[00:06.01]Almost all our major problems involve human behavior,
[00:10.04]and they cannot be solved by physical
[00:12.15]and biological technology alone.
[00:15.07]What is needed is a technology of behavior,
[00:17.80]but we have been slow to develop the science
[00:20.48]from which such a technology might be drawn.
[00:25.36]all of what is called behavioral science
[00:27.91]continues to trace behavior to states of mind,
[00:30.89]feelings, traits of character,
[00:33.01]human nature, and so on.>
[00:35.13]Physics and biology once followed similar practices
[00:39.05]and advanced only when they discarded them.
[00:44.08]slow to change partly because the explanatory items
[00:47.91]often seem to be directly observed and partly
[00:50.63]because other kinds of explanations
[00:53.01]have been hard to find.>
[00:54.93]The environment is obviously important,
[00:57.34]but its role has remained obscure.
[00:59.57]It does not push or pull, it selects,
[01:02.29]and this function is difficult to discover and analyze.
[01:08.84]was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago,
[01:12.78]and the selective role of the environment
[01:15.06]in shaping and maintaining the behavior
[01:17.28]of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied.>
[01:21.71]As the interaction between organism
[01:23.64]and environment has come to be understood, however,
[01:27.22]effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings,
[01:30.44]and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions,
[01:34.77]and a technology of behavior may therefore become available.
[01:38.93]It will not solve our problems, however,
[01:41.85]until it replaces traditional prescientific views,
[01:45.48]and these are strongly entrenched.
[01:47.90]Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty.
[01:53.35](self-governing) man of traditional theory,
[01:56.47]and they are essential to practices
[01:58.38]in which a person is held responsible for his conduct
[02:01.81]and given credit for his achievements.>
[02:04.34]A scientific analysis shifts both the responsibility
[02:08.06]and the achievement to the environment.
[02:10.38]It also raises questions concerning "values."
[02:13.40]Who will use a technology and to what ends?
[02:18.23]a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected,
[02:21.66]and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.>