[00:01.18]figure vt. n.
[00:06.74]P:Right,let's get started.Now,you've all seen the budget proposals for next year.
[00:13.58]Have you got anything to say?
[00:15.36]J:I think the research figure is too low.
[00:17.82]We should increase it by at least 5%.
[00:21.11]P:Well,we could do that,but it means less money for the other departments.
[00:25.84]I think it should stay the same.
[00:27.95]S:I agree with John.
[00:29.70]We could reduce the figure for marketing that could allow us to increase the budget for research.
[00:36.86]P:I felt marketing needed a good figure this year.
[00:40.59]They've got a big launch mid_year,I think they couldn't manage with less.
[00:46.58]J:I'm sure they could and...
[00:48.67]P:Just a moment.Let's look at the other two department budgets.
[00:52.74]That's production and sales.
[00:55.35]J:Well,we can't cut the production budget,that's for sure.I don't know about sales.
[01:02.22]S:Why do you say we can't cut production's budget?
[01:05.88]They had a big investment last year.Well,surely they could manage on less this year?
[01:12.10]P:Yes,I think I agree.Production ought to manage with less this year,having spent so much last year.
[01:21.19]S:A small cut in the production budget might mean we could increase the research figure.
[01:26.54]P:Right,I'll put that to the production manager.Finally,what about sales?
[01:31.85]S:I think it's a bit high.They might save a bit by spending less on the after_sales side.
[01:41.36]J:Well,I think we should spend more on sales.
[01:44.67]P:That's out of the question.The figure shouldn't be changed.
[02:11.32]the managerial grid
[02:14.97]Leading involves influencing the work behavior of others toward achieving organizational goals.
[02:23.07]Need theories argue that we behave the way we do because of internal needs we are attempting to fulfill.
[02:31.43]Need theories are sometimes called content theories of motivation because they specify what motivates individuals.
[02:40.05]If we are continually frustrated in our attempts to satisfy a higher_level need,we may cease to be concerned about that need.
[02:49.67]Managers need to be particularly concerned with providing opportunities to satisfy growth needs,
[02:56.88]lest employees cease to be interested in them.
[02:59.77]Needs at the highest level are never completely fulfilled,because as we work to develop our capabilities,both our potential and our needs for self_actualization grow stronger.
[03:14.66]Motivators are the factors that seem to make individuals feel satisfied with their jobs.
[03:20.41]Hygiene factors are the factors that seem to make individuals feel dissatisfied with their jobs.
[03:26.71]Herzberg's two_factor theory argues that hygiene factors are necessary to keep workers from feeling dissatisfied,
[03:35.80]but only motivators can lead workers to feel satisfied and motivated.
[03:40.81]Existence needs include physiological desires,such as food and water.
[03:46.12]and work_related material desires,such as pay,fringe benefits,and physical working conditions.
[03:52.93]Relation needs address our relationships with significant others，
[03:57.58]such as families,friendship groups,work groups,and professional groups.
[04:03.15]Growth needs impel creativity and innovation,along with the desire to have a productive impact on our surrounding
[04:12.29]Need for achievement is the desire to accomplish challenging tasks to achieve an important goal.
[04:19.74]We assess the probability that our efforts will lead to the required performance level.The probability is called effort_performance expectancy.
[04:30.89]We assess the probability that successful performance will lead to certain outcomes.The probability is called performance_outcome expectancy.
[04:41.86]We assess the probability that our successful performance will lead to certain outcomes.The probability is called per_Formance_outcome expectancy.
[04:53.75]We assess the anticipated value of various of outcomes.The value is called valence.
[04:59.94]Equity theory argues that we prefer situations of balance,or equity,
[05:05.40]which exist when we perceive the ratio of our inputs and outcomes to be equal to the ratio of inputs and outcomes for a comparable other.
[05:16.34]In particular,goals should be specific and measurable,challenging,attainable,relevant to the major work of the organization,and time_limited.
[05:26.79]Positive reinforcement encourages individual growth,
[05:30.48]whereas negative reinforcement and punishment are likely to foster immaturity in individuals
[05:37.16]and eventually contaminate the entire organization.
[05:41.29]Aimed at increasing a desired behavior,
[05:44.37]positive reinforcement involves providing a pleasant,rewarding consequence to encourage that behavior.
[05:52.37]Negative reinforcement involves providing noxious(unpleasant)stimulus
[05:57.51]so that an individual will engage in the desired behavior in order to stop the noxious stimulus.
[06:04.72]Power is the capacity to affect the behavior of others.
[06:09.27]Legitimate power stems from a position's placement in the man agerial hierarchy and the authority vested in the position.
[06:19.09]Reward power is based on the capacity to control and provide valued rewards to others.
[06:26.25]Coercive power depends on the ability to punish others when they do not engage in desired behavior.
[06:33.56]Expert power is based on the possession of expertise that is valued by others.
[06:39.54]Information power results from access to and control over the distribution of important information about organizational operations and future plans.
[06:51.61]Research turned away from the trait approach in the 1950s when extensive reviews of various studies suggested there were no traits that consistently distinguished leaders from non_leaders.
[07:07.18]Many management experts believe that performance is more closely related to the things leaders actually do than to the traits they possess.
[07:16.90]Autocratic leaders tend to make unilateral decisions,dictate work methods,
[07:23.04]limit worker's knowledge about goals to just the next step to be performed,
[07:28.76]and sometimes give punitive feedback.
[07:31.63]Democratic leaders tend to involve the group in decision making，
[07:35.94]let the group determine work methods,make overall goals known.
[07:41.40]and use feedback as an opportunity for helpful coaching.
[07:46.23]Laissez_faire leaders generally give the group complete freedom,provide necessary materials,
[07:55.64]participate only to answer questions,and avoid giving feed_back,in other words.
[08:01.57]they do almost nothing,and instead,just keep out of the way.
[08:05.69]With the employee_centered approach,leaders focused on building effective work groups dedicated to high performance goals.
[08:17.27]With the job_centered approach,leaders divided the work into routine tasks
[08:22.20]and closely supervised workers to ensure that the prescribed mathods were followed and that productivity standards were met.
[08:31.09]The managerial grid,developed by Blake and Mouton,
[08:34.43]uses parallel leader attitudes_concern for people and concern for production.
[08:40.93]The managerial grid,developed by Blake and Mouton,uses parallel leader attitudes_concern for people and concern for production.
[08:49.29]The Managerial Grid