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工商管理英语Chapter 3 领导

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[00:00.00]budget vt. n.

[00:00.59]预算, 预算

[00:01.18]figure vt. n.

[00:01.68]描绘, 图形

[00:02.19]marketing n.

[00:02.93]销售

[00:03.66]production n.

[00:04.39]产品

[00:05.12]investment n.

[00:05.93]投资

[00:06.74]P:Right,let's get started.Now,you've all seen the budget proposals for next year.

[00:10.16]行,我们开始吧。好,你们都看了明年的预算计划。

[00:13.58]Have you got anything to say?

[00:14.47]有什么意见吗?

[00:15.36]J:I think the research figure is too low.

[00:16.59]我认为研究费用太低。

[00:17.82]We should increase it by at least 5%.

[00:19.46]至少应该增加5%。

[00:21.11]P:Well,we could do that,but it means less money for the other departments.

[00:23.47]嗯,是可以增加,不过那就意味着拨给别的部门的资金就要减少了。

[00:25.84]I think it should stay the same.

[00:26.89]我认为它应该维持不变。

[00:27.95]S:I agree with John.

[00:28.83]我同意约翰的看法。

[00:29.70]We could reduce the figure for marketing that could allow us to increase the budget for research.

[00:33.28]我们可以减少市场营运的金额,这样就有可能增加科研预算了。

[00:36.86]P:I felt marketing needed a good figure this year.

[00:38.73]我觉得市场营运今年需要大量金额。

[00:40.59]They've got a big launch mid_year,I think they couldn't manage with less.

[00:43.59]年中他们要投放大量产品,资金少了恐怕很难办。

[00:46.58]J:I'm sure they could and...

[00:47.62]我确信他们有可能而且……

[00:48.67]P:Just a moment.Let's look at the other two department budgets.

[00:50.70]等等,我们先来看看其他两个部门的预算。

[00:52.74]That's production and sales.

[00:54.05]也就是生产部和销售部的预算情况。

[00:55.35]J:Well,we can't cut the production budget,that's for sure.I don't know about sales.

[00:58.79]哦,生产的预算没法减,这是肯定的。销售的情况我不清楚。

[01:02.22]S:Why do you say we can't cut production's budget?

[01:04.05]为什么不能削减生产部的预算?

[01:05.88]They had a big investment last year.Well,surely they could manage on less this year?

[01:08.99]去年拨给他们的投资量很大。那么今年少拨点资金肯定不成问题吧?

[01:12.10]P:Yes,I think I agree.Production ought to manage with less this year,having spent so much last year.

[01:16.64]对,我想是这样。生产部去年花了那么多钱,今年少投些资应该没问题。

[01:21.19]S:A small cut in the production budget might mean we could increase the research figure.

[01:23.87]稍微削减些生产预算就可增加科研金额。

[01:26.54]P:Right,I'll put that to the production manager.Finally,what about sales?

[01:29.20]对,我把这想法和生产部经理谈谈。最后,销售部的预算呢?

[01:31.85]S:I think it's a bit high.They might save a bit by spending less on the after_sales side.

[01:35.60]我认为还是高了些,他们可以通过在售后环节上减少些花费来节省开支。

[01:39.34]P:John,any views?

[01:40.35]约翰,你有什么看法?

[01:41.36]J:Well,I think we should spend more on sales.

[01:43.01]啊,我觉得销售的预算应该更多些。

[01:44.67]P:That's out of the question.The figure shouldn't be changed.

[01:46.53]这是不可能的。这个数目不应该改动了。

[01:48.38]motivation n.

[01:49.13]激励

[01:49.87]need theories

[01:50.64]需求理论

[01:51.41]two_factor theory

[01:52.17]双因素理论

[01:52.93]content theories

[01:53.70]内容型理论

[01:54.47]valence n.

[01:55.10]效价

[01:55.72]equity theory

[01:56.38]公平理论

[01:57.03]positive reinforcement

[01:57.92]正强化

[01:58.80]negative reinforcement

[01:59.78]负强化

[02:00.76]punishment

[02:01.34]惩罚

[02:01.91]information power

[02:02.75]信息权力

[02:03.59]traits n.

[02:04.15]特质

[02:04.71]autocratic adj.

[02:05.37]专制型

[02:06.04]democratic adj.

[02:06.67]民主型

[02:07.29]laissez_faire adj.

[02:07.95]放任型

[02:08.60]employee_centered

[02:09.31]以员工为中心

[02:10.01]job_centered

[02:10.66]以工作为中心

[02:11.32]the managerial grid

[02:12.14]管理方格图

[02:12.96]situational theories

[02:13.97]情境理论

[02:14.97]Leading involves influencing the work behavior of others toward achieving organizational goals.

[02:19.02]领导是指通过影响其他人的工作行为来实现组织目标。

[02:23.07]Need theories argue that we behave the way we do because of internal needs we are attempting to fulfill.

[02:27.25]需求理论认为,我们试图满足的内在需求,决定我们行为的方式。

[02:31.43]Need theories are sometimes called content theories of motivation because they specify what motivates individuals.

[02:35.74]需求理论具体指出刺激个人行为的因素,所以有时称为内在的激励理论。

[02:40.05]If we are continually frustrated in our attempts to satisfy a higher_level need,we may cease to be concerned about that need.

[02:44.86]如果对较高层次需求满足的尝试不断受挫,我们可能会停止考虑那种需求。

[02:49.67]Managers need to be particularly concerned with providing opportunities to satisfy growth needs,

[02:53.27]主管人员需要特别考虑提供能满足成长需求的机会,

[02:56.88]lest employees cease to be interested in them.

[02:58.32]以免员工终止对它们的兴趣。

[02:59.77]Needs at the highest level are never completely fulfilled,because as we work to develop our capabilities,both our potential and our needs for self_actualization grow stronger.

[03:07.22]当我们工作而使我们的能力得到发展时,我们的潜力和对自我实现的需求同时增强,因此我们对最高层次的需求永远得不到完全满足。

[03:14.66]Motivators are the factors that seem to make individuals feel satisfied with their jobs.

[03:17.54]激励因素是使个人对工作感觉满意的因素。

[03:20.41]Hygiene factors are the factors that seem to make individuals feel dissatisfied with their jobs.

[03:23.56]保健因素是使个人对工作感觉不满意的因素。

[03:26.71]Herzberg's two_factor theory argues that hygiene factors are necessary to keep workers from feeling dissatisfied,

[03:31.25]赫茨伯格的双因素理论认为,为了保证工人能工作没有不满意,保健因素是必要的:

[03:35.80]but only motivators can lead workers to feel satisfied and motivated.

[03:38.31]但只有激励因素能够使工人感觉满意并得到激励。

[03:40.81]Existence needs include physiological desires,such as food and water.

[03:43.46]生存需求包括生理需要(如食物和水)

[03:46.12]and work_related material desires,such as pay,fringe benefits,and physical working conditions.

[03:49.52]和与工作相关的物质需要(如工资,津贴和工作条作)。

[03:52.93]Relation needs address our relationships with significant others,

[03:55.26]关系需求说明我们与其他重要因素之间的关系,

[03:57.58]such as families,friendship groups,work groups,and professional groups.

[04:00.37]例如家庭、友谊群体、工作群体和职业群体。

[04:03.15]Growth needs impel creativity and innovation,along with the desire to have a productive impact on our surrounding

[04:07.72]增长需求激发我们的创造力和革新性,以及对周围产生巨大影响的愿望

[04:12.29]Need for achievement is the desire to accomplish challenging tasks to achieve an important goal.

[04:16.01]权力需求是影响他们并控制其周围环境的欲望。

[04:19.74]We assess the probability that our efforts will lead to the required performance level.The probability is called effort_performance expectancy.

[04:25.31]我们把通过努力能达到的绩效水平称为努力绩效期望值。

[04:30.89]We assess the probability that successful performance will lead to certain outcomes.The probability is called performance_outcome expectancy.

[04:36.38]我们把成功的绩效所能导致的一定结果的概率,称为绩效结果期望值。

[04:41.86]We assess the probability that our successful performance will lead to certain outcomes.The probability is called per_Formance_outcome expectancy.

[04:46.72]我们把成功的绩效所能导致的一定结果的概率,称为绩效结果期望值。

[04:51.58]Performance_outcome expectancy

[04:52.66]绩效结果期望值

[04:53.75]We assess the anticipated value of various of outcomes.The value is called valence.

[04:56.84]我们把各种结果的期望价值称为效价。

[04:59.94]Equity theory argues that we prefer situations of balance,or equity,

[05:02.67]公平理论认为,人们倾向平衡或者公平的情形。

[05:05.40]which exist when we perceive the ratio of our inputs and outcomes to be equal to the ratio of inputs and outcomes for a comparable other.

[05:10.87]这种情形只有当我们认为自己的付出与结果的比率与其他作为比较的人的付出与结果的比率相等时才存在。

[05:16.34]In particular,goals should be specific and measurable,challenging,attainable,relevant to the major work of the organization,and time_limited.

[05:21.57]特别地,目标应该是具体、可衡量的、竞争性的、可达到的、与组织的主要工作相关的,并且有时间限制。

[05:26.79]Positive reinforcement encourages individual growth,

[05:28.63]正强化激励个人成长,

[05:30.48]whereas negative reinforcement and punishment are likely to foster immaturity in individuals

[05:33.82]相对而言,负强化与惩罚则可能培养个人的不成熟度,

[05:37.16]and eventually contaminate the entire organization.

[05:39.23]并最终对整个组织造成不良影响。

[05:41.29]Aimed at increasing a desired behavior,

[05:42.83]为了增强所希望的行为,

[05:44.37]positive reinforcement involves providing a pleasant,rewarding consequence to encourage that behavior.

[05:48.37]正强化采取提供愉快、奖励的措施去激励那种行为。

[05:52.37]Negative reinforcement involves providing noxious(unpleasant)stimulus

[05:54.94]负强化采取提供令人不愉快的刺激物,

[05:57.51]so that an individual will engage in the desired behavior in order to stop the noxious stimulus.

[06:01.12]使个人愿意从事所需要的行为来停止不愉快的刺激。

[06:04.72]Power is the capacity to affect the behavior of others.

[06:06.99]权力是指影响他人行为的能力。

[06:09.27]Legitimate power stems from a position's placement in the man agerial hierarchy and the authority vested in the position.

[06:14.18]法定权力来源于管理阶层等级链中的位置安排和位置所赋予的权威。

[06:19.09]Reward power is based on the capacity to control and provide valued rewards to others.

[06:22.67]奖赏权力基于对他人进行控制和提供奖赏的能力。

[06:26.25]Coercive power depends on the ability to punish others when they do not engage in desired behavior.

[06:29.90]当他人不从事所要求的行为,对其进行惩罚表现为强制权力。

[06:33.56]Expert power is based on the possession of expertise that is valued by others.

[06:36.55]专家权力建立于拥有专长的基础之上,这种专长被他们认为是有价值的。

[06:39.54]Information power results from access to and control over the distribution of important information about organizational operations and future plans.

[06:45.58]信息的力量取决于能够传播并控制与组织运行和制定未来计划有关的重要信息分布的渠道。

[06:51.61]Research turned away from the trait approach in the 1950s when extensive reviews of various studies suggested there were no traits that consistently distinguished leaders from non_leaders.

[06:59.40]在20世纪50年代,各种研究普遍认为没有一致的特质来区分领导者和非领导者,研究不再使用特质这一方法。

[07:07.18]Many management experts believe that performance is more closely related to the things leaders actually do than to the traits they possess.

[07:12.04]许多管理专家相信,绩效与领导实际所做事情的关系比绩效与领导所拥有的特质的关系更加紧密。

[07:16.90]Autocratic leaders tend to make unilateral decisions,dictate work methods,

[07:19.97]专制型领导者倾向于单方面做出决策,支配工作方法,

[07:23.04]limit worker's knowledge about goals to just the next step to be performed,

[07:25.90]限制工人对目标的了解(使他们仅仅了解下一目标),

[07:28.76]and sometimes give punitive feedback.

[07:30.19]有时给予惩罚性的反馈。

[07:31.63]Democratic leaders tend to involve the group in decision making,

[07:33.79]民主型领导者倾向于群体参与制定决策,

[07:35.94]let the group determine work methods,make overall goals known.

[07:38.67]让群体决定工作方法,使工人了解全部目标,

[07:41.40]and use feedback as an opportunity for helpful coaching.

[07:43.82]并把反馈作为有助于指导工作的机会。

[07:46.23]Laissez_faire leaders generally give the group complete freedom,provide necessary materials,

[07:50.94]放任型领导者总体来说给予群体完全的自由,提供必要的物质,

[07:55.64]participate only to answer questions,and avoid giving feed_back,in other words.

[07:58.60]仅仅参与回答问题,并且避免给予反馈

[08:01.57]they do almost nothing,and instead,just keep out of the way.

[08:03.63]换言之,他们几乎什么事情都不做。

[08:05.69]With the employee_centered approach,leaders focused on building effective work groups dedicated to high performance goals.

[08:11.48]如果运用以员工为中心的方法,领导者强调营造有效的工作群体,以实现高效的目标。

[08:17.27]With the job_centered approach,leaders divided the work into routine tasks

[08:19.74]运用以工作为中心的方法,领导者把工作细分类为各种日常工作,

[08:22.20]and closely supervised workers to ensure that the prescribed mathods were followed and that productivity standards were met.

[08:26.64]并密切监督工人能否确保执行规定方法和达到生产率标准,

[08:31.09]The managerial grid,developed by Blake and Mouton,

[08:32.76]由布莱克和莫顿两人提出的管理方格图,

[08:34.43]uses parallel leader attitudes_concern for people and concern for production.

[08:37.68]运用了领导者并行的态度在对员工的关心和对生产的关心上。

[08:40.93]The managerial grid,developed by Blake and Mouton,uses parallel leader attitudes_concern for people and concern for production.

[08:45.11]由布莱克和莫顿两人提出的管理方格图,运用了领导者并行的态度对员工的关心和对生产的关心。

[08:49.29]The Managerial Grid

[08:50.19]管理方格图

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