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历年考研英语阅读理解1994年01

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http://online2.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/0008/8686/A_1994_1.mp3
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[00:09.95]1994 Passage1

[00:15.55]The American economic system is organized around

[00:19.30]a basically private-enterprise,

[00:21.59]market-oriented economy in which consumers largely determine

[00:26.55]what shall be produced by spending their money

[00:29.50]in the marketplace for those goods and services

[00:32.40]that they want most.

[00:35.00]Private businessmen, striving to make profits,

[00:38.90]produce these goods and services in competition

[00:42.02]with other businessmen; and the profit motive, operating

[00:46.51]under competitive pressures, largely determines how these goods

[00:50.72]and services are produced. Thus, in the American economic system

[00:57.25]it is the demand of individual consumers,

[01:00.30]coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits

[01:04.95]and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes,

[01:08.98]that together determine what shall be produced

[01:12.00]and how resources are used to produce it.

[01:15.60]An important factor in a market-oriented economy

[01:18.80]is the mechanism by which consumer demands

[01:22.20]can be expressed and responded to by producers.

[01:26.23]In the American economy, this mechanism

[01:29.10]is provided by a price system, a process in which prices rise

[01:34.11]and fall in response to relative demands of consumers

[01:38.41]and supplies offered by seller-producers.

[01:42.55]If the products is in short supply relative to the demand,

[01:46.78]the price will be bid up and some consumers

[01:49.45]will be eliminated from the market.

[01:52.48]If, on the other hand, producing more of

[01:55.15]a commodity results in reducing its cost,

[01:58.38]this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers,

[02:03.02]which in turn will lower the price

[02:05.14]and permit more consumers to buy the product.

[02:09.30]Thus, price is the regulating mechanism

[02:12.30]in the American economic system.

[02:15.77]The important factor in a private-enterprise economy

[02:19.44]is that individuals are allowed to

[02:21.50]own productive resources (private property),

[02:25.19]and they are permitted to hire labor,

[02:27.61]gain control over natural resources,

[02:30.53]and produce goods and services for sale at a profit.

[02:35.07]In the American economy,

[02:37.10]the concept of private property

[02:39.01]embraces not only the ownership of productive resources

[02:42.91]but also certain rights,

[02:45.21]including the right to determine the price of a product

[02:48.14]or to make a free contract with another private individual.

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