[00:07.64]Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency
[00:11.28](crimes committed by young people)
[00:13.29]focus either on the individual or on society
[00:16.36]as the major contributing influence.
[00:19.00]Theories (1)centering on the individual suggest
[00:21.62]that children engage in criminal behavior
[00:24.44](2)because they were not sufficiently penalized
[00:26.56]for previous misdeeds or that they have learned
[00:29.92]criminal behavior through (3)interaction with others.
[00:33.24]Theories focusing on the role of society suggest
[00:35.39]that children commit crimes in (4)respons
[00:37.52]to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status,
[00:41.40](5)or as a rejection of middle-class values.
[00:44.62]Most theories of juvenile delinquency
[00:47.15]have focused on children from disadvantaged families,
[00:50.59](6)ignoring the fact that children
[00:52.19]from wealthy homes also commit crimes.
[00:55.03]The latter may commit crimes
[00:56.79](7)for lack of adequate parental control.
[00:59.61]All theories, however, are tentative
[01:01.67]and are (8)subject to criticism.
[01:04.29]Changes in the social structure
[01:06.01]may indirectly (9)affect juvenile crime rates.
[01:08.43]For example, changes in the economy
[01:10.95]that (10)lead to fewer job opportunities for youth
[01:13.87]and rising unemployment (11)in general
[01:16.40]make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain.
[01:20.13]The resulting discontent may in (12)turn
[01:22.83]lead more youths into criminal behavior.
[01:25.85]Families have also (13)experienced changes these years.
[01:29.38]More families consist of one-parent households
[01:32.30]or two working parents;
[01:34.12](14)consequently, children are likely to
[01:36.23]have less supervision at home
[01:38.15](15)than was common in the traditional family (16)structure.
[01:41.17]This lack of parental supervision is thought to be
[01:44.06]an influence on juvenile crime rates.
[01:46.58]Other (17)identifiable causes of offensive acts
[01:49.71]include frustration or failure in school,
[01:52.75]the increased (18)availability of drugs and alcohol,
[01:56.07]and the growing (19)incidence of child abuse
[01:58.39]and child neglect.
[02:00.00]All these conditions tend to increase the probability
[02:02.92]of a child committing a criminal act,
[02:05.55](20)although a direct causal relationship
[02:07.97]has not yet been established.内容来自 听力课堂网：http://www.tingclass.net/show-8692-250724-1.html