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VOA慢速英语:美国在世贸组织对欧盟等国发起诉讼

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2018年07月19日

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US Disputes Tariffs from Canada, China, Mexico, EU

美国在世贸组织对欧盟等国发起诉讼

The United States has launched five separate dispute actions at the World Trade Organization against Canada, China, the European Union, Mexico and Turkey. The U.S. says these countries wrongly placed tariffs on U.S. products.

美国在世贸组织对加拿大、中国、欧盟、墨西哥以及土耳其分别发起诉讼。美国表示,这些国家对美国产品错误地征收关税。

The tariffs would involve a combined $28.5 billion worth of U.S. exports. They were ordered in reaction to U.S. tariffs announced in March. However, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer says the latest tariffs are illegal under WTO rules.

这些关税涉及价值合计285亿美元的美国出口货物,下令征收这些关税是为了回应今年3月份美国宣布的关税。然而,美国贸易代表莱特希泽表示,这些最新的关税是非法的。

The Trump administration has said American national security interests justified tariffs it placed on imported aluminum and steel products. It said the tariffs are meant to protect the U.S. steel and aluminum industries from low-cost imports from other countries.

川普政府表示,美国的国家安全利益证明了他们对钢铝产品征收关税的正当性。该国表示,这些关税旨在保护美国钢铝产业免受其它国家低成本进口的冲击。

But the administration argues the tariffs put in place by the four countries and the EU are not permitted because they are not based on national security.

但是美国政府辩称,欧盟和这4个国家实施的关税是不允许的,因为它们不是以国家安全为基础。

Under WTO rules, countries decide what their national security interests are. But the group also dissuades countries from overuse of that justification to avoid abuses.

根据世贸组织规则,各国自行决定其国家安全利益所在。但是该组织也劝诫各国不要过度使用这种正当理由以避免滥用。

Lighthizer said, "Instead of working with us to address a common problem, some of our trading partners have elected to respond with retaliatory tariffs designed to punish American workers, farmers and companies."

莱特希泽表示:“我们的一些贸易伙伴不是跟我们合作来解决这个普遍问题,而是选择以旨在惩罚美国工人、农民和企业的报复性关税作为回应。”

What is the WTO?

什么是世贸组织?

The World Trade Organization describes itself as the "only global international organization dealing with trade between nations."

世贸组织自称为“唯一一家处理国家间贸易的全球性国际组织”。

There are trade agreements between countries or groups of countries that also set rules for international trade. These include the North American Free Trade Agreement, or NAFTA.

各国以及国家集团之间的贸易协议也制定了一些国际贸易的规则,其中包括北美自由贸易协定。

But WTO officials point out that these agreements are not designed to deal with big issues that affect many countries or individual industries across borders.

但是世贸组织官员指出,这些协议并非旨在解决影响多个国家或单个跨国行业的重大问题。

The WTO was established in 1995 following years of negotiations. The talks began at the end of World War Two and involved more than one hundred countries. The group has added more large economies in recent years including China in 2001, Vietnam in 2007 and Russia in 2012.

世贸组织经过多年谈判于1995年成立。这些谈判始于二战结束,涉及了100多个国家。该组织近年新增了更多大的经济体,其中包括2001年中国加入,2007年越南以及2012年俄罗斯加入。

The body, which is based in Geneva, has a General Council that includes all its members. The Council carries out the business of negotiating, observing trade conditions and settling disputes among members in addition to other activities.

该机构总部设在日内瓦,设有一个包括所有成员的总理事会。除了其它活动,该理事会还开展商业谈判、监测贸易状况以及解决成员国之间的纠纷。

Below the General Council are many committees that specialize in the complex issues of trade in goods, services and intellectual property.

总理事会下设多个委员会,专攻商品、服务或知识产权贸易等复杂问题。

Decisions in the WTO are "generally made by consensus," meaning all members must agree. And, all members have an equal vote.

世贸组织的决定通常是以协商一致的方式作出的,这意味着必须获得所有成员认可。而且所有成员拥有同等投票权。

The latest disputes over U.S. tariffs have set off measures and counter-measures by the countries including China, the EU and Canada.

最近关于美国关税的争端引发包括中国、欧盟和加拿大在内的国家采取应对措施。

Mexico is one of the countries the U.S. has included in its WTO dispute action. Mexico's economy minister said the country would defend itself in the trade body against the latest U.S. actions.

墨西哥也是美国纳入其世贸组织争端诉讼的国家之一。墨西哥经济部长表示,该国将会在该贸易机构对美国这一最新诉讼作出辩护。

The ministry said in a statement, "U.S. purchases of Mexican steel and aluminum do not represent a national security threat to that country."

该部长在一份声明中表示,“美国购买墨西哥钢铝产品并不代表是对该国国家安全的威胁。”

On Monday, the International Monetary Fund warned that growing trade conflicts could harm the world's economic recovery.

国际货币基金组织周一警告说,日益加剧的贸易冲突可能会损害世界经济复苏。

The IMF continues to predict world economic growth will reach 3.9 percent in 2019. But it warned, "The risk of worse outcomes has increased."

世贸组织仍然预测2019年全球经济增长率将会达到3.9%。但它警告说,“结局恶化的风险增加了。”

Maurice Obstfeld is the chief economist for the IMF. He said the tariffs make the U.S. a target of trade actions if trade disputes continue to expand.

莫里斯·奥伯斯法尔德(Maurice Obstfeld)是国际货币基金组织首席经济学家。他说,如果贸易争端继续扩大,这些关税将会使得美国成为贸易行动的目标。

"The United States finds a relatively high share of its exports taxed in global markets in such a broader trade conflict," he said.

他说:“在如此广泛的贸易冲突中,美国会发现其出口税率在全球市场上会相对较高。”

I'm Mario Ritter.

马里奥·里特报道。

The United States has launched five separate dispute actions at the World Trade Organization against Canada, China, the European Union, Mexico and Turkey. The U.S. says these countries wrongly placed tariffs on U.S. products.

The tariffs would involve a combined $28.5 billion worth of U.S. exports. They were ordered in reaction to U.S. tariffs announced in March. However, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer says the latest tariffs are illegal under WTO rules.

The Trump administration has said American national security interests justified tariffs it placed on imported aluminum and steel products. It said the tariffs are meant to protect the U.S. steel and aluminum industries from low-cost imports from other countries.

But the administration argues the tariffs put in place by the four countries and the EU are not permitted because they are not based on national security.

Under WTO rules, countries decide what their national security interests are. But the group also dissuades countries from overuse of that justification to avoid abuses.

Lighthizer said, “Instead of working with us to address a common problem, some of our trading partners have elected to respond with retaliatory tariffs designed to punish American workers, farmers and companies.”

What is the WTO?

The World Trade Organization describes itself as the “only global international organization dealing with trade between nations.”

There are trade agreements between countries or groups of countries that also set rules for international trade. These include the North American Free Trade Agreement, or NAFTA.

But WTO officials point out that these agreements are not designed to deal with big issues that affect many countries or individual industries across borders.

The WTO was established in 1995 following years of negotiations. The talks began at the end of World War Two and involved more than one hundred countries. The group has added more large economies in recent years including China in 2001, Vietnam in 2007 and Russia in 2012.

The body, which is based in Geneva, has a General Council that includes all its members. The Council carries out the business of negotiating, observing trade conditions and settling disputes among members in addition to other activities.

Below the General Council are many committees that specialize in the complex issues of trade in goods, services and intellectual property.

Decisions in the WTO are “generally made by consensus,” meaning all members must agree. And, all members have an equal vote.

The latest disputes over U.S. tariffs have set off measures and counter-measures by the countries including China, the EU and Canada.

Mexico is one of the countries the U.S. has included in its WTO dispute action. Mexico’s economy minister said the country would defend itself in the trade body against the latest U.S. actions.

The ministry said in a statement, “U.S. purchases of Mexican steel and aluminum do not represent a national security threat to that country.”

On Monday, the International Monetary Fund warned that growing trade conflicts could harm the world’s economic recovery.

The IMF continues to predict world economic growth will reach 3.9 percent in 2019. But it warned, “The risk of worse outcomes has increased.”

Maurice Obstfeld is the top economist for the IMF. He said the tariffs make the U.S. a target of trade actions if trade disputes continue to expand.

“The United States finds a relatively high share of its exports taxed in global markets in such a broader trade conflict,” he said.

I’m Mario Ritter.

_______________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

address –v. to give attention to (something): to deal with (a matter, issue, problem, etc.)

tariffs –n. taxes on imported or exported goods or services

justified –adj. to provide a good reason for something

retaliatory –adj. something bad done in reaction to some sort of injury or harm

intellectual property –n. something (such as an idea, invention, or process) that comes from a person's mind

global –adj. involving the entire world

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