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工商管理英语Chapter 2 组织

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[00:00.00]Vienna n.

[00:00.69]维也纳

[00:01.38]expect vt.

[00:02.17]盼望

[00:02.95]stage n. vt.

[00:03.41]阶段 上演

[00:03.87]scheduled a.

[00:04.45]预定的

[00:05.04]contract vt. n.

[00:05.83]承包 合同

[00:06.61]foundation n.

[00:07.35]基础

[00:08.10]A:I'm phoning about the timing for the Vienna project.

[00:09.89]我打电话是想谈一下维也纳项目的时间安排。

[00:11.68]B:Right,we've got a starting date for that,haven't we?

[00:13.24]好的,我们已经确定了项目启动时间,对吧?

[00:14.81]A:Yes,we begin a pilot study on 5 November.

[00:17.42]对,11月5号我们开始试点研究。

[00:20.04]B:Right,how long is that expected to last?

[00:21.63]好的,试点研究要进行多长时间?

[00:23.22]A:We should finish the study in three weeks.

[00:24.71]我们应该在三周之内完成。

[00:26.20]B:Good,then what's the next stage?

[00:28.25]好,那么下一阶段怎么安排的?

[00:30.30]A:Well,we've got a meeting with the contractor scheduled for 1 December.

[00:33.62]嗯,我们预定12月1号与承包商会面。

[00:36.94]If everything goes according to plan,we'll sign the contract then.

[00:39.29]如果事事都按计划进行,那时就可签合同了。

[00:41.64]And work can begin at the beginning of January.

[00:43.62]然后1月初开始动工。

[00:45.61]B:So what's the first stage?

[00:46.58]那么第一阶段是怎么安排的?

[00:47.54]A:Well,excavation will begin in January and is due to finish by the middle of February.

[00:51.24]嗯,1月份开始开挖,预计2月中旬完工。

[00:54.94]Now,after that we could have a problem.

[00:56.40]那么再往后我们可能就有问题了。

[00:57.86]B:What's that?

[00:58.51]什么问题?

[00:59.17]A:You remember we've subcontracted the German firm to do the foundations?

[01:02.55]你记得我们已把地基工程包给一家德国公司去做吧?

[01:05.93]They promised to start in the middle of February.

[01:07.79]他们原先答应2月中旬开工。

[01:09.64]They are now saying they can't.

[01:10.84]可是现在又说不行了。

[01:12.05]B:Right,I'll get on to them.

[01:12.95]好吧,我跟他们联系一下。

[01:13.85]When are they due to finish the foundations?

[01:15.22]他们预定什么时候打完地基?

[01:16.59]A:In the contract,it says by 28 February.

[01:18.67]合同上说是2月28日。

[01:20.74]B:I see,and then?

[01:21.58]知道了,还有呢?

[01:22.42]A:Construction work should begin on 5 March.

[01:24.39]施工工作应该在3月5号开始。

[01:26.36]We're on a pretty tight schedule.

[01:27.88]我们时间很紧迫。

[01:29.39]All the work has to be done in March and April.

[01:30.95]全部工作都应在3、4月份完成。

[01:32.50]B:OK.I see the problem.

[01:33.43]行,情况我了解了。

[01:34.35]I'll phone you back in the afternoon at about three.Bye.

[01:36.31]今天下午3点钟左右我给你回电话,再见吧。

[01:38.27]A:Goodbye.

[01:38.86]再见。

[01:39.45]authority n.

[01:40.19]职权

[01:40.94]charisma n.

[01:41.54]领袖魅力

[01:42.14]division of labor

[01:42.99]劳动分工

[01:43.84]functional departmentalization

[01:44.93]能部门化

[01:46.03]functional structure

[01:46.87]职能型结构

[01:47.70]mechanistic organization

[01:48.83]机械式(官僚行政式)组织

[01:49.95]organic organization

[01:50.90]有机式组织

[01:51.86]organization design

[01:52.89]组织设计

[01:53.92]Organization structure describes the organization's formal framework or system of communication and authority.

[01:58.57]组织结构指的是组织内部正式的信息交流和行使职权的框架体系。

[02:03.22]Just as humans have skeletons that define their shapes,

[02:05.13]就像人体由骨骼确定了体型一样,

[02:07.03]organizations have structures that define theirs.

[02:09.03]组织由它的结构决定其形式。

[02:11.03]The term complexity refers to the amount of differentiation in an organization.

[02:13.68]复杂性程序指的是组织分化的细致程度。

[02:16.33]The more division of labor there is in an organization,the more vertical levels in the hierarchy,

[02:20.25]如果一个组织劳工分工越细,纵向的等级层次越多,

[02:24.17]and the more geographically dispersed the organization's units,

[02:26.47]单位的地理分布越广,

[02:28.77]the more difficult it is to coordinate people and their activities.

[02:31.12]那么人员活动的协调就越困难。

[02:33.47]The degree to which an organization relies on rules and procedures to direct the behavior of employees is formalization.

[02:38.94]组织在多大程序上依靠规则和程序来指导员工的行为就是组织的正规化程度。

[02:44.41]The more rules and regulations in an organization,the more formalized the organization's structure.

[02:47.76]一个组织的规章条例越多,它的正规化程度就越高。

[02:51.10]The term centralization describes where the decision__making authority is.

[02:53.68]集权化程度是描述在哪一级行使决策职权。

[02:56.25]If decision making is in upper levels of management,the organization's structure is more centralized.

[03:00.02]如果一个组织中拥有决策的管理人员的层次越高,那么它的集权程度就越高。

[03:03.80]On the other side,decentralization is used in some organization where decision making is delegated to lower levels.

[03:08.43]反之,分权化程度高的组织的决策则由较低的管理层做出。

[03:13.07]Organization design means the development or changing of an organization's structure.

[03:16.28]组织设计是指对一个组织结构进行设置或变革。

[03:19.50]The process involves decisions about the amount of complexity,formalization,and centralization to be used.

[03:23.61]这个过程包括关于组织的复杂性,正规化及集权化程序的决定。

[03:27.73]Three aspects of organization structure can be mixed and matched to create various organization designs.

[03:32.09]组织结构的三个方面通过不同搭配和组合就产生了组织设计的多样性。

[03:36.45]Managers must design an organization structure that allows them to effectively and efficiently accomplish organization goals and objectives.

[03:42.45]管理者必须设计一个能高效地实现组织宗旨和目标的恰当的组织结构。

[03:48.44]Designing an appropriate structure means that managers must decide how to coordinate work activities and efforts both vertically and horizontally.

[03:54.25]设计一个恰当的组织结构,意味着管理者必须决定职员在工作中无论纵向还是横向怎样才能团结奋进,精诚合作。

[04:00.07]A subordinate should have one and only one superior to whom he or she is directly responsible.

[04:03.88]一个下属只能向惟一的上级主管直接负责。

[04:07.69]Otherwise,a subordinate might have to cope with conflicting demands or priorities from several managers.

[04:11.52]否则,他可能要应付来自不同上级互相冲突的要求或优先处理的命令。

[04:15.35]Authority relates to one's position within an oranization and ignores the personal characteristics of the individual manager.

[04:19.97]在组织中,一定的职权与一定的职位相联系,而与管理者本身无直接关系。

[04:24.59]The terms authority and powers are frequently confused.

[04:26.80]职权和权力的概念经常混淆。

[04:29.01]Authority is a legitimate right that's held because of a person's position in an organization.

[04:32.55]职权是一个因为在组织中的地位而拥有的法定的权力。

[04:36.09]Authority goes with the job.

[04:37.51]职权与职务相伴而生。

[04:38.94]In contrast,power refers to an individual's capacity to influence decisions.

[04:42.31]相比之下,权力是指一个人影响决策的能力。

[04:45.68]Authority is one part of the large concept of power.

[04:47.99]职权是广义的权力的一部分。

[04:50.30]Since more and more organizations are reducing the members of managerial position through downsizing and restructuring,

[04:55.14]越来越多的组织通过减少规模和调整结构来减少管理职位,

[04:59.99]we find that spans of control are generally increasing for managers.

[05:02.81]我们发现相应地管理跨度扩大了。

[05:05.63]For instance,it's obvious that the more training and experience subordinates have,the less direct supervision they'll need.

[05:10.27]显而易见,如果下级受过越多培训,具备越多经验,那么他们需要的直接监管就越少。

[05:14.91]Managers who have well_trained and experienced employees can function quite well with a wider span.

[05:19.36]受过良好训练和更多管理下属经验的管理者,他们能以更宽的管理跨度有效工作。

[05:23.81]The recent shift toward more decentralization of decision making reflects

[05:26.73]最近决策制定的分权化趋势,反映出对于一个管理者来说,

[05:29.64]how important it is for managers to respond quickly and effectively to environmental changes.

[05:33.31]能对环境变化做出快速有效的反应是非常重要的。

[05:36.98]Functional departmentalization was advocated by the classical writers

[05:39.30]古典学者们仍然提倡使用职能部门化法,

[05:41.63]although the method or methods used should reflect the grouping that would best contribute to the attainment of the organization's objectives and the goals of individual units.

[05:47.43]尽管应该选择最有利于实现组织目标和单位目标的部门化方法。

[05:53.23]Today's competitive environment has refocused the attention of management to its customers.

[05:56.28]当今的竞争环境迫使管理者的注意力再度回到顾客身上。

[05:59.34]To better monitor the needs of customers and to be able to respond to changes in those needs,many organizations have given greater emphasis to customer departmentalization.

[06:05.77]许多组织非常重视顾客部门化方式,以便更好地监测顾客的需求,并在需求改变时能对此做出迅速的反应。

[06:12.19]To better monitor the needs of customers and to be able to respond to changes in those needs,

[06:15.37]许多组织非常重视顾客部门化方式,以便更好地监测顾客的需求,

[06:18.54]many organizations have given greater emphasis to customer departmentalization.

[06:21.40]并在需求改变时能对此做了迅速的反应。

[06:24.26]customer departmentalization

[06:25.59]顾客部门化

[06:26.93]The organic organization is a highly adaptive structure that's as loose and flexible as the mechanistic organization is rigid and stable.

[06:32.52]与机械式组织的呆板而稳定相反,有机式组织是一种松散而灵活且具有高度适应性的组织结构。

[06:38.11]Rather than having standardized jobs and regulations,the adhocracy's loose structure allows it to change rapidly as needs require.

[06:43.92]它没有标准化的工作和规则条例,因此能够在需要时迅速改变。

[06:49.73]Since objectives are derived from the organization's overall strategy,

[06:51.96]因为目标来源于组织的总体战略,

[06:54.20]it's only logical that strategy and structure should be closely linked.

[06:56.63]所以战略和结构密切相关。

[06:59.06]More specifically,structure follows strategy.If management significantly changes its strategy,it will need to modify the structure to accommodate and support this change.

[07:06.66]特别是结构应服务战略,如果管理方面要改变战略,那么结构也必须作出相应调整以适应和支持改变了的战略。

[07:14.26]Large organizations tend to have more specialization,horizontal and vertical differentiation,and rules and regulations than do small organizations.

[07:20.06]规模大的组织一般比规模小的组织具有更高的专业化程序,更细的横向或纵向分工和更多的规章条例。

[07:25.86]We should expect management to structure routine technologies with mechanistic organization.

[07:29.32]我们希望管理者将程序化程度高的技术与机械式组织匹配。

[07:32.78]The more non_routine the technology,the more organic the structure should be.

[07:35.48]程序化程度低的技术与有机式组织相匹配。

[07:38.19]Essentially,mechanistic organizations are most effective for Stable environments.

[07:41.40]事实上,机械式组织在稳定的环境中最有效。

[07:44.61]Organic organizations are best matched with dynamic and uncertain environments.

[07:47.74]而有机式组织在动态的、不确定的环境下最有效。

[07:50.86]The strength of simple structure are obvious;

[07:52.32]简单结构的优点是显而易见的;

[07:53.78]it's fast,flexible,and inexpensive to maintain,and its accountability is clear.

[07:57.35]它反应迅速、灵活、成本低、职责明确。

[08:00.91]It becomes increasingly inadequate as an organization grows because its low formalization and high centralization result in information overload at the top.

[08:07.39]在组织规模扩大时,它的低正规化程度和高集权化程度会导致高层信息超载,此时它就会变得日益不适。

[08:13.87]Few organizations today can treat change as the occasional disturbance in an otherwise calm and stable world.

[08:18.78]现在的组织很少会把变革看作是一种和平环境中的偶然骚乱。

[08:23.69]Those that do,are running a great risk.

[08:25.38]这样做的组织是在冒险。

[08:27.06]Too much is changing too fast for any organization or its managers to be complacent.

[08:30.18]任何组织和管理者在太多太快的变化而面前都不能对自己的成绩沾沾自喜。

[08:33.31]Most competitive advantages last only a short time often less than eighteen months.

[08:36.39]因为竞争优势会瞬间即逝,一般保持不了一年半的时间。

[08:39.47]As change agents,managers should be motivated to initiate change because they're committed to improving their organization's effectiveness.

[08:45.18]因为管理者的责任是提高组织的效益,所以作为改革的推动者,他们应该积极地发动变革。

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