[00:08.42]Is it true that the American intellectual is rejected
[00:11.64]and considered of no account in his society?
[00:15.26]I am going to suggest that it is not true.
[00:18.61]Father Bruckberger told part of the story when he observed
[00:22.44]that it is the intellectuals who have rejected America.
[00:26.37]But they have done more than that.
[00:28.49]They have grown dissatisfied with the role of the intellectual.
[00:32.22]It is they, not America,
[00:34.25]who have become anti-intellectual.
[00:36.76]First, the object of our study pleads for definition.
[00:40.59]What is an intellectual?
[00:45.02]who has elected as his primary duty
[00:47.24]and pleasure in life the activity of thinking
[00:50.00]in a Socratic (苏格拉底的) way about moral problems.>
[00:53.53]He explores such problems consciously, articulately,
[00:56.76]and frankly, first by asking factual questions,
[01:00.38]then by asking moral questions,
[01:03.01]finally by suggesting action
[01:05.23]which seems appropriate in the light of the factual
[01:08.35]and moral information which he has obtained.
[01:14.74]who must accept the obligation of revealing
[01:17.39]in as obvious a manner as possible
[01:19.99]the course of reasoning which led him to his decision.>
[01:23.62]This definition excludes many individuals
[01:26.46]usually referred to as intellectuals
[01:28.97]--the average scientist, for one.
[01:33.40]while his accomplishments may contribute
[01:35.53]to the solution of moral problems,
[01:37.64]he has not been charged with the task
[01:40.17]of approaching any but the factual aspects
[01:42.98]of those problems.>
[01:44.81]Like other human beings,
[01:46.43]he encounters moral issues even
[01:48.45]in the every-day performance of his routine duties
[01:51.67]--he is not supposed to cook his experiments,
[01:54.19]manufacture evidence, or doctor his reports.
[02:00.07]about the moral code which governs his activity,
[02:03.29]any more than a businessman
[02:04.91]is expected to dedicate his energies
[02:07.23]to an exploration of rules of conduct in business.>
[02:11.06]During most of his waking life
[02:12.68]he will take his code for granted,
[02:15.01]as the businessman takes his ethics.
[02:17.72]The definition also excludes the majority of teachers,
[02:21.65]despite the fact that teaching
[02:23.26]has traditionally been the method
[02:24.98]whereby many intellectuals earn their living.
[02:29.41]and more than earn their salaries,
[02:31.43]but most of them make little
[02:32.94]or no independent reflections on human problems
[02:35.97]which involve moral judgment.>
[02:38.18]This description even fits the majority
[02:40.26]of eminent scholars.
[02:42.07]Being learned in some branch
[02:43.69]of human knowledge is one thing;
[02:45.49]living in "public and illustrious thoughts,"
[02:47.82]as Emerson would say, is something else.内容来自 听力课堂网：http://www.tingclass.net/show-8698-251492-1.html