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历年考研英语翻译2002年

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http://online2.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/0008/8698/FY2002.mp3
http://image.tingclass.net/statics/js/2012
[00:02.88]2002

[00:06.01]Almost all our major problems involve human behavior,

[00:10.04]and they cannot be solved by physical

[00:12.15]and biological technology alone.

[00:15.07]What is needed is a technology of behavior,

[00:17.80]but we have been slow to develop the science

[00:20.48]from which such a technology might be drawn.

[00:23.61](1)

[00:25.36]all of what is called behavioral science

[00:27.91]continues to trace behavior to states of mind,

[00:30.89]feelings, traits of character,

[00:33.01]human nature, and so on.>

[00:35.13]Physics and biology once followed similar practices

[00:39.05]and advanced only when they discarded them.

[00:42.18](2)

[00:44.08]slow to change partly because the explanatory items

[00:47.91]often seem to be directly observed and partly

[00:50.63]because other kinds of explanations

[00:53.01]have been hard to find.>

[00:54.93]The environment is obviously important,

[00:57.34]but its role has remained obscure.

[00:59.57]It does not push or pull, it selects,

[01:02.29]and this function is difficult to discover and analyze.

[01:06.01](3)

[01:08.84]was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago,

[01:12.78]and the selective role of the environment

[01:15.06]in shaping and maintaining the behavior

[01:17.28]of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied.>

[01:21.71]As the interaction between organism

[01:23.64]and environment has come to be understood, however,

[01:27.22]effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings,

[01:30.44]and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions,

[01:34.77]and a technology of behavior may therefore become available.

[01:38.93]It will not solve our problems, however,

[01:41.85]until it replaces traditional prescientific views,

[01:45.48]and these are strongly entrenched.

[01:47.90]Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty.

[01:51.03](4)

[01:53.35](self-governing) man of traditional theory,

[01:56.47]and they are essential to practices

[01:58.38]in which a person is held responsible for his conduct

[02:01.81]and given credit for his achievements.>

[02:04.34]A scientific analysis shifts both the responsibility

[02:08.06]and the achievement to the environment.

[02:10.38]It also raises questions concerning "values."

[02:13.40]Who will use a technology and to what ends?

[02:16.56](5)

[02:18.23]a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected,

[02:21.66]and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.>
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