齿不清) 然而，那些与“会计算的大脑”互动的人 则说“它就像一个懒徒弟， 只做最基本的。“ 这基本上和同人对机器人期待一样， 所以我有些惊讶，比起那些机器人研究专家， 人们居然对机器人有更高的期望。 但从另一个角度，我又想， 也许就像方法演技改变了 19世纪人们思考表演的方式一样， 是时间改变这种通过精确计算的 行为方式， 而转向一种更直觉的、冒险的、 用身体表现的行为方式。 也许类似的 机器人革命时间到了。
A few years later, I was at my next research job at Georgia Tech in Atlanta, and I was working in a group dealing with robotic musicians. And I thought, music, that's the perfect place to look at teamwork, coordination, timing, improvisation -- and we just got this robot playing marimba. Marimba, for everybody who was like me, it was this huge, wooden xylophone. And, when I was looking at this, I looked at other works in human-robot improvisation -- yes, there are other works in human-robot improvisation -- and they were also a little bit like a chess game. The human would play, the robot would analyze what was played, would improvise their own part. So, this is what musicians called a call and response interaction, and it also fits very well, robots and artificial intelligence. But I thought, if I use the same ideas I used in the theater play and in the teamwork studies, maybe I can make the robots jam together like a band. Everybody's riffing off each other, nobody is stopping it for a moment. And so, I tried to do the same things, this time with music, where the robot doesn't really know what it's about to play. It just sort of moves its body and uses opportunities to play, And does what my jazz teacher when I was 17 taught me. She said, when you improvise, sometimes you don't know what you're doing and you're still doing it. And so I tried to make a robot that doesn't actually know what it's doing, but it's still doing it. So let's look at a few seconds from this performance. Where the robot listens to the human musician and improvises. And then, look at how the human musician also responds to what the robot is doing, and picking up from its behavior. And at some point can even be surprised by what the robot came up with. (Music) (Applause)
几年后， 我在亚特兰大的乔治理工大学做研究， 我在一个研究机器人音乐家的 小组工作。 我想，音乐是可以很好的 研究团队合作、配合、 时间分配和即兴表演的领域， 我们有这个玩马林巴的机器人。 和我一样对乐器不在行的朋友，马林巴是 一个巨大的木琴。 我看着这个， 又看了那些其它的人类和机器人的即兴互动， ——没错，还有其它人和机器人即兴互动的项目—— 都差不多也是一个个象棋游戏式的互动。 人类走一步， 机器人对此分析， 然后决定下一步。 音乐家们称其为 呼叫和应答互动， 作为机器人和人工智能，这很合适。 但是我想，如果我可以运用 戏剧表演和团队合作中的研究发现， 也许我可以让这些机器人 组成一个乐队， 每个人都在即兴发挥，没有人需要停下来。 于是这次我尝试用音乐做试验， 机器人并不知道 它会演奏什么， 它就这样移动它的身体， 找机会演奏， 做着我17岁时候的爵士老师教我的事情。 她说，当你即兴表演的时候， 有的时候，你并不知道你在做什么， 但是你还是继续做。 于是我尝试做一个不知道自己在做什么 却仍然继续做的机器人。 让我们来看一下这个表演的一个小片段。 机器人听人类音乐家演奏 然后即兴发挥。 接着，看人类音乐家如何 回应机器人的行为， 回应机器人的行为， 有时甚至被机器人的表现惊讶。 (音乐) (掌声)
Being a musician is not just about making notes, otherwise nobody would ever go see a live show. Musicians also communicate with their bodies, with other band members, with the audience, they use their bodies to express the music. And I thought, we already have a robot musician on stage, why not make it be a full-fledged musician. And I started designing a socially expressive head for the robot. The head does't actually touch the marimba, it just expresses what the music is like. These are some napkin sketches from a bar in Atlanta, that was dangerously located exactly halfway between my lab and my home. (Laughter) So I spent, I would say on average, three to four hours a day there. I think. (Laughter) And I went back to my animation tools and tried to figure out not just what a robotic musician would look like, but especially what a robotic musician would move like. To sort of show that it doesn't like what the other person is playing -- and maybe show whatever beat it's feeling at the moment.
作为一个音乐家不仅仅是编写音符， 否则没有人会去看现场表演了。 音乐家也用他们的身体交流， 和他们的乐队成员，和观众， 他们用他们的身体来表现音乐。 于是我想，我们已经有一个在舞台上的机器人音乐家， 为什么不把它打造成一个真正的音乐家呢? 于是我开始为机器人设计一个 可以表现情感的头部。 头部并不会碰到马林巴， 它只是用来表现音乐是什么样的。 这草图的纸巾来自亚特兰大某处一个酒吧， 而且酒吧就正好在实验室和我家的正中间。(笑声) 而且酒吧就正好在实验室和我家的正中间。(笑声) 我大概平均 每天有3到4个小时的时间在那里， “大概”…(笑声) 我重新拾起了我的动画工具，试图想象 不仅仅一个机器人音乐家的样子， 特别是一个机器人音乐家会如何移动它的身体， 来告诉人们它不喜欢其他人的演奏， 还有它自己当下感觉到的节奏。 还有它自己当下感觉到的节奏。
So we ended up actually getting the money to build this robot, which was nice. I'm going to show you now the same kind of performance, this time with a socially expressive head. And notice one thing -- how the robot is really showing us the beat it's picking up from the human. We're also giving the human a sense that the robot knows what it's doing. And also how it changes the way it moves as soon as it starts its own solo. (Music) Now it's looking at me to make sure I'm listening. (Music) And now look at the final chord of the piece again, and this time the robot communicates with its body when it's busy doing its own thing. And when it's ready to coordinate the final chord with me. (Music) (Applause)
幸运的是，我们最终还获得了一笔 造这样一个机器人的资金。 接下来我给大家看一下同样的表演 换成一个情感表现头的效果。 注意一点： 请观察这个机器人如何 根据人类的演奏即兴发挥， 也让人类知道，这个机器人知道它在做什么。 还有独奏开始时，它是如何做出回应的。 还有独奏开始时，它是如何做出回应的。 (音乐) 这会儿它正看着我确保我在听。 (音乐) 我们再看一下这段的最后一部分， 现在机器人正在用它的身体进行沟通， 当它正忙于做它自己的事情时， 忙于准备 跟我一起演奏最后的旋律。 (音乐) (掌声)
Thanks. I hope you see how much this totally not -- how much this part of the body that doesn't touch the instrument actually helps with the musical performance. And at some point, we are in Atlanta, so obviously some rapper will come into our lab at some point. And we had this rapper come in and do a little jam with the robot. And here you can see the robot basically responding to the beat and -- notice two things. One, how irresistible it is to join the robot while it's moving its head. and you kind of want to move your own head when it does it. And second, even though the rapper is really focused on his iPhone, as soon as the robot turns to him, he turns back. So even though it's just in the periphery of his vision -- it's just in the corner of his eye -- it's very powerful. And the reason is that we can't ignore physical things moving in our environment. We are wired for that. So, if you have a problem with maybe your partners looking at the iPhone too much or their smartphone too much, you might want to have a robot there to get their attention. (Laughter) (Music) (Applause)
谢谢。我希望你能看到 它的头部不碰到乐器 其实有助于音乐表演! 既然我们在亚特兰大， 就不会没有说唱歌手参与到我们的试验中来。 既然我们在亚特兰大， 就不会没有说唱歌手参与到我们的试验中来。 这个说唱歌手来了之后， 我们让他和这个机器人一起表演。 这里你可以看到这个机器人 对节奏的回应， 请注意两点。第一，当这个机器人在摇头晃脑的时候， 你是不是也很想加入其中， 和它一起晃动你的头部? 第二，虽然这个说唱歌手非常专注于它的苹果手机， 当机器人转向它的时候，他也马上转回来。 虽然仅仅是在他的视线边缘—— 他的眼角的余光里，它仍然非常强大。 这就是为什么我们不能忽视 我们周边物体的移动。 我们天生会这样做。 所以，如果你的搭档 很喜欢看它的苹果手机或智能手机， 也许你需要一个机器人 来获得他们的注意力。(笑声) (音乐) (掌声)
Just to introduce the last robot that we've worked on, that came out of something kind of surprising that we found: At some point people didn't care anymore about the robot being so intelligent, and can improvise and listen, and do all these embodied intelligence things that I spent years on developing. They really liked that the robot was enjoying the music. (Laughter) And they didn't say that the robot was moving to the music, they said that the robot was enjoying the music. And we thought, why don't we take this idea, and I designed a new piece of furniture. This time it wasn't a desk lamp; it was a speaker dock. It was one of those things you plug your smartphone in. And I thought, what would happen if your speaker dock didn't just play the music for you, but it would actually enjoy it too. (Laughter) And so again, here are some animation tests from an early stage. (Laughter) And this is what the final product looked like. ("Drop It Like It's Hot") So, a lot of bobbing head. (Applause) A lot of bobbing heads in the audience, so we can still see robots influence people. And it's not just fun and games.
最后再为大家介绍一下 我们最近在打造的一个机器人。 说来也奇怪，我们发现 到了某个阶段，人们不再对那些聪明的、 会即兴表演、会聆听、 会做那些我花了多年研究的身体智能表演的 机器人感兴趣了。 他们真的很喜欢那个会享受音乐的机器人。(笑声) 他们没有说这个机器人是随着音乐扭动身体， 而是说这个机器人在享受音乐。 于是我们想，为什么不借用这个想法呢， 因此我设计了一件新的小家具。 这次不是一个台灯，而是一个扬声器底座， 就是你可以把你的智能手机放上去的那种。 于是我想，如果这个扬声器底座 不仅可以为你放音乐， 还可以享受音乐，会怎样?(笑声) 这是早期的一些动画尝试。 这是早期的一些动画尝试。 这是最终的成品的样子。 饶舌音乐 不停的点头…… (掌声) 观众那里也有很多人在不停点头， 因此我们可以看到机器人可以影响人。 当然这一切不仅仅只是娱乐和游戏。
I think one of the reasons I care so much about robots that use their body to communicate and use their body to move -- and I'm going to let you in on a little secret we roboticists are hiding -- is that every one of you is going to be living with a robot at some point in their life. Somewhere in your future there's going to be a robot in your life. And if not in yours, then in your children's lives. And I want these robots to be -- to be more fluent, more engaging, more graceful than currently they seem to be. And for that I think that maybe robots need to be less like chess players and more like stage actors and more like musicians. Maybe they should be able to take chances and improvise. And maybe they should be able to anticipate what you're about to do. And maybe they need to be able to make mistakes and correct them, because in the end we are human. And maybe as humans, robots that are a little less than perfect are just perfect for us. Thank you. (Applause)
我觉得自己非常热衷研究 那些可以用身体沟通、 用身体移动的机器人的一个原因是—— 我告诉你一个只有我们机器人专家知道的秘密—— 我们每一个人在生命的某个阶段 都会需要机器人， 你未来的某个阶段会有个机器人。 如果不是你的未来，那么你的孩子的未来。 我希望这些机器人 比现在 可以更流畅、更吸引人、更优雅。 比现在 可以更流畅、更吸引人、更优雅。 因此，我觉得机器人 不应该是像一个象棋玩家， 而应该更像一个舞台演员或者音乐家。 它们应该可以冒险，会即兴表演， 甚至会预料到你接下来会做什么。 它们也应该可以犯错 并且改正， 因为到头来，我们只是人类。 也许对人类而言，不完美的机器人 才是完美的。 谢谢! (掌声)