英语词汇 学英语,练听力,上听力课堂! 注册 登录
> 英语词汇 > 国际关系词汇 >  列表

国际关系英语词汇大全Unit 9

所属教程:国际关系词汇

浏览:

Lisa

随身学
扫描二维码方便学习和分享
  英语单词讲解

  1.Political psychology:政治心理学

  Political psychology is an interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to understanding politics, politicians andpolitical behavior from a psychological perspective. The relationship between politics and psychology is considered bi-directional, with psychology being used as a lens for understanding politics and politics being used as a lens for understanding psychology. As an interdisciplinary field, political psychology borrows from a wide range of other disciplines, including:anthropology, sociology, international relations, economics, philosophy, media, journalism and history.

  政治心理学是一个跨学科的学术领域,研究心理学和政治学之间的关系,专注于研究人类在政治上的思考、情绪、和行为。政治心理学分析政治学上与选民、立法者、地方和中央的政府和行政、国际组织、政党、和协会。“政治心理学”一词强调心理学为中央领域,因此这门学科也可以被称为“政治的心理学”,以便强调其跨学科的本质。政治心理学研究的领域也包括了人类学、认知心理学、人格心理学、社会学、精神病学,以及其他更为疏远的领域例如经济学、哲学、以及美术。

  2.Game theory:博弈论

\

  Game theory is a study of strategic decision making. Specifically, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers". An alternative term suggested "as a more descriptive name for the discipline" is interactive decision theory. Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic, computer science, and biology. The subject first addressed zero-sum games, such that one person's gains exactly equal net losses of the other participant or participants. Today, however, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and has developed into an umbrella term for the logical side of decision science, including both humans and non-humans (e.g. computers, insects/animals).

  博弈论,有时也称为对策论,或者赛局理论,应用数学的一个分支,1944年冯·诺伊曼与奥斯卡·摩根斯特恩合著《博弈论与经济行为》,标志着现代系统博弈理论的的初步形成,因此他被称为“博弈论之父”。博弈论被认为是20世纪经济学最伟大的成果之一。目前在生物学、经济学、国际关系、计算机科学、政治学、军事战略和其他很多学科都有广泛的应用。主要研究公式化了的激励结构(游戏或者博弈)间的相互作用。是研究具有斗争或竞争性质现象的数学理论和方法。也是运筹学的一个重要学科。

  3.Zero-sum game:零和博弈

\

  In game theory and economic theory, a zero-sum game is a mathematical representation of a situation in which a participant's gain (or loss) of utility is exactly balanced by the losses (or gains) of the utility of the other participant(s). If the total gains of the participants are added up and the total losses are subtracted, they will sum to zero. Thus cutting a cake, where taking a larger piece reduces the amount of cake available for others, is a zero-sum game if all participants value each unit of cake equally. In contrast, non-zero-sum describes a situation in which the interacting parties' aggregate gains and losses are either less than or more than zero. A zero-sum game is also called a strictly competitive game while non-zero-sum games can be either competitive or non-competitive. Zero-sum games are most often solved with the minimax theorem which is closely related to linear programming duality, or with Nash equilibrium.

  零和博弈,又称零和游戏或零和赛局,与非零和博弈相对,是博弈论的一个概念,属非合作博弈。零和博弈表示所有博弈方的利益之和为零或一个常数,即一方有所得,其他方必有所失。在零和博弈中,博弈各方是不合作的。非零和博弈表示在不同策略组合下各博弈方的得益之和是不确定的变量,故又称之为变和博弈。如果某些战略的选取可以使各方利益之和变大,同时又能使各方的利益得到增加,那么,就可能出现参加方相互合作的局面。因此,非零和博弈中,博弈各方存在合作的可能性。国际经济中许多问题都属于非零和博弈问题,即国际经济中各方的利益并不是必然相互冲突的。也可以说:自己的幸福是建立在他人的痛苦之上的,二者的大小完全相等,因而双方都想尽一切办法以实现“损人利己”。零和博弈的例子有赌博、期货和选举等。


内容来自 听力课堂网:http://www.tingclass.net/show-9300-309625-1.html
用手机学英语,请加听力课堂微信公众号:tingclass123
用户搜索

疯狂英语 英语语法 新概念英语 走遍美国 四级听力 英语音标 英语入门 发音 美语 四级 新东方 七年级 赖世雄 zero是什么意思

订阅每日学英语:

  • 频道推荐
  • |
  • 全站推荐
  • 广播听力
  • |
  • 推荐下载
  • 网站推荐
0.093750