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大学英语自学教程 unit 12

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[00:00.00]Unit 12 Text A
[00:04.60]How Dictionaries Are Made
[00:06.57]词典是怎样编写的
[00:08.54]It is widely believed that everyword has a correct meaning,
[00:12.16]人们普遍相信,每个词都有个正确的词义,
[00:15.78]that we learn these meanings mainly from teachers and grammarians and
[00:19.30]我们主要是跟老师和语法家学习这些词义,
[00:22.83] that dictionaries and grammarsare the supreme authority
[00:25.86]词典和语法是
[00:28.89]in matters of meaning and usage.
[00:31.18]词义和用法的最高权威.
[00:33.46]Few people ask by what authority the writers of dictionariesand grammars say what they say,
[00:38.30]很少有问,编词典和写语法的人凭什么说出他们之所说的.
[00:43.13]I once got into a dispute with an English womanover the pronunciation of a word andn
[00:47.60]我有一次曾和一位英国妇女争论一个词的发音,
[00:52.06] offered to look it up in the dictionary.
[00:54.24]并且提出查查词典.
[00:56.42]The English woman said firmly,"What for? I am English.
[01:00.40]这位英国妇女语气十分坚决地说:"查词典干什么?我是个英国人,
[01:04.37]I was born and brought up in England.
[01:06.74]在英国出生,在英国长大的.
[01:09.12]The way I speak is English,"
[01:11.44]我说的就是英文."
[01:13.77]Such self-assurance about one's own language
[01:16.66]这种对自己语言的自信
[01:19.54]is fairlycommon among the English.
[01:21.97]在英国人当中是相当普遍的.
[01:24.40]In the United States,however,
[01:26.88]而在美国,
[01:29.36]anyone who is willing to quarrel with the dictionary
[01:32.19]谁要是想和词典辨论,
[01:35.01]is regarded as either eccentric or mad.
[01:38.10]会被认为不是异常就是发疯.
[01:41.20]Let us see how dictionaries are made and how the editors arrive at definitions.
[01:45.61]让我们看看词典是怎样编写的和编辑们怎样得出词的定义的.
[01:50.03]What follows applies only to those dictionary offices where first-hand
[01:54.16]下面所说的只适用于那些进行第一手
[01:58.28]original research goes on--
[02:00.46]创造性研究的词典编辑室,
[02:02.64]not those in which editors simply copy existing dictionaries.
[02:06.37]而不是那些编辑们单纯抄现有词典的编辑室.
[02:10.09]The task of writing a dictionary
[02:12.61]词典的编写是
[02:15.13]begins with the reading of vast amounts of the literature of the period
[02:19.06]从阅读拟编词典要涵盖的时期
[02:22.99]or subject that the dictionary is to cover.
[02:25.67]和主题的大量文献开始的.
[02:28.35]As the editors read,they copy on cards every interesting or rare word,
[02:33.03]编辑们在阅读文献的时候,
[02:37.70]every unusual or peculiar occurrence of a common word,
[02:41.28]要把这样一些资料记在卡片上:每个引起兴趣的词或不常见的词,
[02:44.86]a large numher of common words in their ordinary uses,
[02:48.63]每个常用词的不寻常的或特殊的出现情况,
[02:52.41]and also the sentences in which each of these words appears.
[02:56.38]大量的通常使用的常用词以及每个出现这样词的句子.
[03:00.35]That is to say,the context of each wordis connected along with the word itself.
[03:05.52]也就是说,把每个单词本身连同它出现的上下文一起收集起来.
[03:10.69]For a really big job of dictionary writing,
[03:13.97]对于一项真正巨大的词典编写任务,
[03:17.25]such as the Oxford English Dictionary,millions of such cards are collected,
[03:21.52]比如像编写牛津英语词不典,要收集几百万张这样的卡片,
[03:25.79]and the task of editing occupies decades.
[03:28.97]而编写任务要占去几十年的时间.
[03:32.14]As the cards are collected, they are alphabetized and sorted.
[03:35.56]卡片收集好之后, 要把它们按字母排序和整理.
[03:38.98]When the sorting is completed, there will be for each word
[03:42.32]整理工作结束之后,
[03:45.65]anywhere from two or three to several hundred quotations,each on its card.
[03:50.62]每个词可有从两 三条到几百条引文作为例句,每条都写在一张卡片上.
[03:55.60]To define a word, then,
[03:57.58]为要给一个词下定义,
[03:59.57]the dictionary editor placesbefore him the stack of cardsillustrating that word;
[04:03.84]词典编辑面前摆放着一摞说明这个词的卡片,
[04:08.11]each of the cards represents an actual use of the word
[04:11.94]每张卡片代表一们文学上或历史上
[04:15.76]by a writer of some literary ox historical importance.
[04:19.24]重要的作家对该词的一种实际用法.
[04:22.71]He reads the cards carefully, discards some, re-reads the rest,
[04:26.95]词典编辑认真阅读每张卡片,
[04:31.18]and divides up the stack according to what he thinks are the several senses of the word.
[04:35.57]有些就废弃 不用了,
[04:39.95]Finally, he writes his definitions,
[04:43.18]后他要写定义.
[04:46.41] followlng the hard-and-fast rule that each definition must be based on what
[04:50.48]这时他应严格遵循一条规则:
[04:54.56]the quotationsin front of him reveal about the meaning of the word.
[04:58.38]每个定义都必须根据他面前的提示该词词义的引文.
[05:02.21]The editor cannot be influenced by what he thinks a given word ought to mean
[05:06.14]编辑不能受到他自己认为某个词应是什么词义的影响.
[05:10.07]He must work according to the cards, or not at all
[05:12.80]他必须根据卡片资料进行工作,要不就别干.
[05:15.53]The writing of a dictionary, therefore,is not a task of setting up authoritative statements
[05:19.76]所以说,编写词典这一任务不是提供一些关于词的
[05:24.00]about the "true meanings" of words,
[05:26.62]准确词义"的权威说法,
[05:29.25]but a task of recording, to the best of one' s ability,
[05:32.73]而是尽最大可能地记录很久以前的
[05:36.22]what various words have meant to authors in the distant or immediate past.
[05:40.75]或不久以前的作家们对各个词所认定的词义是什么.
[05:45.29]If, for example, we had been writing a dictionary in 1890
[05:48.81]假如说我们曾在1890年,
[05:52.34]or even as late as 1919,
[05:55.37]或者甚至晚在1919年编写了一部词典,
[05:58.40]we could have said that the word "broadcast"means "
[06:02.03]我们可以说," broadcast "一词的词义是"散播,撒播"
[06:05.66]to scatter" (seed, for example),
[06:08.09](如散播种子)
[06:10.52]but we could not have stated that from 1921 on,
[06:14.54]但我们不可能说,这个词的最常用的词义从1921年起
[06:18.57]the most common meaning of the word should become
[06:21.51]应该变成
[06:24.44]"to send out programs by radio or television."
[06:27.71]"用广播或电视发送节目".
[06:30.97]In choosing our words when we speak or write,
[06:33.69]我们说话或写作的时的选词
[06:36.41]we can be guided by the historical record provided us by the dictionary
[06:39.88]应以词典提供的历史记录为指南,
[06:43.36]but we cannot be bound by it, because new situations,
[06:46.64]但不就应被它束缚住,因为新情况,
[06:49.91]new experiences,new inventions,new feelings,are always forcing us to give new uses to old words.
[06:55.14]新经验,新发明,
[07:00.36]looking under a "hood,"
[07:02.28]新看法总是迫使我们给旧词以新的用法.
[07:04.20]we should ordinarily, have foundfive hundred years ago, a monk;
[07:07.43]500年前,如果我们朝" hood"下看去,我们一般会看到一个修道士;
[07:10.65]today, we find a car engine.
[07:12.88]而今在" hood"下面看到的却是一台汽车发动机.

[07:15.10]Text B
[07:17.94]Reading Provides Necessary Survival Skills
[07:20.62]阅读给我们必要的生存技能
[07:23.30]With the coming of the television age
[07:25.22]随着电视时代的到来
[07:27.14]and the increasing emphasis on pictures and sound in all quartets of our society,
[07:30.57]和社会各人方面都日益强调图象和声音,
[07:34.01]many people would have us believe
[07:35.78]很多人企图使我们相信,
[07:37.56]that we are moving rapidly away from reading as a necessary life skill.
[07:40.53]我们正迅速离开阅读这一必要的生活技能。
[07:43.49]But this is not the case at all.
[07:45.16]但情况完全不是这 样。
[07:46.83]Good reading is a more important life skill than ever before
[07:49.77]好的阅读能力比过去任何时候都是更重要的生活技能,
[07:52.71]and the printed word continues to be the cornerstone
[07:55.19]印刷的资料继续是
[07:57.68]of both higher education
[07:59.56]受高等教育
[08:01.44]and better positions in the job market.
[08:03.41]和在人材市场中谋求更好职位的基础。
[08:05.38]For students, almost all studying involves reading.
[08:08.01]对学生来说,几乎所有的学习都涉及阅读。
[08:10.63]For adults,reading is day to day,
[08:13.01]对成年人来说,阅读天天进行,
[08:15.39]either a stumbling blockor a smooth path to pleasure and opportunity.
[08:18.77]它要么是通往乐趣和机遇的平坦道路,要么是一块绊脚石。
[08:22.15]This is why good reading habits are not only an important study skillfor the student,
[08:25.39]这就是为什么好的阅读习惯不仅是学生的重要学习技能,
[08:28.63]but also an important life skill for anyone.
[08:31.01]对任何人也是一项重要生活技能。
[08:33.38]SCANNING-You can get a good idea about the material
[08:36.61]浏览----你一开始用一会儿
[08:39.84]by taking a few moments right off to read the title,
[08:42.51]阅读一下书名,章节标题等,
[08:45.19]chapter headings,section titles and headlines.
[08:48.13]你就能对所读的材料有个很好的概念。
[08:51.07]The purpose of scanning
[08:52.65]浏览的目的是
[08:54.23]is to get a quick understanding of what to expect from the reading,
[08:57.31]能很快了解可以从阅读中得到什么,
[09:00.40]so that you will know what you are reading as you go along.
[09:02.98]以便你在阅读过程中能明白你读的东西的意思。
[09:05.57]Maps, charts, graphs and pictures are clues that will help the reader
[09:09.54]地图,图表,曲线和图片都是有益的线索,
[09:13.51]to cue in on the content and organization of the material.
[09:16.63]读者理解所读材料的内容和组织提供一些启示。
[09:19.75]This simple technique of scanning
[09:21.63]浏览这一简单的技巧
[09:23.51]can help you read for ideas
[09:25.39]能够帮助你获取大意,
[09:27.28]because you will know ,where you are going when you begin to read.
[09:30.10]因为当你开始阅读的时候你应该知道你的阅读走向。
[09:32.92]READING SPEED--Another good reading habit is reading fast.
[09:36.04]阅读速度——另一个好的阅读习惯昌读得太快。
[09:39.16]The expression "haste makes waste" does not apply to reading.
[09:42.40]“欲速则不达”这个说法不适用于阅读,
[09:45.64]In fact, most people read much too slowly.
[09:48.32]事实上,很多人读得太慢.
[09:50.99]Right now you are probably reading this slower than you need
[09:53.82]现在你就可能读得比很好理解
[09:56.64]for good comprehension.
[09:58.41]所需 要的速度要慢.
[10:00.19]Studies show that fast readers are the best readers,
[10:02.87]研究表明,读得快的读者是最好的读者,
[10:05.54]and that slow readers
[10:07.13]而读得慢的读者
[10:08.71]often lose their concentrationand comprehension abilities
[10:11.38]常常会作不到精神集中或正确理解都常常会减弱,
[10:14.06]because their minds will wander our of boredom.
[10:16.54]因为他们会由于厌烦而思想溜号。
[10:19.02]Remember, nothing hurts concentration more than reading too slowly.
[10:22.41]要记住,没有什么比读得太慢可能影响精神集中的了.
[10:25.79]Your mind will keep up with your reading speed if you ask it to.
[10:28.73]你的思路可与阅读速度保持同步,
[10:31.67]By always reading at your top speed, you challenge your understanding
[10:34.79]如果你要求这样的话,通过以你的最快速度阅读,
[10:37.91]and make it easier for your mind to concentrate on the material.
[10:40.94]你向你的理解力提出挑战,使你的思想更容易集中在你阅读的材料上.
[10:43.97]VOCABULARY BUILDING--
[10:45.60]扩大词汇----
[10:47.24]For a person with good reading habits,
[10:49.21]对一个具有良好阅读能力的人来说,
[10:51.18]a printed page contains not onlywords but ideas,
[10:53.91]一张印刷页面上不只包括词汇,它还包括看法,
[10:56.64]actions,thoughts and feelings.
[10:59.02]行动,思想和感情.
[11:01.39]But all these things are built on words.
[11:03.61]但所有这些都依赖词汇.
[11:05.84]The more words you are familiar with,
[11:07.72]你认识的词愈多,
[11:09.60]the less you are aware of reading words
[11:11.66]你愈不会感到像在读词,
[11:13.72]and the more you are aware of content and meaning.
[11:16.40]而会更多地感到你在读内容和意义.
[11:19.08]Expanding your vocabulary
[11:21.00]扩大词汇
[11:22.92]will help you to read more effectively and rapidly
[11:25.28]会帮助你读得更有效果,更快.
[11:27.65]Many people simply skip over words they do not understand.
[11:30.48]很多人单纯地跳过他们不认识的词.
[11:33.32]This, naturally, hurts their overall comprehension.
[11:36.05]这自然会妨害他们从整体上理解阅读材料.
[11:38.78]Other people stop at each new word and look it up in the dictionary
[11:41.44]另一些人每碰到一个生词都要停下来查词典.
[11:44.10]but this method can slow down your reading
[11:46.33]这种方法会降低你的阅读速度,
[11:48.55]affecting concentration and comprehension.
[11:50.87]影响思想集中和理解.
[11:53.20]But you can build your vocabulary without using a dictionary each time.
[11:55.98]不过你可以扩大你的词汇而不每次都查词典.
[11:58.76]Here are two roles:
[12:00.34]下面有两条规则:
[12:01.92]1. Pause for a moment on each new word and let it register in your mind.
[12:05.85]1.每遇到生词时稍停一下,把它暂记在脑子里.
[12:09.78]2. Try to guess what the word means from context clues,
[12:13.32]2.根据上下文线索,根据该生词周围的词试图猜测其意义.
[12:16.86]from the words around it.What happens with this method
[12:19.68]采用这种方法的结果是
[12:22.50] is that you will see the word again and again
[12:24.69]你以后会一再碰到这个词.
[12:26.87]Each time you will have a stronger impression of the meaning.
[12:29.51]你每碰到它一次,你对它的意义的印象会加深一次.
[12:32.14]Soon, the new word will be familiar and its meaning clear.
[12:35.12]很快这个词就变成熟词,而它的词义你也清楚了.
[12:38.10]The key to the method is to be alert to new words.
[12:40.58]使用这个方法的关键是对生词的警觉.
[12:43.06]Don't skip over then.
[12:44.64]不要跳过它们.
[12:46.22]You'll find you are adding to your vocabulary each day
[12:48.71]你将发现你的词汇中每天都增添新词,
[12:51.19]and a good strong vocabulary is great help to reading qucikly
[12:54.31]有效而巨大的词汇将有力地帮助你以高的速度
[12:57.43]and with strong comprehension.
[12:59.45]和强的理解力进行阅读.
[13:01.48]Good reading habits like these
[13:03.36]像这样的良好阅读习惯
[13:05.24]can help studentsand working adults alike to be more successful.
[13:08.13]可以帮助学生以及已经工作的成年人取得更大的成功.
[13:11.01]The special world of school and the real world of school
[13:14.10]由于增添了诸如良好的阅读习惯这类简单但却重要的生活技能,
[13:17.18]and of everyday life can be more comfortable productive
[13:20.05]学校的特殊世界和学校与
[13:22.93]and rewarding with the additiion of simple
[13:25.11]日常生活的真实世界就会变得更加舒适,
[13:27.29]yet important life skillssuch as good reading habits.
[13:29.91]更富于成果并从中得到更多的回报.
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