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> 商务英语 > 商务英语考试教程 > 工商管理英语 >  第4课

工商管理英语Chapter 4 控制





[00:00.00]expansion n.


[00:01.23]discussion n.


[00:02.64]gentlemen n.


[00:03.81]minute n.


[00:04.91]distribute vt.


[00:06.19]contact n.


[00:07.63]subsidy n.


[00:08.70]prerequisite n.


[00:10.14]solution n.


[00:11.52]keep pace with


[00:13.24]worthwhile a.


[00:14.76]item n.


[00:15.86]agenda n.


[00:17.16]skilled worker


[00:18.96]training programme


[00:20.72]once conj.


[00:21.89]permission n.


[00:23.51]Mr.Wang:Well,gentlemen,I don't think we need to read the minutes of the last meeting.


[00:28.50]Copies of them have already been distributed to you.


[00:31.58]Today,let's go on with our discussion.


[00:33.88]Mr.Zhang,will you please report on your contacts with farmers' families?


[00:39.26]Production Manager:Yes,on the piece of land of our new_factory,there is a total of 500 families.


[00:45.56]So far,only ten percent of them have agreed to move.


[00:49.76]while the rest still insist that they need a subsidy of about 500 thousand US dollars as a prerequisite.


[00:57.55]Ohter manager:That's a lot of money!


[00:59.30]Production Manager:Yes,it is!


[01:01.15]And we must find a solution today.


[01:03.53]Mr.Wang:Right from the beginning,I have felt that we should have planned a smaller factory.


[01:09.30]Other manager:Yes,we mustn't grow too fast.


[01:11.89]Slow but sure should be the way our business will grow.


[01:16.67]Mr.Wang:But in a year or two,even the new factory may not be able to keep pace with our production increase.


[01:22.86]We may want a bigger one then.So it is still worthwhile,even with 500 thousand US dollars more.


[01:31.25]Mr.Wang:The next item on the agenda is about the labor force that's going to be required for the new factory.Would you please talk about it,Mr.Li?


[01:41.41]Personal manager:Sure.So far,we have no difficulty in getting skilled workers.But the situation is this:skilled labor is getting harder to find.


[01:52.09]Other manager:Then what should be done?


[01:53.97]Personal manager:I think we should start a training program now.Then by the time the new factory is ready,we should have a lot of trained men.


[02:02.91]Mr.Wang:Let's see!How long will it take to build the factory once we have got our permission?


[02:09.65]Personal manage:About five months.Possibly less.


[02:12.62]Mr.Wang:Well,can you produce enough skilled workers in five months,Mr.Li?


[02:17.27]Personal manager:I think so!


[02:18.53]Mr.Wang:Good.I think that a training program should be started immediately.


[02:23.20]control system


[02:24.95]strategic control


[02:26.83]tactical control


[02:28.53]operational control


[02:29.94]concurrent control


[02:32.19]feedback control


[02:35.27]clan control


[02:37.18]market control


[02:39.01]liquidity ratios


[02:41.46]asset management ratios


[02:43.87]debt management ratios


[02:46.03]profitability ratios




[02:49.56]responsibility center


[02:51.89]standard cost center


[02:53.79]revenue center


[02:55.31]profit center


[02:56.88]investment centers


[02:58.83]Controlling means that managers develop appropriate standards,


[03:03.30]compare ongoing performance against those standards,


[03:07.01]and take steps to ensure that corrective actions are taken when necessary.


[03:11.74]A control system is a set of mechanisms designed to increase the probability of meeting organizational standards and goals.


[03:21.85]Strategic control involves monitoring critical environmental factors


[03:26.76]to ensure the strategic plans are implemented as intended,


[03:31.54]assessing the effects of organizational strategic actions,and adjusting such plans when necessary.


[03:39.74]Tactical control focuses on assessing the implementation of tactical plans at department levels,


[03:47.34]monitoring associated periodic results,and taking corrective action as necessary.


[03:53.67]Operational control involves overseeing the implementation of operation plans,


[04:00.64]monitoring day_to_day results,and taking corrective action when required.


[04:06.47]Feed_forward control focuses on the regulation of inputs to ensure that they meet the standards necessary for the transformation process.


[04:18.25]Inputs that can be subject to feed_forward control include materials,


[04:23.31]people,finances,time,and other resources used by an organization.


[04:30.21]Concurrent control involves the regulation of ongoing activities that are part of the transformation process


[04:37.97]to ensure that they conform to organizational standards.


[04:41.99]Feedback control is regulation exercised after a product or Service has been completed


[04:49.49]to ensure that the final output meets organizational standards and goals.


[04:55.34]A cybernetic control system is a self_regulating control system that,once put into operation,


[05:02.97]can automatically monitor the situation and take corrective action when necessary.


[05:08.40]A non_cybernetic control system is one that relies on human discretion as a basic part of its process.


[05:17.41]A non_cybernetic control system is one that relies on human discretion as basic part of its process.


[05:24.91]Cybernetic control system


[05:27.21]non_cybernetic control system


[05:29.69]Clan control relies on values,beliefs,traditions,corporate culture,


[05:35.78]shared norms,and informal relationships to regulate employee behaviors and facilitate the reaching of organizational goals.


[05:46.62]Clan control enhances prospects for commitment to organizational objectives


[05:52.42]and generally increases employees'willingness to help bring about improvements in the workplace.


[06:00.07]Market control relies on market mechanisms to regulate prices for certain clearly specified clearly specified goods and services needed by an organization,


[06:11.07]thus relieving managers of the need to establish more elaborate controls over costs.


[06:17.26]Overcontrol is the limiting of individual job autonomy to such a point that it seriously inhibits effective job performance.


[06:27.66]Undercontrol is the granting of autonomy to an employee to such a point that the organization loses its ability to direct the individual's efforts toward achieving organizational goals.


[06:41.84]Overcontrol is the limiting of individual job autonomy to such a point that it seriously inhibits effective job performance.






[06:54.04]Assets,the resources that an organization controls,fall into two categories:current and fixed.


[07:03.50]Liabilities are claims by nonowners against company assets(in other words,debts owed to nonowners,such as banks).


[07:13.61]Current liabilities are accounts that are typically paid within I year(such as accounts payable current bills the company must pay and short_term loans).


[07:23.87]Long_term liabilities are debts usually paid over a period that exceeds 1 year(such as bonds).


[07:30.80]Shareholder's equity represents claims by owners against the assets.


[07:35.52]Shareholder's equity is equal to the company's assets minusliabilities.


[07:40.83]Revenues are the assets derived from selling goods and service.


[07:45.40]Expenses are the costs incurred in producing the revenue(such as cost of goods sold,operating expenses,interest expense,and taxes).


[07:56.08]Ratio analysis is the process of determining and evaluating financial ratios.


[08:01.65]Liquidity ratios are financial ratios that measure the degree to which an organization's current assets are adequate to pay current liabilities.


[08:13.04]Asset management ratios measure how effectively an organization manages its assets.


[08:19.70]Inventory turnover helps measure how well an organization manages its inventory.


[08:26.15]Debt management ratios assess the extent to which an organization used debt to finance investments,


[08:34.01]as well as the degree to which it is able to meet its long_term obligations.


[08:39.71]Profitability ratios help measure management's ability to control expenses and earn profits through the use of organizational resources.


[08:50.36]The return on investment,or ROI measures the overall effectiveness of management in generating profits from its total investment in assets.


[09:01.15]Budgeting is the process of stating in quantitative terms,usually dollars,planned organizational activities for a given period of time.


[09:11.99]Aresponsibility center is a subunit headed by a manager who is responsible for achieving one or more goals.


[09:20.74]There are five main types of responsibility centers:standard cost centers,expense centers,revenue centers,profit centers,and investment centers.


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