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历年考研英语完型填空2004年

所属教程:历年考研英语完型填空

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http://online2.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/0008/8692/WX2004.mp3
http://image.tingclass.net/statics/js/2012

[00:05.92]2004

[00:07.64]Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency

[00:11.28](crimes committed by young people)

[00:13.29]focus either on the individual or on society

[00:16.36]as the major contributing influence.

[00:19.00]Theories (1)centering on the individual suggest

[00:21.62]that children engage in criminal behavior

[00:24.44](2)because they were not sufficiently penalized

[00:26.56]for previous misdeeds or that they have learned

[00:29.92]criminal behavior through (3)interaction with others.

[00:33.24]Theories focusing on the role of society suggest

[00:35.39]that children commit crimes in (4)respons

[00:37.52]to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status,

[00:41.40](5)or as a rejection of middle-class values.

[00:44.62]Most theories of juvenile delinquency

[00:47.15]have focused on children from disadvantaged families,

[00:50.59](6)ignoring the fact that children

[00:52.19]from wealthy homes also commit crimes.

[00:55.03]The latter may commit crimes

[00:56.79](7)for lack of adequate parental control.

[00:59.61]All theories, however, are tentative

[01:01.67]and are (8)subject to criticism.

[01:04.29]Changes in the social structure

[01:06.01]may indirectly (9)affect juvenile crime rates.

[01:08.43]For example, changes in the economy

[01:10.95]that (10)lead to fewer job opportunities for youth

[01:13.87]and rising unemployment (11)in general

[01:16.40]make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain.

[01:20.13]The resulting discontent may in (12)turn

[01:22.83]lead more youths into criminal behavior.

[01:25.85]Families have also (13)experienced changes these years.

[01:29.38]More families consist of one-parent households

[01:32.30]or two working parents;

[01:34.12](14)consequently, children are likely to

[01:36.23]have less supervision at home

[01:38.15](15)than was common in the traditional family (16)structure.

[01:41.17]This lack of parental supervision is thought to be

[01:44.06]an influence on juvenile crime rates.

[01:46.58]Other (17)identifiable causes of offensive acts

[01:49.71]include frustration or failure in school,

[01:52.75]the increased (18)availability of drugs and alcohol,

[01:56.07]and the growing (19)incidence of child abuse

[01:58.39]and child neglect.

[02:00.00]All these conditions tend to increase the probability

[02:02.92]of a child committing a criminal act,

[02:05.55](20)although a direct causal relationship

[02:07.97]has not yet been established.

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