商务英语 学英语,练听力,上听力课堂! 注册 登录
> 商务英语 > 商务英语考试教程 > 工商管理英语 >  第2课

工商管理英语Chapter 2 组织





[00:00.00]Vienna n.


[00:01.38]expect vt.


[00:02.95]stage n. vt.

[00:03.41]阶段 上演

[00:03.87]scheduled a.


[00:05.04]contract vt. n.

[00:05.83]承包 合同

[00:06.61]foundation n.


[00:08.10]A:I'm phoning about the timing for the Vienna project.


[00:11.68]B:Right,we've got a starting date for that,haven't we?


[00:14.81]A:Yes,we begin a pilot study on 5 November.


[00:20.04]B:Right,how long is that expected to last?


[00:23.22]A:We should finish the study in three weeks.


[00:26.20]B:Good,then what's the next stage?


[00:30.30]A:Well,we've got a meeting with the contractor scheduled for 1 December.


[00:36.94]If everything goes according to plan,we'll sign the contract then.


[00:41.64]And work can begin at the beginning of January.


[00:45.61]B:So what's the first stage?


[00:47.54]A:Well,excavation will begin in January and is due to finish by the middle of February.


[00:54.94]Now,after that we could have a problem.


[00:57.86]B:What's that?


[00:59.17]A:You remember we've subcontracted the German firm to do the foundations?


[01:05.93]They promised to start in the middle of February.


[01:09.64]They are now saying they can't.


[01:12.05]B:Right,I'll get on to them.


[01:13.85]When are they due to finish the foundations?


[01:16.59]A:In the contract,it says by 28 February.


[01:20.74]B:I see,and then?


[01:22.42]A:Construction work should begin on 5 March.


[01:26.36]We're on a pretty tight schedule.


[01:29.39]All the work has to be done in March and April.


[01:32.50]B:OK.I see the problem.


[01:34.35]I'll phone you back in the afternoon at about three.Bye.




[01:39.45]authority n.


[01:40.94]charisma n.


[01:42.14]division of labor


[01:43.84]functional departmentalization


[01:46.03]functional structure


[01:47.70]mechanistic organization


[01:49.95]organic organization


[01:51.86]organization design


[01:53.92]Organization structure describes the organization's formal framework or system of communication and authority.


[02:03.22]Just as humans have skeletons that define their shapes,


[02:07.03]organizations have structures that define theirs.


[02:11.03]The term complexity refers to the amount of differentiation in an organization.


[02:16.33]The more division of labor there is in an organization,the more vertical levels in the hierarchy,


[02:24.17]and the more geographically dispersed the organization's units,


[02:28.77]the more difficult it is to coordinate people and their activities.


[02:33.47]The degree to which an organization relies on rules and procedures to direct the behavior of employees is formalization.


[02:44.41]The more rules and regulations in an organization,the more formalized the organization's structure.


[02:51.10]The term centralization describes where the decision__making authority is.


[02:56.25]If decision making is in upper levels of management,the organization's structure is more centralized.


[03:03.80]On the other side,decentralization is used in some organization where decision making is delegated to lower levels.


[03:13.07]Organization design means the development or changing of an organization's structure.


[03:19.50]The process involves decisions about the amount of complexity,formalization,and centralization to be used.


[03:27.73]Three aspects of organization structure can be mixed and matched to create various organization designs.


[03:36.45]Managers must design an organization structure that allows them to effectively and efficiently accomplish organization goals and objectives.


[03:48.44]Designing an appropriate structure means that managers must decide how to coordinate work activities and efforts both vertically and horizontally.


[04:00.07]A subordinate should have one and only one superior to whom he or she is directly responsible.


[04:07.69]Otherwise,a subordinate might have to cope with conflicting demands or priorities from several managers.


[04:15.35]Authority relates to one's position within an oranization and ignores the personal characteristics of the individual manager.


[04:24.59]The terms authority and powers are frequently confused.


[04:29.01]Authority is a legitimate right that's held because of a person's position in an organization.


[04:36.09]Authority goes with the job.


[04:38.94]In contrast,power refers to an individual's capacity to influence decisions.


[04:45.68]Authority is one part of the large concept of power.


[04:50.30]Since more and more organizations are reducing the members of managerial position through downsizing and restructuring,


[04:59.99]we find that spans of control are generally increasing for managers.


[05:05.63]For instance,it's obvious that the more training and experience subordinates have,the less direct supervision they'll need.


[05:14.91]Managers who have well_trained and experienced employees can function quite well with a wider span.


[05:23.81]The recent shift toward more decentralization of decision making reflects


[05:29.64]how important it is for managers to respond quickly and effectively to environmental changes.


[05:36.98]Functional departmentalization was advocated by the classical writers


[05:41.63]although the method or methods used should reflect the grouping that would best contribute to the attainment of the organization's objectives and the goals of individual units.


[05:53.23]Today's competitive environment has refocused the attention of management to its customers.


[05:59.34]To better monitor the needs of customers and to be able to respond to changes in those needs,many organizations have given greater emphasis to customer departmentalization.


[06:12.19]To better monitor the needs of customers and to be able to respond to changes in those needs,


[06:18.54]many organizations have given greater emphasis to customer departmentalization.


[06:24.26]customer departmentalization


[06:26.93]The organic organization is a highly adaptive structure that's as loose and flexible as the mechanistic organization is rigid and stable.


[06:38.11]Rather than having standardized jobs and regulations,the adhocracy's loose structure allows it to change rapidly as needs require.


[06:49.73]Since objectives are derived from the organization's overall strategy,


[06:54.20]it's only logical that strategy and structure should be closely linked.


[06:59.06]More specifically,structure follows strategy.If management significantly changes its strategy,it will need to modify the structure to accommodate and support this change.


[07:14.26]Large organizations tend to have more specialization,horizontal and vertical differentiation,and rules and regulations than do small organizations.


[07:25.86]We should expect management to structure routine technologies with mechanistic organization.


[07:32.78]The more non_routine the technology,the more organic the structure should be.


[07:38.19]Essentially,mechanistic organizations are most effective for Stable environments.


[07:44.61]Organic organizations are best matched with dynamic and uncertain environments.


[07:50.86]The strength of simple structure are obvious;


[07:53.78]it's fast,flexible,and inexpensive to maintain,and its accountability is clear.


[08:00.91]It becomes increasingly inadequate as an organization grows because its low formalization and high centralization result in information overload at the top.


[08:13.87]Few organizations today can treat change as the occasional disturbance in an otherwise calm and stable world.


[08:23.69]Those that do,are running a great risk.


[08:27.06]Too much is changing too fast for any organization or its managers to be complacent.


[08:33.31]Most competitive advantages last only a short time often less than eighteen months.


[08:39.47]As change agents,managers should be motivated to initiate change because they're committed to improving their organization's effectiveness.


内容来自 听力课堂网:http://www.tingclass.net/show-8732-252979-1.html

疯狂英语 英语语法 新概念英语 走遍美国 四级听力 英语音标 英语入门 发音 美语 四级 新东方 七年级 赖世雄 zero是什么意思


  • 频道推荐
  • |
  • 全站推荐
  • 广播听力
  • |
  • 推荐下载
  • 网站推荐