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历年考研英语阅读理解2007年02

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[00:00:05]2007年黑暗版历年阅读真题解析第二篇

[00:01.03]For the past several years,

[00:02.64]the Sunday newspaper supplement Parade has featured a column called “Ask Marilyn.”

[00:08.18]People are invited to query Marilyn vos Savant,

[00:12.32]who at age 10 had tested at a mental level of someone about 23 years old;

[00:17.90]that gave her an IQ of 228 — the highest score ever recorded.

[00:23.65]IQ tests ask you to complete verbal and visual analogies,

[00:28.32]to envision paper after it has been folded and cut,

[00:31.80]and to deduce numerical sequences, among other similar tasks.

[00:36.14]So it is a bit confusing when vos Savant fields such queries

[00:40.68]from the average Joe (whose IQ is 100) as.

[00:45.25]What’s the difference between love and fondness?

[00:46.33]Or what is the nature of luck and coincidence?

[00:49.35]It’s not obvious how the capacity to visualize objects

[00:53.36]and to figure out numerical patterns suits one to answer questions

[00:56.81]that have eluded some of the best poets and philosophers.

[01:02.15]Clearly, intelligence encompasses more than a score on a test.

[01:07.26]Just what does it mean to be smart?

[01:09.87]How much of intelligence can be specified,

[01:12.78]and how much can we learn about it from neurology,

[01:16.04]genetics, computer science and other fields?

[01:19.51]The defining term of intelligence in humans still seems to be the IQ score,

[01:25.39]even though IQ tests are not given as often as they used to be.

[01:29.69]The test comes primarily in two forms:

[01:32.99]the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales

[01:37.86](both come in adult and children’s version).

[01:41.10]Generally costing several hundred dollars,

[01:44.10]they are usually given only by psychologists,

[01:47.18]although variations of them populate bookstores and the World Wide Web.

[01:52.80]Superhigh scores like vos Savant’s are no longer possible,

[01:56.70]because scoring is now based on a statistical population distribution among age peers,

[02:03.50]rather than simply dividing the mental age by the chronological age and multiplying by 100.

[02:10.62]Other standardized tests,

[02:12.48]such as the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Exam (GRE),

[02:18.88]capture the main aspects of IQ tests.

[02:22.46]Such standardized tests may not assess all the important elements necessary to succeed

[02:29.11]in school and in life,

[02:30.89]argues Robert J. Sternberg.

[02:33.24]In his article “How Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing?”,

[02:37.80]Sternberg notes that traditional tests best assess analytical and verbal skills but fail

[02:43.90]to measure creativity and practical knowledge,

[02:48.13]components also critical to problem solving and life success.

[02:53.15]Moreover, IQ tests do not necessarily predict so well once populations

[02:59.25]or situations change.

[03:01.36]Research has found that IQ predicted leadership skills when the tests

[03:06.87]were given under low-stress conditions,

[03:09.60]but under high-stress conditions,

[03:12.40]IQ was negatively correlated with leadership—that is,

[03:15.90]it predicted the opposite.

[03:18.36]Anyone who has toiled through SAT will testify that test-taking skill also matters,

[03:24.96]whether it’s knowing when to guess or what questions to skip.

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