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考研英语听力--日常用语基本要求

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2015年06月11日

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  日常用语(Everyday English)

  日常问候用语是考生必须熟练运用的知识,这与考生的口语操练有很大关系。说促进听,是许多英语学习者的心得。而且日常问候要视人而定,如英国人见面谈天气,美国人见面问身体等。下面作详细介绍:

  1.问候类(Greetings)

  英语中的问候用语非常繁多,正式的通常有:

  How do you do?(初次见面通常用语)

  How are you?(比较熟悉的人之间用语)

  How are you getting along with...?(你近来...可好?)

  How are you doing?(您工作还顺利吧?)

  How is everything?(一切还好吧?)

  How is your vacation/holiday(s)/Christmas Day/weekend?(假期怎么样?)

  当今美国社会流行口语用语,大致有:

  What?s up?(近来可忙?)

  Hello?Hi?

  What?s going on?(近来可好?)

  How is life?

  How is it going?anything new?

  Pleased to meet you again!

  对以上问候的对答通常有How do you do!

  Fine!Thank you,and you?

  Every is fine!

  I?m just great!

  Very(quite)well,thank you!

  Couldn?t be better,thank you!

  Not bad!

  Can?t complain!

  Just so?so.

  值得一提的是,随着美语越来越广泛地渗透,听力中用美语朗读且以美国社会为背景的题材的趋势愈加明显。考生要注意日常口语对话,及时吸取信息,将对听力有很大的帮助。

  请看下面的对话:

  A:Good morning, Ms Lucy. This is Betty, can you still remember me?

  B:Betty? Is it really? Surely I remember you. You are my good friend, and I haven?t seen you for ages, but how are you?

  A:Fine, I?m just fine, Ms Lucy...

  2.告别类(Farewell)

  有聚总有散。告别情景的设置往往并非简单、直接地告别,常伴随着理由、托辞等。

  直接的告别话语有:

  Good bye! (Bye?bye! Bye!)

  See you (tomorrow)! See you later!

  So long! Farewell!

  委婉的告别辞有:

  I?d like to say goodbye to everyone.

  I?m afraid I must be going now.

  I?m calling to say goodbye.

  其他带有祝愿以及叮嘱等的告别辞有:

  I?ll look forward to seeing you soon.

  Let?s hope we?ll meet again.

  Hope to see you again.

  Drop in anytime you like.

  Mind how you go, bye!

  Take care of yourself, and don?t forget to keep in touch.

  Do keep in touch!

  My regards to your family.

  A pleasant journey to you!

  I?ll miss you!

  这种表达方式与中国人的日常言谈颇为相似,所以有时不妨可作大胆推测。

  请在下面的对话中对此加以体会:

  M: I?m afraid I?ve got to go now。

  W: Can?t you stay just another minute?

  M: Oh, dear, I really have to...

  W: Ok, take care of yourself, and I will miss you. Bye!

  M: Bye!...

  3.介绍(Introduction)

  在日常生活中我们会经常碰到一些朋友小聚会,生日晚会等场面。在这些活动中,总会有一些我们不认识的人,因而互相介绍在这里就显得非常的重要。在听力中,人物介绍往往是一句带过,因此通过这些有限句子弄清人物关系十分重要。同时要注意语气的委婉。

  英语中介绍性的语句通常有:

  May I know your name?(请问贵姓?)

  It?s my pleasure to introduce you to each other.(我非常高兴给你们互相介绍)

  May I introduce Mr. Bill to you all?(请允许我给大家介绍以下比尔先生)

  Margaret,can you introduce me to her?(玛格丽特,你能不能把我介绍给她?)

  Let me introduce you to others.(让我给大家介绍一下你吧)

  Meet my sister Cathy.(这是我的姐(妹)凯丝)

  Bill, this is Tom.

  Hi, I?m Susan,this is my calling card.(你好!我是苏珊,这是我的名片)

  下面是对话:

  A: Mum, this is Peter. I mentioned him to you yesterday. He is my new boyfriend!

  B: Oh, yeah, I see. Glad to meet you, Peter.

  C: Glad to meet you too, Mrs Back. This is my calling card.

  B: Oh, the manager of IMC. How come? Mary, you said last night he was only a milkman…

  A: Yeah, mum. Peter is a milkman. He is the manager of International Milk Corporation. You see, he is the only person in his corporation he founded this morning.

  B: My God!

  4.邀请和拜访(Invitation and dropping in)

  我们在日常生活中,经常会邀请他人或被邀请一起去做一些事,如参加一些朋友的聚会、拜访长辈或名人。英美人说话很委婉,要注意情态动词与固定句型的应用。邀请有书面的,也有口头的。英语中常用的邀请语有:

  Would you like to come over our small party?(你愿意参加我们的小聚会吗?)

  If you ever in Beijing, please do look me up.(如果你来北京,请一定来看我)

  Would you like to join us?(喜欢和我们一起吗?)

  Shall we dance?(我们可以跳个舞吗?)

  Shall we go for a walk?(去散步,好吗?)

  What about another coffee?(再来一杯咖啡?)

  Shall we go to see a film?(去看电影,好吗?)

  May I have a dance with you?(可以请你跳个舞吗?)

  We?d be very honored if you come to our wedding ceremony.(如果你能参加婚礼,我们将感到非常的荣幸。)

  Would you honor us with a visit?(可否赏光来我们这儿?)

  I?d like to invite you to attend our graduation ceremony.(我希望你能参加我们的毕业典礼。)

  I?m very sorry,but can we make it another time?(很对不起,下次可以吗?)

  Welcome to our city!(欢迎光临我们的城市!)

  Are you free this evening?I want to pay you a visit.(晚上有时间吗?我想去看你。)

  I really can?t thank you enough for the invitation.(得到你的邀请,我感激涕零。)

  It?s my great honor to attend this grand graduation ceremony.(能参加这次盛大的毕业典礼,我感到非常的荣幸。)

  对于别人邀请的回答要注意分寸,也要礼貌对待。总之,“客套”是此类对话的本质。

  在考研听力的情景对话中,邀请的日常用语也经常出现。下面是一些模拟听力对话:

  Dialogue 1

  M: Will you do me the honor of dancing with me, Mrs. Jones?

  W: Oh, I?m really sorry. I?ve done too much of it.

  M: Ok, I see...

  Dialogue 2

  M: Would you like to see a film with me tonight?

  W: Oh, it is great.

  Dialogue 3

  M:How about have a drink in that bar?

  W:I?m afraid I can?t...

  5.道歉和应答(Apology and response)

  在日常交往中,我们总会因为这样那样的原因犯一些错误,对此,我们就应该说一些抱歉的话。西方人非常注重语言上的礼貌,我们如果留意,就会发现BBC或者VOA节目里的主持人经常会因语言上的打嗑而说sorry。因为直率,所以道歉要及时说出才能得到谅解,这是西方文化与东方文化的不同之处。英语情景对话中,道歉及应答的语句通常有:

  I do apologize for the inconvenience I brought to you last night.(对于昨晚带给你的不便,我感到非常的惭愧。)

  I?ve got to say sorry for what I said rudely just now.(我很抱歉刚才对你说的那些无礼的话。)

  I?m awfully sorry about the delay.(对这次耽误,我感到非常的抱歉。)

  It was me to blame.(这是我的错。)

  I do beg your pardon.(求你原谅我。)

  I am sorry to bumpsintosyou. (对不起,撞着您了。)

  I?m afraid I?ve taken you up too much for your time.(花您那么多时间,实在对不起。)

  It was all my fault to have done...(这都是我的错……)

  We really didn?t mean that at all.(我们真的没有那样的意思。)

  Please forgive me for...(请原谅……)

  That?s all right, don?t think any more about it.(没什么大不了的,别想的太多。)

  It?s nothing serious. You don?t have to upset yourself. (没有那么严重,不必太自责。)

  It?s not as bad as that. There is no point to getting upset.(没那么糟,不要为此而不安。)

  That?s okay. Don?t let it bother you.(没事,别想的太多了。)

  下面是一些关于道歉的对话,请大家注意英语说话的技巧。

  Dialogue 1

  A: It?s so careless of me to have lost your book...

  B: Oh, that?s doesn?t matter. Because, you know, that?s just the one I borrowed from your father...

  Dialogue 2

  A: I?m terribly sorry for breakingsintosyour room, but...

  B: Ok, what?s your problem?

  A: Someone?s chasing me behind, and, and I need your help...

  B: Oh,...

  6.责备与抱怨(Blame and complaint)

  前面所提到的西方人说话直率在此类对话中更为明显。对于别人的打扰,自己受到不公平待遇会说出来,而不是不留面子。这里有分寸问题,通过说话人的口气与语调可判断其情绪与态度。

  英语中责备与抱怨的话通常有:What on earth is the matter here?(到底发生了什么事?)

  I?m afraid I have a complaint to make about the service.(我对你们的服务有意见。)

  You ought to be ashamed of what you?ve done on me.(你应为你对我所做的事感到羞愧。)

  Why on earth did you say such a silly thing to me?(你对我说这种蠢话究竟是什么意思?)

  You?ve no right to help yourself.(你无权自己动手!)

  I?m not a bit satisfied with such a result.(我对这样的结果一点也不满意!)

  You ought to be careful enough next time.(你下次再不能这样粗心了。)

  I got very annoyed about it.(我对此烦透了。)

  Can?t you be serious for once?(你就不能严肃一次?)

  Don?t interfere in my business, please.(请别干涉我的私事。)

  It?s no nice of you to behave like that.(你那样做太不像话。)

  一般对责备与抱怨,人们通常的反应是表示抱歉与愿意接受。

  请分析下面的对话:

  A:You don?t have to play the radio so loud, do you?

  B:Oh,I?m really sorry about it

  Q: What happened to the second man?

  7.意见与判断(Views and adjudgement )

  在日常生活中,当我们和朋友或同事一起做事的时候,通常会询问一下别人的见解、想法。对别人意见所抱的态度在听力中通常会成为出题人设题的要点。其中,说话人的语气与音调是判断其意见与态度的落脚点。这里给大家提供一些英

  语中常用的句子以供大家参考:

  Yes, I quite agree with you about that.(对,关于此问题,我与你意见相同。)

  You are quite right here. I have no objection.(这次你非常正确,我没别的意见。)

  I?m with you there. That?s a fine idea. (我支持你,这个主意不错。)

  There is no doubt about it. I think this one will do.(没什么可怀疑的,我认为就这样。)

  I rather doubt that.(我非常怀疑。)

  I beg differ with you.(请允许我表示异议。)

  I don?t quite agree with you. I?m against it. (我不十分同意你的意见,我反对。)

  Many people have different ideas. (许多人有不同的想法。)

  That?sswheresI disagree with you.(这就是我不同意你的地方。)

  My own view exactly.(这正好是我的观点。)

  I don?t think it?s very practical.(我不认为这很实际。)

  请分析下面的对话:

  Dialogue 1

  W:I weigh 180 pounds now. I need some new clothes.;

  M:Maybe you should go on a diet.;

  W:really?...

  Dialogue 2

  W:I?m here for my 12 o?clock appointment with Prof. Li.;

  M:Why don?t you have a seat for a moment?;

  W:Oh, yes. Thank you.;

  8.祝愿与祝福(Wishes and congratulations)

  人们在节日、道别以及朋友、家人外出时,通常会说一些表示祝愿的话。此类场合常有新年祝贺、结婚生子、乔迁发财、得奖出国、考试结束、升学成功等等。如:

  Every success in your study! Here?s to a happy marriage.(祝你工作顺利,婚姻美满。)

  Wish you success! May you success!(祝你成功!)

  Please convey my best wishes to Bill.(请向比尔传达我最好的祝愿。)

  The best of luck! Best wishes! Best regards!(好运!祝福!)

  I drink to your promotion.(我为你的提升干杯!)

  Allow me to offer my heartiest wishes.(请允许我向你表示衷心的问候。)

  I?d like to be the first to congratulate you.(我想第一个向你表示祝贺。)

  Enjoy your vacation!(假日愉快!)

  请看下面对话:

  A: Lily and I are going to be married tomorrow.

  B: Woo, really? Congratulations! But...

  A: What?s that?

  B: I was wondering that you would marry Cathie


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