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思马得英语100个句子搞定英语语法(38):虚拟语气在条件句中的用法

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  38.虚拟语气在条件句中的用法

  <例句>

  If you had taken her advice, you wouldn't be in such trouble now.

  如果你听了她的劝告,你现在就不会有这种麻烦了。

  <语法分析>

  有些条件句主句谓语和从句谓语表示的动作在时间上并不一致,这类句子成为错综时间条件句。还有些句子虽不含条件句,但意思和条件句差不多,这类句子成为含蓄条件句,在这种句子中,也可能需用虚拟语气。某些情态动词在口语里使用得很多,可以使语气变得委婉。

  <触类旁通>

  (1) If I had arrived a little earlier, I would have seen her.

  我要是早来一会就见到她了。

  语法分析:虚拟条件句,表示纯假想的情况。

  (2) If it hadn't been for the doctors' care, he wouldn't be speaking to you now.

  要不是有医生们的照料,他此时不会和你说话的。

  语法分析:主句谓语和从句谓语表示的动作在时间上不一致,称为错综时间条件句。

  (3) In the old days he would have argued.

  要是在过去他早就争论上了。

  语法分析:有些句子虽不含条件句,但意思和条件句差不多,在这种句子中有时也需用虚拟语气。

  (4) Would you tell me how to get to the tube?

  可否告诉我如何去地铁站?

  语法分析:某些情态动词如should, would, could及might等在口语里使用得很多,可以使语气变得委婉。

  (5) I might have come to a wrong conclusion.

  我也许得出了错误的结论。

  语法分析:这类带有情态动词的句子,其谓语不一定是虚拟语气,但却比较接近虚拟语气。

  <巩固练习>

  (1) If I had enough money, I _____ buy a new table.

  (2) If you tried again, you _____[may] succeed.

  (3) If she had a permit, she _____[can] get a job.

  (4) _____[be] I you, I would refuse.

  (5) _____[be] it not for their loan, our life would be very difficult.

  (6) If she were leaving, you _____[hear] about it.

  (7) He _____[do] anything to make amends.

  (8) Anybody else _____[believe] you.

  <参考答案>

  (1) would (2) might (3) could (4) Were (5) Were (6) would have heard (7) would have done (8) would have believed


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